Free Lease Assignment Agreement Template for Microsoft Word

Download this free Lease Assignment Agreement template as a Word document to easily assign a lease to another party with consent from the landlord.

Lease Assignment Agreement

THIS ASSIGNMENT OF TENANCY AGREEMENT dated this [Insert date]

[Insert name] (the “Assignor”)

– AND-

[Insert name] (the “Assignee”)

A. This is an agreement (the “Assignment”) to assign a residential tenancy agreement in real property according to the terms specified below.

B. The Assignor wishes to assign and transfer to the Assignee that tenancy agreement (the “Tenancy Agreement”) dated June 11, 2020, and executed by the Assignor as tenant and by _________________________ as landlord (the “Landlord”).

IN CONSIDERATION OF the Assignor agreeing to assign and the Assignee agreeing to assume the Tenancy Agreement for the Premises, and other valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which is hereby acknowledged, both parties agree to keep, perform and fulfill the promises, conditions and agreements below:

1. The Tenancy Agreement governs the rental of the following described premises (the “Premises”) to the Assignor: ______________________________________________

Assigned Tenancy Agreement

2. The Assignor assigns and transfers to the Assignee all of the Assignor’s right, title, and interest in and to the Tenancy Agreement and the Premises, subject to all the conditions and terms contained in the Tenancy Agreement.

Effective Date

3. This Assignment takes effect on June 11, 2020 (the “Effective Date”), and continues until the present term of the Tenancy Agreement expires on June 11, 2020.

Assignor’s Interest

4. The Assignor covenants that:

a. the Assignor is the lawful and sole owner of the interest assigned under this Assignment; b. this interest is free from all encumbrances; and c. the Assignor has performed all duties and obligations and made all payments required under the terms and conditions of the Tenancy Agreement.

Breach of Tenancy Agreement by Assignee

5. Consent to this Assignment will not discharge the Assignor of its obligations under the Tenancy Agreement in the event of a breach by the Assignee.

6. In the event of a breach by the Assignee, the Landlord will provide the Assignor with written notice of this breach and the Assignor will have full rights to commence all actions to recover possession of the Premises (in the name of the Landlord, if necessary) and retain all rights for the duration of the Tenancy Agreement provided the Assignor will pay all accrued rents and cure any other default.

Governing Law

7. It is the intention of the parties that this Assignment, and all suits and special proceedings under this Assignment, be construed in accordance with and governed, to the exclusion of the law of any other forum, by the laws of the State of New South Wales, without regard to the jurisdiction in which any action or special proceeding may be instituted.

Miscellaneous Provisions

8. This Assignment incorporates and is subject to the Tenancy Agreement, a copy of which is attached hereto, and which is hereby referred to and incorporated as if it were set out here at length. The Assignee agrees to assume all of the obligations and responsibilities of the Assignor under the Tenancy Agreement.

9. This Assignment will be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties, their successors, assigns, personal representatives, beneficiaries, executors, administrators, and heirs, as the case may be.

10. All rents and other charges accrued under the Tenancy Agreement prior to the Effective Date will be fully paid by the Assignor, and by the Assignee after the Effective Date. The Assignee will also be responsible for assuming and performing all other duties and obligations required under the terms and conditions of the Tenancy Agreement after the Effective Date.

11. There will be no further assignment of the Tenancy Agreement without the prior written consent of the Landlord.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the Assignor and Assignee have duly affixed their signatures under hand and seal on this [Insert date]

SIGNED BY THE ASSIGNOR

_____________________________ Assignor: _________________________

in the presence of (Name of witness) _______________________

(Signature of witness) _____________________________

SIGNED BY THE ASSIGNEE _____________________________ Assignee: _______________________

in the presence of (Name of witness) ___________________

(Signature of witness) _______________________________

CONSENT OF LANDLORD

The Landlord in the above Assignment of Tenancy Agreement executed on [Insert date] consents to that Assignment. The Landlord also agrees to the Assignee assuming after [Insert date] the payment of rent and performance of all duties and obligations as provided in the Tenancy Agreement. Dated: [Insert date]

Landlord: _________________________

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Assignment of a tenancy

Requirements and formalities for assigning a tenancy, and liability for rent arrears of old and new tenants.

What is assignment

Rights to assign, prohibition and consent, how to assign a tenancy, arrears and assignment.

Assignment is a way that a tenant can transfer their tenancy to another person.

On assignment, the assignor's legal interest in a property is passed to the assignee who takes over that interest and becomes the tenant. All the terms of the original tenancy agreement apply to both the new tenant and the landlord, including the amount of rent payable.

Where a tenant grants someone a tenancy and remains a tenant of the original landlord this won’t be an assignment. Instead a subtenancy is created, and the original tenant becomes the landlord of the new tenant.

Whether assignment is possible will depend on:

the type of tenancy

what the tenancy agreement says

whether the landlord agrees

Under section 1(1) of the Law of Property Act 1925 all tenants, including those with a long lease, have a legal estate (an interest) in land. With this comes a general right to assign that estate to another person.

For many types of tenancy this general right is modified by statutory provisions that limit when and to whom the tenancy can be assigned. This will override the general right to assign.

Joint tenancies can be assigned but are still subject to the statutory rules for that type of tenancy. [ 1 ]

A tenancy agreement can also limit when and how a tenancy can be assigned. For example, by requiring the landlords consent.

Find out more about rights to assign for:

secure, flexible and introductory tenancies

assured and assured shorthold tenancies

regulated tenancies

Licences are not a legal interest in land and cannot be assigned.

If the tenancy agreement says nothing about assignment then, subject to any statutory limitations, the tenant is free to assign.

In most cases, the tenancy agreement will only allow assignment if the landlord gives their consent (a qualified prohibition).

If the tenancy agreement states that assignment is not allowed (an absolute prohibition), the tenant can still assign but they will be in breach of the tenancy. 

Qualified prohibition

If the tenancy agreement contains a qualified prohibition stating that the tenant may not assign without the landlord's consent, then the landlord cannot ‘unreasonably withhold’ consent. [ 2 ] This is an implied term of the agreement.

