PSK4U Introductory Kinesiology Unit 4: Physiology Activity 5: Training Principles and Methods
"I've always believed that if you put in the work, the results will come. I don't do things half-heartedly. Because I know if I do, then I can expect half-hearted results." Michael Jordan
Assignment 1: Quote and Reflection
Reflect on the quote above from the six time NBA championship winner and five time NBA Most Valuable Player. Draw connections to your experiences or times you’ve witnessed hard work paying off in a favourable result. Use any of the following sentence stems to begin your reflection:
- I agree with Jordan because...
- Jordan’s point about hard work is...
- Adding to what Jordan said,...
Find your own quote about the same theme of hard work/commitment/determination and results.
Save your quote to your Portfolio.
These days, personal health and fitness have taken centre stage in the fight against obesity and rising healthcare costs as a result of physical inactivity. Advertisements about fitness clubs and advice about training programs flood the social media landscape and have become part of daily conversation for many. However, when establishing your own training plan, it is important to keep in mind exactly what the end goal is for you personally.
From improving overall personal health to "owning the podium", the fundamental truth is that it takes a well-planned approach, using the core principles of fitness, along with dedication and commitment to produce positive lifelong changes in a person’s overall health and fitness.
Keeping F.I.T.T. - The principle of training
In designing any type of fitness training program, there is a widely used “recipe” or approach taken. It is called the F.I.T.T. principle. Think of the F.I.T.T. principle as a set of rules that must be adhered to in order to benefit from any form of fitness training program.
The Quote is The Key! - The 5 Fundamental Training Principles
Coaches and trainers alike rely on well-established sports training principles to design programs for clients and make educated coaching decisions. These principles are generally agreed upon guidelines that are grounded in the sport sciences and hold true in practice and competition. There are 5 fundamental training principles that when used in conjunction with the F.I.T.T. principle of design creates a thorough, individually tailored approach to any training related to physical activity.
Specificity: "What you do is what you get..."
This principle applied to sports fitness training means that demands of the activity must be the focus of training. To become better at an activity/sport you must train the fitness components required for that activity and/or sport. For example, to prepare for endurance activities that require a strong cardiorespiratory system such as running longer distances, swimming, cross country skiing or hiking, training must focus on developing aerobic capacity to meet the demands of the activity along with developing muscular endurance.
In contrast, preparing for activities such as basketball, beach volleyball or springboard diving, which require explosive power and agility, training must focus on muscular strength and anaerobic performance. In contrast, golfers would require little distance work, but also train for power and flexibility.
Progressive Overload: "To get stronger, you’ve got to keep pushing"
This principle refers to continually increasing the demands on the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory system in order to continually make gains in muscle size, strength and endurance.
In simplest terms - In order to run, ski, swim or hike longer you must continually increase the time spent doing the activity to increase your ability to sustain your effort for a longer period of time. If your goal is to get bigger and stronger when strength training, you must continually lift heavier weight and make your muscles work harder than they are used to. If you don't, your muscles will not become any stronger or bigger than they currently are.
Reversibility: "Use it, or lose it!"
The Reversibility Principle states that an individual will lose the effects of training after they stop working out or stop participating in the activity; however, the effect of “detraining” can be reversed when training/ participation is resumed.
While rest periods are necessary for physical recovery, extended periods of rest will actually cause a reduction in physical fitness. The physiological effects of fitness training diminish over time and the body will revert to its previous level of fitness or lack of fitness prior to training.
Detraining starts to occur within a relatively short time period after training ceases. Approximately 10% of muscular strength and 30-40% of muscular endurance is lost after only 8 weeks of inactivity and gains in cardiorespiratory performance begin to decrease from 4 days to within 2-3 weeks of inactivity.
Diminishing Returns: "In the beginning it was minutes faster, now it’s only seconds..."
When you begin a new fitness training program, your fitness level will improve rapidly if you stay with the program; however, as you become more fit, the improvements will not be as acute. In other words, the returns you get from your hard work are “diminished”. That is, as you become more fit, the amount of improvement is less as you approach your genetic limits.
In addition to this principle is the fact that as your fitness levels increase, more work or training is needed to make the same gains. When you first start training, improvements in fitness are large and happen quickly; however, the closer you get to your maximum fitness level, the harder you must work to achieve smaller increases in your fitness levels.