Whether consent has been unreasonably withheld will depend on the facts of the case. [ 3 ]

The courts have previously held that:

the purpose of a term in a tenancy agreement prohibiting assignment without the landlord's consent is to protect landlords from having their premises occupied in an undesirable way or by an undesirable assignee. The landlord cannot refuse consent on grounds that have nothing to do with the relationship of landlord and tenant, but can refuse if the potential assignee is not, for example, financially sound [ 4 ]

it may be reasonable for a landlord to refuse consent because of the purpose for which the assignee intends to use the premises, even if that purpose is not forbidden by the original tenancy agreement [ 5 ]

although landlords need only usually consider their own interests, there may be cases where there is such a disproportion between the detriment to the landlord and the detriment to the assigning tenant that it would be unreasonable for the landlord to refuse consent. [ 6 ] An example of this might be where the property is very difficult to assign and the tenants would have great difficulty in finding another potential assignee, whereas the landlord's loss in accepting the proposed tenant is minimal

The court has held that consent was not considered to be unreasonably withheld where the tenant had arrears. [ 7 ]

For tenancies granted after 1 January 1996, a landlord has the right, in certain circumstances, to require that the tenant wishing to assign should act as the guarantor of the new assignee where it is reasonable to do so. [ 8 ]

Discrimination

The Equality Act 2010 makes it unlawful for a landlord to refuse consent on the grounds of a protected characteristic (disability, gender reassignment, pregnancy or maternity, race, sex, sexual orientation, and religion or belief). [ 9 ]

A person who has the right to dispose of premises must not unlawfully discriminate against any person on the basis of any of the above protected characteristics by: [ 10 ]

the terms on which they offer to dispose of the premises

declining to dispose of the premises, or

the way in which they treat a person seeking to move in to the premises

The right to dispose of premises includes the right to assign. [ 11 ]

Getting the landlords consent

If a tenancy is assigned without consent where the agreement requires it, this provide a ground for possession against the new tenant.

It is not possible to argue that the landlord could not have reasonably refused consent after the assignment has taken place. [ 12 ]

The Landlord and Tenant Act 1988 introduced a procedure that can be followed to obtain consent. It applies where the tenancy agreement contains a qualified prohibition against assignment. The Act only applies to applications for consent made after 29 September 1988. It does not apply to secure tenancies.

The tenant must serve a written application for consent to assign on the landlord, and the landlord must reply in writing within a reasonable time (the Act does not define what is a reasonable time), giving consent unless it is reasonable not to do so.

If consent is refused, the landlord must give the tenant reasons for the refusal. [ 13 ] If the landlord does not reply or withholds consent unreasonably, the tenant will be able to take a civil action for damages against the landlord for breach of this duty. [ 14 ] The onus of proof that any refusal of consent was reasonable is on the landlord. [ 15 ]

Tenants could also seek a declaration that the landlord is acting unreasonably where they do not want to take the risk of assigning without consent. Alternatively, the tenant could combine a claim for damages for breach of statutory duty with one for an injunction requiring the landlord to comply with their duty.

Assignment without consent or where prohibited

Where the tenancy agreement has an absolute or qualified prohibition against assignment and the tenant assigns the tenancy without the landlord's consent, the assignment will still be effective as long as it is by deed. [ 16 ]

However, the landlord may be able to bring possession proceedings against the new tenant.

In order for an assignment to be legal, it must be made by deed. A deed is a written document that has been signed and labelled as a deed and witnessed. This is necessary in order for the assignment to bind the landlord and any other party affected by the assignment but not part of the agreement to assign.

A deed is required even where the original tenancy was agreed orally. [ 17 ]

In one case, even though the tenant had undertaken in divorce proceedings to transfer the tenancy into his wife's name, the fact that there was no deed meant that an assignment was found not to have occurred. Nothing was done to transfer the tenancy into the wife's name, although she continued to live in the flat on her own and pay the rent. When she asked the managing agents to put the rent book in her name, they recovered possession of the property. [ 18 ]

The deed must give the name(s) and address of the original tenant(s) and the new tenant(s) (the address might be the same, depending on the situation). It must also give the details of the landlord. An independent person must witness the signatures of the original tenant(s) and the new tenant(s), but the same person can witness all the signatures.

The new tenants should keep the deed of assignment in to prove the assignment took place. It’s also a good idea for the outgoing tenant to have a copy in case of any disputes.

Equitable assignment

An attempt to assign a tenancy without satisfying all the formalities of a deed may still be effective as equitable assignment if the agreement to assign is evidenced in writing. [ 19 ] The equitable assignment will bind the parties who signed the written agreement and make them liable to damages for breach of contract as well as to orders for specific performance.

The new tenant is not liable for rent arrears that accrued before they took over the tenancy. [ 20 ]

An assignee is not legally liable to meet the contractual terms of the original tenant's agreement with the landlord where the liability arose before the assignment.

The original tenant is the only person who can legally be sued for any arrears existing at the time of assignment.

In practice, some local authorities require the assignee to clear any existing arrears. An Ombudsman's decision held that an agreement to clear arrears could be deemed to constitute an illegal premium, and enforceability of the agreement would be by no means certain. [ 21 ]

Arrears after assignment

For tenancies arising on or after 1 January 1996, [ 22 ] normally only the assignee can be held liable for rent due after the assignment.

The exception is where either:

there is a prohibition against assignment and the landlord's consent should have been obtained and was not

the original tenant agreed to act as a guarantor of the new assignee

Where the tenancy was created prior to 1 January 1996 (or in one of the other cases mentioned above), the landlord can take action for arrears against either the assignee or the assignor.

However, if the landlord wishes to take action against the assignor, they must notify the assignor of the arrears on a prescribed form within six months of the arrears falling due. [ 23 ] The assignor will be able to sue the assignee if they have to pay the rent arrears, as there is an implied term in all deeds of assignment that indemnifies the assignor. [ 24 ]

Last updated: 12 March 2021

Burton v Camden LBC [2000] UKHL 8.

s.19(1)(a) Landlord and Tenant Act 1927.

Braun v Westminster Anglo-Continental Investment Co Ltd [1975] 240 EG 927.

Gibbs and Houlder Bros and Co. Ltd Lease, Houlder Bros and Co. v Gibbs [1925] Ch 575, CA.

Rossi v Hestdrive Ltd [1985] 1 EGLR 50.

International Drilling Fluids Ltd v Louisville Investments (Uxbridge) Ltd [1986] Ch 513.

Greenwood Reversions Ltd v World Environment Foundation Ltd and Mehra [2008] EWCA Civ 47.

s.16 Landlord and Tenant (Covenants) Act 1995.

ss.2-8 and s.32(1) Equality Act 2010.

s.33(1) Equality Act 2010.

s.38 Equality Act 2010.

Hendry v Chartsearch Ltd, The Times, 16 September 1998 CA.

s.1(3) Landlord and Tenant Act 1988.

s.4 Landlord and Tenant Act 1988.

s.1(6)(c) Landlord and Tenant Act 1988.

See for example the assured tenancy case of Sanctuary Housing Association v Baker (1997) 30 HLR 809.

ss.52-53 Law of Property Act 1925.

Crago v Julian (1991) 24 HLR 306 CA.

s.2 Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989.

s.17 Landlord and Tenant (Covenants) Act 1995.

Ombudsman Investigation 90/B/1668, 5 December 1995, Wellingborough BC.

s.5 of the Landlord and Tenant (Covenants) Act 1995

s.77 and Parts 7, 8, and 9 of Sch.2 Law of Property Act 1925.

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Legal Templates

Home Real Estate Lease Agreement

Rental and Lease Agreement Templates

Use our Lease Agreement to rent out your residential property.

Standard Lease Agreement

Updated January 24, 2024 Written by Jana Freer | Reviewed by Susan Chai, Esq.

A lease agreement (or rental agreement) is a document that explains the terms under which a tenant rents a residential or commercial property from a landlord.

Lease agreements are legally binding contracts that explain the obligations and rights of the tenant and landlord. Even if you’re renting out a room in your house to a friend or family member, you need a lease agreement for legal protection if you encounter problems with your tenants.

  • Lease Agreements - By State
  • Lease Agreements - By Type

How to Lease a Residential Property [Landlord Lifecycle]

  • Landlord's Access

Security Deposit

Lease terms to know, how to write (fill out) a lease/rental agreement, sample lease agreement, frequently asked questions, lease agreements – by state.

Find your state-specific residential lease agreement below.

  • Connecticut
  • District of Columbia
  • Massachusetts
  • Mississippi
  • New Hampshire
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • South Dakota
  • West Virginia

Lease Agreements – By Type

Here are some free lease agreement templates by type:

Residential Lease Agreement Forms [For Landlords]

Standard Residential Lease Agreement Template

Use this template to rent out a residential property for a fixed period of typically one year.

This agreement includes the most essential and common clauses and can be used for a house, apartment, studio, condo, duplex, townhouse, basement, or mobile home.

Standard Lease Agreement

month to month residential lease agreement template

Use this template if you don’t want to commit to renting out your property for a full year or more, but still need to protect your rights. Using a monthly lease allows you (and your tenant) to be flexible.

Month-to-Month Lease Agreement

vacation rental short term lease agreement template

Use this template to rent out your property for a short period of time (usually between 1–31 days), most commonly as a vacation rental. A short-term rental agreement explains to guests the rules of their stay, and what they can expect when they arrive.

Short Term (Vacation) Rental

rent to own lease agreement template

Rent-to-Own Lease Agreement

lease extension agreement template

Lease Extension Agreement

lease renewal form template

Lease Renewal Agreement

Sublease agreement forms [for tenants].

sublease agreement template

Use this template to rent out a property (or just a room) when you’re already renting the property from another landlord. For example, you may want to sublet a property if you need to move out but don’t want to break your lease.

Sublease Agreement

Room Rental Agreement Template

Use this template when you’re renting out a room in your property and need to set rules and boundaries. For example, you can use this agreement to explain how you'll divide rent and utility payments, and whether your tenant can have guests visit.

Room Rental Agreement

roommate agreement sample

Roommate Agreement

Commercial lease agreement forms.

sample of a commercial lease agreement template

Use this template if you’re renting out an office building, retail space, restaurant, industrial facility, or any property where the tenant will operate a business.

Commercial Lease Agreement

sample image of a land lease agreement

Use this template to rent out a piece of land that does not have a property on it. A land or ground lease can have multiple purposes, including agricultural, residential, and commercial.

Land Lease Agreement

equipment lease agreement template

Equipment Lease Agreement

parking space lease agreement

Parking Space Rental Agreement

Disclosures & addendums.

eviction notice template

Lease Agreement Addendum

amendment to lease agreement

Lease Agreement Amendment

rental inspection checklist template

Rental Inspection Checklist

rent receipt template

Rent Receipt

rental application approval letter

Tenant Approval Letter

rental application rejection letter

Tenant Rejection Letter

  • Asbestos Disclosure ( Word ) – Notifty tenants of asbestos at the property (required for properties built before 1979).
  • Bed Bug Addendum ( Word ) – Explain how both parties should act in case of a bedbug infestation.
  • Carbon Monoxide and Smoke Detector Addendum ( Word )– State whether the landlord will provide carbon monoxide/smoke detectors and how the tenant is responsible for keeping them in good condition.
  • Commercial Lease Addendum ( PDF , Word ) – Modify an existing commercial lease or expand upon the current contract.
  • Death in Rental Unit Disclosure ( Word ) – Inform the tenant if anyone previously died on the property.
  • Disclosure of Lead-Based Hazard s ( PDF ) – Notify tenants of lead-based paint or other materials (required for properties built before 1978).
  • Flood Hazard Area Disclosure ( Word ) – State whether the property is in a special flood hazard area.
  • Foreclosure Notice ( Word ) – Inform the tenant of an impending foreclosure.
  • Illegal Substance Contamination Disclosure ( Word ) – Notify the tenant if parts of the property have been contaminated due to manufacturing or storing an illicit substance (such as methamphetamine).
  • Mold Disclosure ( Word ) – Notify the tenant that the property may contain mold and whether the landlord will fix it.
  • Notice of Abandoned Personal Property ( Word ) – Tell the tenant they left something in the unit when they moved out and need to collect it before it’s thrown out.
  • Pet Addendum ( PDF , Word ) – Let a tenant know the specific rules for having a pet on your property.
  • Shared Utilities Disclosure ( Word ) – Explain how utilities are calculated and shared between multiple residents.
  • Smoking Addendum ( PDF , Word ) – Specify if your tenant can smoke marijuana or tobacco on your property.

Follow the steps below to rent your property easily:

Step 1 – Show Your Rental Unit to Tenants

landlord shaking hands with tenants in empty apartment

The first step in renting out a house or an apartment is to allow people to view the property . If tenants like the property and want to move in, they will likely inquire about the rent amount and other details.

Hosting viewings can be inconvenient if you have multiple properties, so many landlords hire a property management company to show their rental units to potential tenants.

Step 2 – Give the Tenant a Rental Application Form to Fill Out

Once you agree on the rent price, the tenant should complete a rental application . This form helps the landlord screen the tenant, and it includes information such as the applicant’s:

  • Current address
  • Place of employment
  • Income level
  • Rental references

The tenant can confirm their workplace using an employment verification letter . This document is accessible for renters to show proof of income.

Typically, landlords require a small, non-refundable fee from the tenant to process the rental application.

Be aware of what you can and can’t ask on a rental application to abide by federal laws and prevent discrimination in the selection process.

Step 3 – Run a Background and Credit Check

After reviewing the tenant’s application, you should run a background check (and/or a credit check).

Running a credit check as part of the tenant-screening process can help avoid scams and problem tenants. The tenant usually pays for the cost of a credit check.

A background check shows if the applicant has a prior criminal history, and a credit check confirms whether the applicant has good or bad credit. Bad credit may signify poor financial planning, resulting in missed rent payments.

Although these checks help you avoid dealing with bad tenants, you shouldn’t base your decision to rent the property solely on the results.

Many states have strict guidelines on tenant discrimination. Refusing tenancy because of minor criminal offenses or bad credit may justifiably violate federal anti-discrimination law.

Step 4 – Check the Tenant’s References

landlord on the phone calling and checking a tenant's references

Next, you must check the tenant’s references in their rental application form mentioned in step 2.