Individual Differences: "What works for some, may not work for all..."
The principle of individual differences simply means that, because we all are unique individuals, we will all have a slightly different response to an exercise program. So, "one size does not fit all" when it comes to exercise and a well-designed training program should be based on our individual differences and how our body uniquely responds to training.
Some of these differences have to do with body size and shape, genetics, past experience, chronic conditions, injuries and even gender. For example, older athletes generally need more recovery time than younger athletes.
With this in mind, if you are looking for very specific results or training to make a provincial sports team, you may or may not want to follow an "off the shelf" exercise program, DVD or class and may find it helpful to work with a coach or personal trainer to develop a customized exercise program.
If you would like to create your own exercise program to meet your individual goals, you will need to include all of these exercise science principles.
- Sports Training Adviser The Specificity Principle for Sports Training
- San Diego Figure Skating Communications: The Reversibility Principle
- Roy Stevenson: Comeback Trail: Detraining, Retraining and Maintenance of Fitness for Ultra Endurance Runners
- verywell is yet another good site to visit
Did You Know?
Did you know you might be guilty of something?
Before moving on answer this quick question. Do you stretch before you exercise? Did you know that it is a common myth to "always stretch before you workout"?
Do the right type of stretches before your workout. There are two main forms:
- static stretching (holding stretches while your body is at rest)
- dynamic stretching (stretching while your body is in motion)
Prior to a workout, it is ideal to perform dynamic stretches, such as straight-leg swings and arm circles. While it’s true that you might feel more "stretched" after static stretching, these exercises actually lower the elasticity of the muscles, making it a poor way to prepare for a big bout of activity. Dynamic stretching, on the other hand, prepares your muscles to work and increases their core temperature, making them the perfect moves to get you ready.
- Health: 5 Stretching Myths That Have Got to Go
Assignment 2: Functional Fitness Finder
In this assignment you will research and collect evidence about one functional fitness method. The evidence you collect must include:
- The components of this method of training
- The benefits and drawbacks of this method
- An example of this training being used (eg: provide a link to a video, an article that discusses how to use this method, or a training plan that has incorporated the method)
- Sports and/or physical activities where this method might be used as an effective basis of training and why
- An interesting tidbit or fact about this method
You may select from one of the following functional fitness methods:
- Resistance training
- Circuit training
- Cross training
- Interval training
- Fartlek training
- Flexibility training
- Core training
- Speed/agility/quickness training
- Balance training
- Cardiorespiratory training
- Plyometrics training
Make sure you document and cite all the sources you are using in your research.
Use this chart to record your finding .
Save your chart to your Portfolio.
Assignment 3: Devising A "Mini" Training Plan
As we have seen through our investigation, there are many different training methods. The method(s) we choose depend on our individual goals, whether it is improving our fitness, a skill, our performance in a sport or improving performance and effectiveness in the workplace. By using the training principles and methods as a foundation we can design or select an individual training program that will help us achieve our specific goals.
Select a physical activity, a sport, or a fitness goal, and decide which training principles and methods would provide the most effective basis for a training program for participants in that sport or activity or for an individual wanting to achieve a personal fitness goal.
Using the F.I.T.T. principles, devise a 4 week mini training plan for a participant in your chosen sport, activity or fitness goal making sure you address all 4 health-related fitness components. In the creation of your plan be sure to choose one or more of the Functional Fitness Methods and the 5 fundamental training principles. Include an explanation of how you have used the 5 principles and your rationale for the Functional Fitness Method(s) you have chosen to include. This assignment will be a good start to the understanding of your final summative assessment for this unit in Activity 9.
Use these examples of F.I.T.T. principle charts to help you devise your mini plan:
- F.I.T.T Principles Guidelines
- F.I.T.T. Principle for Muscular Strength and Endurance
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How to Develop a Training Plan
Last Updated: February 16, 2022 Approved
This article was co-authored by Harish Chandran, PhD . Harish Chandran is the Engineering Site Lead and Senior Staff Research Engineer at DeepMind, where he leads the engineering efforts to integrate AI research results into Google products. Harish received his PhD in Computer Science from Duke University in 2012. While in graduate school, he worked as a Teaching Assistant, helping undergraduate students learn about algorithms and data structures. He has experience in DNA self-assembly, evolutionary algorithms, computational neuroscience, complexity theory, computer architecture, and super-computing. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 93% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 185,169 times.