You should contact the references and ask questions such as:

  • Did the applicant pay their rent and utilities on time?
  • Were there any noise complaints at the tenant’s previous apartment?
  • Have the police ever been called to the tenant’s last rental unit?
  • Would you consider renting to this person again?

Rental references are usually from current or previous landlords and can give insight into the tenant’s character and behavior.

Step 5 – Create a Lease Agreement

landlord handing apartment keys to new tenant

Once you’re happy to rent your property to a tenant, you must create a lease/rental agreement in the correct format.

You make a lease agreement by writing it yourself from scratch, filling in a blank lease agreement template that includes all the necessary clauses, or using a lease agreement builder to create a lease specific to your property.

Remember to include the following:

  • The move-in date
  • The monthly rent payment amount
  • When the rent is due each month
  • How you’ll handle late rent payments
  • Who should pay or manage the utilities
  • The penalties, if any, for breaking a lease

Both parties sign the agreement after you create the lease contract and review all the details with the tenant. You may need to calculate prorated rent depending on when the tenant moves in.

Step 6 – Hand Over the Keys

Once the lease agreement is completed and signed, give the tenant the keys to move into the property.

Remember to conduct a unit walkthrough alongside the tenant to finish the process. Bring a rental inspection checklist and document the property’s condition before the tenant moves in.

Step 7 – Renew or Terminate the Lease

Allow the tenant to remain on the property until the lease termination date. If you thought your tenant was responsible and you want to renew their lease (and they also want to renew), use a lease renewal agreement to renew their tenancy.

If you don’t want to renew the lease, use a lease termination letter . 

Landlord and Tenant Laws by State

Federal law recognizes that landlords and tenants have individual legal rights and obligations .

Find out what the law in your state says about your rights using the table below, or check the following specific laws for your property:

Landlord-Tenant Acts

Here are the general landlord-tenant acts by state:

Landlord’s Access

Tenants have the right to privacy when they rent a property. However, there may be reasons why a landlord needs to access the property , such as for maintenance or inspections.

Nearly every state requires a landlord to give advance notice to their tenants before accessing a rental unit. Use the table below to check how much notice you need to give in your state and review the relevant law:

Each state regulates the maximum amount of money a landlord can collect as a security deposit from a tenant. Some states also require landlords to return security deposits to tenants within a specific time (potentially with interest).

Usually, a landlord can deduct the following costs from the tenant’s security deposit:

  • Unpaid rent
  • Cleaning costs
  • Key replacement costs
  • Cost to repair damages above ordinary wear and tear
  • Any other amount legally allowable under the lease

Use the table below to see the maximum security deposit limit in your state, whether it needs to be held in a separate account, and how much time you have to refund it after the lease ends:

Here are some helpful definitions for the legal language commonly present in lease and rental agreement forms:

  • Access : The right to enter a property.
  • Accidents : Artificial or naturally occurring events that may damage a property (fire, flood, earthquake, etc.).
  • Alterations : Modifications made to a property.
  • Appliances : Standard home equipment like a refrigerator or dishwasher.
  • Assignment : The transfer of an interest in a lease.
  • Attorney Fees : A payment made to a lawyer.
  • Condemnation : The government is seizing private property for a public purpose, such as highway construction.
  • Default : When a breach of contract occurs and persists, such as not paying rent or violating other terms of a rental agreement.
  • Furniture : Standard home equipment such as couches, tables, beds, etc.
  • Guarantor /Co-Signer : Someone accountable for paying rent if the tenant cannot.
  • Guests : Short-term occupants of a rental property.
  • Joint and several liabilities : Two or more people are independently held accountable for damages, regardless of who is at fault.
  • Late Rent Fee : An additional, reasonable sum of money paid by a tenant after making a rent payment past the due date listed in the landlord-tenant agreement.
  • Noise Policy : A provision outlining “quiet hours” in the apartment building, condominium, or neighborhood.
  • Notice : A written announcement of some fact or observation.
  • Option to Purchase : The tenant’s right to purchase the rental property later.
  • Parking : Designated spaces where the tenant can keep their vehicles.
  • Pet Policy : The permission or restriction of a tenant’s ability to have an animal in a rental property.
  • Property Maintenance : Preserving a rental unit and who is responsible. Such as cutting the grass, removing the garbage, or unclogging the kitchen and bathroom drains.
  • Renewal : A tenant’s option to continue the lease.
  • Renter’s Insurance : A paid policy that protects personal belongings against theft or damage.
  • Severability : A clause of a lease stating that if one part of the agreement is invalid for any reason, the rest of the lease is still enforceable.
  • Smoking Polic y: The permission or restriction of a tenant’s smoking ability inside a rental property.
  • Sublet : A temporary housing arrangement between current and new tenants to rent all or part of the currently leased property. The subletting period must be for less than the lease term.
  • Successor : Someone who takes over the obligations of a lease from a tenant or landlord.
  • Utilities : A public or private service supplying electricity, water, gas, or trash collection to a property.
  • Waterbed : A water-filled furnishing used to sleep and not typically permitted in most rental properties.

Here’s how to write a lease :

Step 1 – Name the Parties

A simple rental agreement form must name the parties signing the lease and where they live. First, you should write down the following:

  • The landlord or property management company and their current address

highlighted name section of a lease agreement template

Step 2 – Describe the Premises

The “premises” are the exact address and type of rented property , such as an apartment, house, or condominium.

highlighted premises section of a sample rental agreement

Step 3 – Define the Terms of the Lease

The “term” is the length of time a tenant will rent the listed property. A standard agreement should detail when the lease term begins and ends .

Furthermore, a lease can either be fixed-term or month-to-month.

  • A fixed-term rental lease means the agreement is set for a predetermined or fixed period. This lease expires on the end date listed in the agreement (usually up to 6 months, one year, or two years from the start date).
  • A month-to-month rental lease means the agreement lasts one month with no defined end date. It continues monthly until either the landlord or tenant terminates the agreement.

highlighted term section of a lease agreement example form

Step 4 – Set How Much Rent the Tenant Will Pay

A lease agreement must explicitly list the monthly rental amount and outline the consequences of late rent.

It’s up to the landlord to decide how much to charge for rent, but the cost is usually comparable to other properties within the same area.

In addition, standard rent control laws may limit the amount you can charge for rent. Check your local rent control ordinance to ensure your lease agreement complies with those regulations.

highlighted rent section of a sample rental lease agreement

Step 5 – Assign a Security Deposit Amount

A security deposit is a set amount of money a landlord collects at the beginning of the lease.

Landlords have the right to collect a security deposit from their tenants. Still, their states’ security deposit laws define what landlords can use that money for (check the security deposit laws of your state ).

Step 6 – Finalize the Lease

Once you finish discussing the details with your tenant, remember to:

  • Print – print at least two copies of the rental lease for you and the other party
  • Sign – sign and date the lease agreement (both the tenant(s) and landlord)
  • Save – safely file a hard copy of the signed document and consider scanning an electronic copy for extra safekeeping.

The following standard residential lease agreement works for all states except California , Florida , and Washington, DC .

Standard Lease Agreement

Why do I need a lease agreement?

]You need a lease agreement because it explains your responsibilities as a landlord and sets rules for the tenants living on your property. This form helps you avoid disputes with your tenants and address issues when they arise.

Suppose you rent out a property but don’t use a lease agreement. In that case, you could lose rent money, be liable for illegal activities on the property, receive penalties for unpaid utility costs, or spend a lot on property damage repairs and lawyer fees. Anyone renting a home, land, or commercial building should have a lease agreement.

How do I rent a room in my house?

You rent out a room in your house by using an agreement stating you’re renting out a room, not the entire property. If you’re a tenant living in a rental property, you can sublet a room to another tenant using a room rental agreement .

A standard residential lease and a room rental agreement allow you to establish quiet hours, the times guests can visit, the division of utility payments, and rules regarding pets, smoking, and parking.

Both parties sign the agreement to rent a room, and the landlord collects a security deposit from the tenant before handing over the keys.

What’s the difference between a lease and a rental agreement?

The difference between a lease and a rental agreement is the duration of the contract. Lease agreements are typically long-term (12 to 24 months), whereas rental agreements are usually short-term (a few weeks or months).

If you decide whether a lease or rent is best for you, remember that a lease agreement provides more security, but a rental agreement offers more flexibility.

What are my responsibilities as a landlord?

Your responsibilities as a landlord include the following:

  • Repairing and maintaining the normal wear and tear of appliances like the air conditioner or heater.
  • Respecting a tenant’s right to “quiet enjoyment” (living without disturbances). For example, you should deal with noise complaints accordingly, and you shouldn’t visit the property unnecessarily.
  • Providing the tenant with a safe and clean home for the lease term. Examples include removing mold , resolving water damage, and fixing ventilation problems.
  • Returning the tenant’s security deposit if the tenant treats the property respectfully and the rental is in good condition at the end of the lease term.
  • Giving the tenant advance notice when you must enter the premises to fix something or show someone the property.

What happens if a tenant violates a lease?

If a tenant violates a lease , the landlord may try to resolve the problem by allowing the tenant to fix it (unless the violation is significant, such as using the property to sell or manufacture illegal drugs). If the issue is not resolved within a specific period (as set by state law), the landlord can begin eviction to remove the tenant.

Common lease violations include unpaid rent/utility bills and damage to the property.

What should I include in a lease agreement?

You should include the following information and clauses in a lease agreement:

  • Names of all tenants : Write the names of every adult living on the property.
  • Term : State the lease’s duration and whether it’s for a fixed period or will automatically renew.
  • Rent : Set the amount of money the tenant will pay to live in the property and which day of the month the tenant will pay the rent.
  • Premises : Describe the property and its location.
  • Security deposit : Assign an amount of money the tenant will give the landlord to hold in case of any damages

Depending on your property and its location, you may need to include some standard disclosures and addendums that address specific situations, such as smoking or pets.

Related Documents

  • Lease Termination Letter : A document created by the landlord or tenant in order to end an existing lease or rental agreement.
  • Lease Renewal Agreement : Extends the term of an existing lease agreement between a landlord and a tenant.
  • Eviction Notice : A written record that the Landlord properly notified the Tenant of a problem (i.e. lease violation, late rent, the lease ended).
  • Lease Agreement
  • Power of Attorney
  • Non-Disclosure Agreement
  • Eviction Notice
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Standard Lease Agreement

The document above is a sample. Please note that the language you see here may change depending on your answers to the document questionnaire.

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Residential Lease Agreement

Last Updated: October 17, 2023 by Roberto Valenzuela

  • Month-to-Month

Residential Lease Agreement Template 2_1 on iPropertyManagement.com

A standard residential lease agreement (or “rental agreement”) is a contract for a tenant to use a landlord’s residential property in exchange for paying rent. A rental agreement must include specific details such as the periodic rent and the responsibilities of each party.

Residential Lease Agreements by State

Types of residential lease agreements.

A rental agreement allows a tenant to live in a residential property in exchange for a rent payment to the landlord. There are many different kinds of rental agreements, suited to different tenant needs and rental situations.

  • Standard/Fixed Term – The most common lease agreement is a fixed term agreement. This is a lease for a specific, often extended period of time such as one year. Rent payments come due every month in most fixed term leases. A fixed term lease can be as simple as one page, or detailed and complicated as desired by the parties.
  • Month-to-Month – A rental agreement which typically lasts for 30 days, renewing automatically at the end of each month unless the landlord or tenant provide a certain amount of advance notice.
  • Sublease – This is where a tenant on an existing lease rents some or all of their rental property to a new, third-party tenant. Landlords usually have a strong preference for a direct business relationship with the person occupying their property, so subleases are often forbidden without the landlord’s prior written permission.
  • Roommate – A roommate agreement is not a rental in the strict sense since it doesn’t add a tenant to the lease. The original tenant stays legally liable to the landlord for things like a default on rent. A roommate agreement is a contract between a tenant and a roommate, to arrange division of responsibilities like chores, rent, and utility payments.
  • Short-Term (Vacation) – A short term tenancy that typically lasts a few days. May include more responsibilities than typical for a simple overnight rental like a hotel.
  • Land Lease – A lease where the tenant owns and operates the residence, but the landlord owns the plot of land underneath. Sometimes also called a ground lease.
  • Rent To Own – An agreement where the tenant pays a fee to get the option of purchasing the rental property at the end of the lease. Most rent-to-own agreements credit a portion of the monthly rent to equity in the property if the tenant exercises the purchase option.

Residential Lease Agreement Basics

A residential lease lays out the basic rights and terms that the landlord and tenant agree will govern the occupation of the rental property.

What is the difference between a lease and a rental agreement?

All leases are rental agreements, but not all rental agreements are leases. “Lease” is a term that refers specifically to fixed-term rental agreements.

  • Rental Agreement – creates a tenancy for a  period of time in exchange for rent. Most residential contracts specifically called “rental agreements” are typically for a month or a 30-day period. Such month-to-month agreements renew automatically in most cases unless either party provides advance notice to end the agreement. Since the entire agreement renews monthly, landlords have a lot of power to change terms from one payment period to the next.
  • Lease – creates a tenancy for an extended period of time, generally 1-2 years. Leases have advantages for both landlords and tenants. A lease guarantees an extended period of paid occupancy, which is good for landlords. It also provides stable, predictable terms for things like rent, which is good for tenants.

Can a tenant rent without a written lease?