A good training plan will make your employees more efficient, productive, and engaged, but sometimes it’s hard to figure out the best way to actually create a plan that’s effective and thorough. That’s why we’ve broken down the whole process step-by-step for you, from establishing your goals to outlining the structure of your plan to creating the actual lessons. Use the steps below to create a training plan that really works for your business and gets your employees where you need them to be.
Establishing Your Training Goals
- If your company has a mission or vision statement, use that to guide you as you develop your training goals. You want the training goals to be compatible with the overall objectives of your company.
- Be aware of what you want to accomplish. For instance, the purpose of the training may be to prepare employees for emergencies, improve business offerings or protect the privacy of clients.
- Outline the skills, information, and certifications that participants will gain by undergoing the training. These might include mastery of specific software applications, detailed knowledge of company policies and procedures, or enhanced customer service skills.
- If possible, note the benefits of achieving these goals. You might note, "Once these new employees are trained we will have X number more hours of production each week, which should increase our overall profits by X%."
- Create a training topic outline. When conducting training on productivity software, for example, your topics may include creating files, formatting text, copying and pasting text and saving files.  X Research source
- Break down the topics into specific titles. For example, formatting text might be divided up into 3 separate lessons: formatting fonts, paragraphs and tables.
- Determine the best training modality. You might deliver the training via online files, video conferencing, in person instruction or audio files. Choose the method based on the objective. For example, software navigation may be best taught in person or via video, whereas delivering information about safety procedures may be adequately communicated through web-based files.
- Engage participants to engage in the training activity. Puzzles, problem-solving exercises, questions, and writing activities are ways to keep trainees focused on tasks.
- Participation can help the trainees more effectively absorb the material.
- Accommodate a variety of learning styles. Watching video demonstrations, listening to audio and participating in hands-on exercises are ways to diversity activities.
- For instance, explain that you will use one-on-one training for detail-oriented tasks. Some tasks are best learned by observing and actively doing them across a substantial period of time. In this case, one-on-one training delivered in the form of shadowing an experienced person might be best.
- You could also note that you will train people in small groups for tasks requiring interaction. Teaching customer service skills, for example, may be done in small groups using role-play and problem-solving activities.
- Utilize large group training for overviews. Delivery of information and overviews can be done in large groups. Break the large group into smaller groups, if necessary.
- Establish a timeline for making all preparations. For example, you might hire a trainer a month in advance, book a meeting space 2 weeks in advance and inform all trainees of the training location and requirements several weeks in advance.
- Include a list of resources in the training plan. Trainers may need presentation tools, a computer or chalk. Trainees may need workbooks, training guides, video players or other equipment.
- Review the list of resources prior to the training. Consider each step of the training to ensure that all equipment, materials, and tools are accessible and functional.
Including Specific Action Items
- Have concrete assessment tools included in your training plan. For example, you could have trainees complete a quiz or test after each module.
- Have trainers ask for feedback. In your training plan, indicate that trainers should observe the trainees attitudes. If the trainees seem lost or unmotivated, indicate that that trainers should address that.
- For example, some groups may be less talkative than others. Instead of a large group question and answer session, have the the trainees work in pairs.
- In your delivery of the material, you will likely use specific examples to illustrate your points. If the trainees do not seem to comprehend the material, make sure that there are alternate examples included in the training plan.
- Group the trainees by training type. For example, some members of the organization may need simple overviews, whereas others involved in the day-to-day completion of tasks may require in-depth training.
- Other costs to consider include meeting space rental, trainer compensation and employee time.
- You may also need to speak to your organization's facilities manager. They can help you reserve conference rooms or lecture facilities.
- Let your IT department know that you might need some assistance during training, particularly if you are teaching online or using tools such as video conferencing.
- Look for trainers who have experience using the methods that you want to offer. For example, if your training is to be conducted online, make sure to find someone who feels comfortable using that platform.