Most states do allow rentals based on oral agreements, but this is legally risky. Terms of an oral lease can be difficult to prove in court when there’s conflicting testimony. In addition, many states require written leases by law for any rental contracts of one year or longer. Landlords on an oral lease may also have serious limitations on things like the amount of security deposit they can legally collect.

Can parties draft their own rental agreements themselves?

Every state lets a landlord and tenant write their own rental agreement according to their preferred terms. However, ignorance of the law is not an excuse; required and prohibited rental terms remain the same , no matter who drafts the agreement. For maximum safety, a rental agreement must use a professionally drafted template and also receive a specialized attorney review before execution.

Typical Lease Terms

A lease agreement or rental agreement outlines the basic rules and terms to which both the landlord and tenant agree. These are examples of important information to include in every lease or rental agreement.

  • Names of Tenants/Landlords – Tames of all tenants, plus the landlord and/or the landlord’s agent authorized to manage the rental property.
  • Means of Contact – Smooth and clear communication is the most effective way to reduce conflicts in rental situations. In addition to an address of record for written notice and rent payments, it’s important for a rental agreement to specify any acceptable alternative means of contact, like text or email.
  • Occupancy Limits – Most residential property has a legal occupancy limit. Landlords can also limit occupancy on rentals however they choose, but this must be specified in the rental agreement.
  • Type of Tenancy – To avoid an unfavorable interpretation over lack of clarity, a rental agreement must clearly state what type of tenancy it intends to create (month-to-month, fixed-term, etc.), including start and end dates.
  • Payment of Rent – Details  acceptable payment methods (check, online card payment, etc.), the amount owed, and the due date. Any  late fees or charges for returned checks must also be detailed in the lease terms.
  • Deposits and Fees – The specific terms of any security deposit (amount, allowed deductions, return, etc.) must be detailed, in compliance with local and state laws. Any non-refundable fees like pet or cleaning fees must be clearly disclosed, as well.
  • Repairs and Maintenance – Any rental agreement should clearly describe the different responsibilities landlord and tenant have when it comes to maintaining the rental property. This includes both occasional repairs as well as regular maintenance like cleaning the property or changing smoke detector batteries. Note that a landlord’s repair responsibilities are often determined by state law .
  • Landlord’s Access To the Property – Landlords have not only the right, but the responsibility to enter rental property for required legal purposes like making necessary repairs. Many states lack comprehensive access laws , so specifying a landlord’s entry rights in the rental agreement is especially important.
  • Rules and Policies – Any landlord-enforced rules, regulations, and policies (e.g., smoking restrictions, pet rules, etc.) must be outlined or clearly referenced in the rental agreement. This helps limit a landlord’s liability.
  • Disclosures – Depending on the location and specific rental situation, state or federal law may require various disclosures from the landlord to the tenant.

Required Disclosures and Addendums

Required disclosures and addendums vary by state and rental situation. These are the most common required disclosures.

  • Lead-Based Paint – Federal law requires notice regarding the risks of lead-based paint in homes built prior to 1978. This requires a specific disclosure form and pamphlet in addition to notice of any known hazards in the building.
  • Asbestos – For properties built before 1981, federal law requires notice of any asbestos on the property so that tenants can take appropriate precautions.
  • Bed Bugs – Several states require disclosures regarding detection and treatment of bed bug infestations. This type of disclosure is also recommended for rental units with a history of infestation, for liability purposes, even where not required by state law.
  • Landlord’s Name and Address – Some states make landlords and their agents provide tenants with a specific contact name, and address of record, for things like notices and rent payments.
  • Mold Disclosure – Some states have specific requirements for disclosing mold issues and treatment.
  • Shared Utilities Arrangements – When rental units share utilities, there may be statutory requirements for transparency on the specifics of how they are shared, and how each party’s bill is calculated.
  • Move-In Checklist – To retain a security deposit, a number of states require that the landlord provide an  inspection with an itemized list of property features. This clarifies the condition of the property upon move-in, so that it’s obvious what the tenant has to pay for at the end of the lease term.
  • Refundable/Non-Refundable Fees – Non-refundable fees generally must be disclosed as such in the lease. Tenants can otherwise often demand a refund at the end of the lease.
  • Smoking – Depending on a property’s situation and local laws, there may be limitations which must be respected on what a smoking policy can allow or prohibit. In particular, states which have medical marijuana programs may have special regulations on residential use policies.
  • Late and Returned Check Fees – Many states limit fees a landlord can charge for late payments or bounced checks. Such fees must usually also be disclosed in the lease to be valid.

Illegal Terms in a Rental Agreement

While state contract laws give wide leeway for landlords and tenants to set their own rental terms and conditions, potentially abusive provisions aren’t allowed. A landlord who includes prohibited terms in a lease might be subject to a lawsuit, or even criminal penalties in some extreme cases.

These are some examples of lease terms which often are illegal.

  • Warranty of Habitability – Every state has minimum quality standards for housing , usually called a “warranty of habitability.” Landlords have a legal obligation to repair rental property up to these minimum standards. It’s illegal to try and waive a warranty of habitability. Note that in most cases, landlords don’t have to repair damage tenants themselves caused negligently or deliberately.
  • Charging Penalties Instead of Fees – Late fees and other nonrefundable fees must be outlined in the lease or rental agreement. Fees in the lease cannot be designed as a punishment; they must reasonably reflect the actual costs related to an inconvenience.
  • Security Deposit – The most common type of rental dispute is a disagreement over deductions from the security deposit. Many states regulate the terms under which a landlord can keep part of the security deposit. In general, tenants cannot be charged for damage they did not cause, costs the landlord did not incur, or normal wear and tear of the property.

How to Fill Out a Residential Lease Agreement

Below is a step-by-step process on how to fill out a lease agreement.

Section I. The Parties

  • Date – The date of signature for the agreement.
  • Landlord’s Contact Information – The landlord’s name and address.
  • Tenant’s Names  – State the tenant(s) full name(s).