- Communicate with your trainers. Allow them the opportunity to ask questions and make sure that they clearly understand the objectives and desired outcomes.
- ↑ Harish Chandran, PhD. Machine Learning Engineer & PhD in Computer Science, Duke University. Expert Interview. 5 June 2019.
- ↑ http://uca.edu/assessment/step-2/
- ↑ http://www.business.govt.nz/staff-and-hr/employee-and-team-performance/training-and-development
- ↑ http://www.fao.org/docrep/w5830e/w5830e0h.htm
- ↑ http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/structure/training-and-technical-assistance/design-training-session/main
- ↑ https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/training-and-development/planning-evaluating/
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About This Article
To develop a training plan, start by coming up with a goal or desired outcome for your training. For example, your goal could be to teach your staff how to use a new productivity software. Next, outline the steps trainees will have to complete to achieve the goal, so you have manageable topics to be taught in each lesson. For each lesson, explain how the material will be taught, like with group discussions or tests. Finally, choose the best qualified employees to deliver the training. For tips on how to offer alternative activities in the training plan and how to work out a time frame for the course, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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Assignment 3: Design the Training Plan; Use ADDIE Model
Assignment 3: Design the Training Plan; Use ADDIE Model
Using the ADDIE model, design a training plan based on the findings and training outcomes revealed in your TNA. The training plan should include the following, at a minimum:
The Analysis section is a summary of your TNA ( assignments 1 and 2).
Include a paragraph describing the organization and training issue.
Discuss organizational and training goals and objectives, the target group, and the KSAs that should be expected of learners, which the training will address.
Determine program format, length of training, and method of delivery.
What will be the costs, and what resources will be needed from the organization? A training plan budget is important because an organization needs to anticipate, plan and pay for the training costs. In the section, you will develop a spending plan that breaks down the costs of your proposed training plan. Consider the following cost categories for your budget table and report: Direct Costs, Indirect Costs, Preparation Costs, Developmental Costs, Participant compensation, Evaluation costs, Total Training Costs. Your budget will have two components, a formal report and a budget table.
Prepare a table with a proposal for your training.
Prepare a written budget report Describe in detail each the costs associated for your organization training needs as it applies to your training plan. Explain all of the costs included in your budget table.
Describe what will be included in the program materials and activities. Consider communication tools, modules, learning aids, and assessment/evaluation tools.
Give specifics on how you will implement and deliver training. Include any “train-the-trainer” pilots and plans for training.
In this section, you will develop a post-training evaluation plan. Evaluation is necessary for determining the overall effectiveness of a training program. Your evaluation plan should aim to measure learner performance. Evaluation will describe the success of the training program and lead to a plan for continuous improvement. You plan should include both a written report and the evaluation tool you would use for assessment.
Prepare an evaluation report Describe in detail how you will evaluate this training in terms of effectiveness. Explain how training will be assessed and evaluated. Describe the purpose of the evaluation tool. Address how overall training will be evaluated. List short- and long-term methods that ensure your training plan has translated into desired performance. Explain how it will bridge the organizational gaps identified in the TNA.
Include at least one evaluation tool together with your written evaluation plan. The tool should look professional and ready for your intended audience to complete.
Make sure you have an introduction and summary to your report.
Use APA 7.0 Edition formal report formatting for your Training Plan. Label each section with the following headings: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Use and cite a minimum of three classroom resources to help you create your training plan. Include a cover page, citations page and in-text citations. Submit everything together as one document. Save your work as described in the syllabus and submit to the course link by the due date.
· ADDIE Evaluation Stage: Getting to Know ADDIE ( https://elearningindustry.com/getting-know-addie-evaluation)
· Chapter 8 – Training Program Assessment
· ADDIE Implementation Stage: Implementation of ADDIE or ( https://elearningindustry.com/getting-know-addie-implementation)
· ADDIE Development Stage: https://elearningindustry.com/getting-to-know-addie-development
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Prepare and deliver a professional presentation based on the research paper you have been working on all session., reply to the following discussion by challenging the post. you will want to focus on their point of view, asking pertinent questions, adding to the responses by including information from other sources, and respectfully, this week you will be creating an implementation plan that will be attached to your final evidence-based project. in the article read last week,.