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section II. Location of the Premises

  • Tenant’s Names – The full names of any and all tenants responsible for the lease.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section III. Lease Term

  • Lease Term – A clear statement of when the lease begins and ends.
  • Termination Notice – Include the notice period required before terminating a month-to-month tenancy created after the lease ends.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section IV. Rent

  • Monthly Rent Due – The price of rent due per month.
  • When Rent is Due – The date rent is due (typically, the first day of each month).
  • Late Fees and Grace Periods – Most states allow a late fee if rent is not paid on time. If there is a late fee, enter the fee details plus when rent is considered late.
  • Returned Checks – A fee for a bounced check with non-sufficient funds (NSF). If there is a fee, enter the amount per bounced check. Note that many states set a maximum cap on returned check fees.
  • Rent Increase – The effective date of any rent increase.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section V. Security Deposit

  • Security Deposit – Most leases collect a security deposit, generally equal to one month’s rent. Each state’s security deposit law indicates what a landlord can use the money for and the maximum allowed amount.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section VI. Use of Property

  • Occupants – All tenants who are allowed to occupy the property (not including temporary guest stays). This section lists anyone living on the rental property for an extended period, including children.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section VII. Subletting

  • Assignment – A check in the appropriate box allows or denies permission for the tenant to sublet the rental property. Note the specific amount of advance notice to which a landlord is entitled when getting details about an upcoming subtenant.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section VIII. Right of Entry

  • Landlord Access – While state laws regarding landlord access vary widely, in general landlords can enter rental property for relevant purposes during normal business hours. In most cases, they must provide advance notice before a non-emergency entry, typically 24 hours.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section IX. Non-Delivery of Possession

  • Non-Delivery of Possession – Provides a time limit within which the landlord must deliver initial possession of the rental property to the tenant. This protects the tenant’s rights in case there’s an issue like the previous tenant refusing to move out. This limitation on the start date of lease may be required under some state or local laws.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section X. Utilities

  • Utilities – Indicates which utilities and services the landlord will provide to the tenants. Any utility or service not mentioned in the lease is, by default, the tenant’s responsibility.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section XI. Pets

  • Pets – Indicates whether pets are allowed in the rental unit, and relevant restrictions on things like breed or weight. Any nonrefundable pet fees must be disclosed here. Landlords cannot charge any fees for lawful support and service animals, but can require proper documentation before admitting them to a rental property.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section XII. Default

  • Default – Provides terms for ending the lease, including the amount of advance notice before termination or a formal default on rent payment. Note that these notice periods may be fixed by state or local law.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section XIII. Notice

  • Notice – Landlords must make themselves easy to contact for things like rent payment and repair requests. This field provides an address of record for streamlined contact between the landlord and tenant.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section XIV. Parking

  • Parking – Indicates whether the tenant receives a parking space as part of the lease as well as location and the terms on which the space is provided.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section XV. Early Termination

  • Early Termination – Indicates whether the tenant may break the lease early, as well as the notice and cost requirements. Some jurisdictions regulate the maximum early termination fee. Note that termination fees don’t apply if a tenant ends the lease due to landlord violations.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section XVI. Smoking

  • Smoking Policy – Describes the smoking policy for the rental property, including any designated smoking areas.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Section XVII. Signatures

  • Signatures – The landlord and every adult tenant must sign the rental agreement to make it effective and binding on all parties. Each party customarily receives a copy of the lease upon execution. This is sometimes also a requirement under state law.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

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Residential Lease Assignment Agreement

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Residential Lease Assignment Agreement

The Residential Lease Assignment Agreement is a document through which a tenant transfers their rights in a residential lease to another who becomes the new tenant .

A residential lease is a rental property designated for people to live. This document is used in situations where a tenant wants to leave the rental property before the end of their lease , and the tenant has obtained the consent of the landlord to assign the lease. In such a case, one option to consider will be to transfer the remainder of the lease to another party, who becomes the new tenant.

For example, a tenant signs a Residential Lease Agreement for a fixed term of one year. After six months, if the tenant wants to relocate to a different place, the tenant can transfer the remaining unexpired six months to another person.

Depending on the nature of the lease, some leases may outrightly prohibit the tenant from assigning their lease. However, some tenants may be required to fulfill some obligations before assigning their lease. In any case, the tenant must check the terms of the lease to ensure that they satisfy the conditions before transferring the lease.

Note that a lease assignment is different from a sublease :

  • In lease assignments , the assignor transfers their remaining interest in the lease to the new tenant, who will maintain a direct relationship with the landlord.
  • In a sublease , the tenant transfers the rental property to the subtenant for less than the tenant's lease term, and the Consent to Sublease is suitable for sublease.

Please note that this document should be used to assign residential leases (property to live in). However, for the assignment of office spaces or other rental property for business purposes, the Commercial Business Lease Assignment Agreement is also available for download.

How to use this document

This document should be used in situations when a tenant wants to vacate from a rental property before the lease expires. This document requires basic information such as the names and addresses of the assignor and the assignee, description of the rental property, and the lease term. After completing the document, it should be printed and signed by the parties to the agreement.

This document may also be signed electronically. Each party should keep a signed copy of this agreement for their record.

Applicable law

Tenancy agreements are subject to laws of various states in Nigeria. In Lagos State, the following laws are applicable:

  • The Tenancy Law, 2011 : The law regulates the right and obligations under tenancy agreements. The law is applicable to all parts of Lagos, except Apapa, Ikeja GRA, Ikoyi and Victoria Island.
  • Land Use Charge Law : The land use charge is a property tax that property owners are expected to pay.

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Other names for the document:

Apartment Lease Assignment Agreement, Assignment and Assumption of Residential Lease Agreement, Assignment of Residential Lease, Deed of Assignment of Residential Lease, Deed of Assignment of Room

Country: Nigeria

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assignment of residential tenancy agreement

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

This residential lease assignment is between , an individual (the " Original Tenant ") and an individual (the " New Tenant ").

On or about , the Original Tenant and (the " Landlord ") entered into a lease agreement (the " Lease ").

The Lease covers the property located at , , , and more particularly described as follows: (the " Premises ").

Under section of the Lease, the Original Tenant is permitted to assign its interest in the Lease, with the consent of the Landlord.

The Original Tenant wishes to assign to the New Tenant's his or her rights in, and delegate all of his or her obligations under, the Lease, and the New Tenant wishes to accept this assignment.

The parties therefore agree as follows:

1. ASSIGNMENT.

The Original Tenant assigns to the New Tenant of all his or her rights in, and delegates to the New Tenant all of his or her obligations under, the Lease. This transfer will become effective as of (the " Effective Date "), and will continue until the present term of the Lease ends.

2. ASSUMPTION OF RIGHTS AND DUTIES.

After the Effective Date, the New Tenant shall assume all rights and duties under the Lease, including the obligation to pay rent under the Lease when it is due.   The Original Tenant will have no further obligations under the Lease   The Original Tenant will remain bound to the Landlord under the Lease, notwithstanding the assignment . However, the Original Tenant remains responsible for obligations accruing before the Effective Date.

3. REIMBURSEMENT.

On or before the Effective Date, the New Tenant shall pay to the Original Tenant, which is the sum of:

  • (a)  the security deposit held by the Landlord under the Lease; and
  • (b)  the rent or other deposits paid in advance by the Original Tenant for any period after the effective date of this assignment.

4. INDEMNIFICATION.

  • (a) The Original Tenant shall indemnify the New Tenant from all damages, liabilities, expenses, claims, or judgments (including interest and reasonable attorneys' fees) (collectively, "Claims" ) arising out of the Original Tenant's failure to perform his or her obligations under the Lease before the Effective Date.
  • (b) The New Tenant shall indemnify the Original Tenant from all Claims relating to the Lease, except if those costs arise from the Original Tenant's failure to perform his or her duties under the Lease before the Effective Date.
  • (c) The New Tenant shall indemnify the Original Tenant from all Claims attributable to the acts or omissions of the New Tenant or his or her agents, contractors, or employees with respect to the Premises or any activities on the Premises. This indemnification will survive the termination of the Lease and this assignment.

5. CONTINUING EFFECTIVENESS OF LEASE.

This assignment is made on the understanding that all other terms of the Lease remain in full effect, including the prohibition against further assignments and subleases without the Landlord's express written consent.

6. ORIGINAL TENANT'S REPRESENTATIONS.

The Original Tenant represents that he or she:

  • (a) has the power and authority to enter into and carry out this assignment;
  • (b) has not previously assigned his or her rights under the Lease;
  • (c) is the lawful and sole owner of the interests assigned under this assignment;
  • (d) the interests assigned under this assignment are free from all encumbrances;
  • (e) except for the Landlord and the Original Tenant, there are no parties in possession or occupancy of the Premises or any part of them, and there are no parties with possessory rights on the Premises or any part of them; and
  • (f) has performed all obligations and made all required payments under the Lease.

7. CONDITION OF PREMISES.

The New Tenant has examined and inspected the Premises and accepts them "as is" and in its present condition with all faults. Except as provided in this assignment, the Original Tenant makes no representations, covenants, or guaranties about the status, nature, or condition of the Lease or the Premises.

8. INTERPRETATION .

In interpreting the language of this assignment, the parties shall be treated as having drafted this assignment after meaningful negotiations. The language in this assignment will be construed as to its fair meaning and not strictly for or against either party.

9. GOVERNING LAW .

  • (a) Choice of Law. The laws of the state of govern this assignment (without giving effect to its conflicts of law principles).
  • (b) Choice of Forum. Both parties consent to the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts in County, .

10. AMENDMENTS.

No amendment to this assignment will be effective unless it is in writing and signed by a party or its authorized representative.

11. COUNTERPARTS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES.

  • (a) Counterparts. The parties may execute this agreement in any number of counterparts, each of which is an original but all of which constitute one and the same instrument.
  • (b) Electronic Signatures . This agreement, agreements ancillary to this agreement, and related documents entered into in connection with this agreement are signed when a party's signature is delivered by facsimile, email, or other electronic medium. These signatures must be treated in all respects as having the same force and effect as original signatures.

12. SEVERABILITY.

If any one or more of the provisions contained in this assignment is, for any reason, held to be invalid, illegal, or unenforceable in any respect, that invalidity, illegality, or unenforceability will not affect any other provisions of this assignment, but this assignment will be construed as if those invalid, illegal, or unenforceable provisions had never been contained in it, unless the deletion of those provisions would result in such a material change so as to cause completion of the transactions contemplated by this assignment to be unreasonable.

13. NOTICES.

  • (a) Writing; Permitted Delivery Methods . Each party giving or making any notice, request, demand, or other communication required or permitted by this assignment shall give that notice in writing and use one of the following types of delivery, each of which is a writing for purposes of this assignment: personal delivery, mail (registered or certified mail, postage prepaid, return-receipt requested), nationally recognized overnight courier (fees prepaid), facsimile, or email.
  • (b) Addresses. A party shall address notices under this section to a party at the following addresses:
  • If to the Original Tenant:
  • If to the New Tenant:
  • (c) Effectiveness. A notice is effective only if the party giving notice complies with subsections (a) and (b) and if the recipient receives the notice.

14. WAIVER.

No waiver of a breach, failure of any condition, or any right or remedy contained in or granted by the provisions of this assignment will be effective unless it is in writing and signed by the party waiving the breach, failure, right, or remedy. No waiver of any breach, failure, right, or remedy will be deemed a waiver of any other breach, failure, right, or remedy, whether or not similar, and no waiver will constitute a continuing waiver, unless the writing so specifies.

15. ENTIRE AGREEMENT.

This agreement constitutes the final agreement of the parties. It is the complete and exclusive expression of the parties' agreement about the subject matter of this agreement. All prior and contemporaneous communications, negotiations, and agreements between the parties relating to the subject matter of this agreement are expressly merged into and superseded by this agreement. The provisions of this agreement may not be explained, supplemented, or qualified by evidence of trade usage or a prior course of dealings. Neither party was induced to enter this agreement by, and neither party is relying on, any statement, representation, warranty, or agreement of the other party except those set forth expressly in this agreement. Except as set forth expressly in this agreement, there are no conditions precedent to this agreement's effectiveness.

16. HEADINGS.

The descriptive headings of the sections and subsections of this assignment are for convenience only, and do not affect this agreement's construction or interpretation.

17. EFFECTIVENESS.

This assignment will become effective when all parties have signed it. The date this assignment is signed by the last party to sign it (as indicated by the date associated with that party's signature) will be deemed the date of this assignment.

18. NECESSARY ACTS; FURTHER ASSURANCES.

Each party shall use all reasonable efforts to take, or cause to be taken, all actions necessary or desirable to consummate and make effective the transactions this assignment contemplates or to evidence or carry out the intent and purposes of this assignment.

[SIGNATURE PAGE FOLLOWS]

Each party is signing this agreement on the date stated opposite that party's signature.

ORIGINAL TENANT

[PAGE BREAK HERE]

LANDLORD'S CONSENT AND RELEASE

As Landlord under the Lease, I hereby consent to this assignment of the Lease, and to the New Tenant's assumption of the Original Tenant's obligations under the Lease, including the obligation to pay rent when it is due. As of the Effective Date, I release the Original Tenant from all liability for obligations (including rent payments) under the Lease. However, the Original Tenant remains primarily obligated as tenant under the Lease and I do not waive or relinquish any rights under the Lease against either the Original Tenant or the New Tenant.

Attach a copy of the Lease as Exhibit A

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Assign to a new tenant

Question & Answer

Another legal way to move out early is to assign your place to a new tenant.

Assigning means that the new tenant replaces you and takes over your rental agreement. The amount of rent and all other details of the agreement stay the same. You are not responsible if the new tenant causes damage or owes rent. But when you assign, you do not have the right to move back in later.

You must ask your landlord for permission to assign. It is best to ask in writing and keep a copy of your request. Your landlord must answer within 7 days.

If your landlord agrees to let you assign, they are allowed to charge you a fee. The fee can't be more than your landlord had to spend on things like a credit check, and advertising if the landlord found the new tenant.

Your landlord can refuse to let you assign to a particular person if there is a good reason. For example, if the person caused problems for a landlord in the past, such as damaging property or not paying rent.

Write a letter asking to assign

Use this tool to write a letter to your landlord asking if you can assign your unit.

If your landlord won’t let you assign to anyone

If your landlord won't let you assign at all or does not give you an answer within 7 days, you can move out with 30 days' notice .

To do this, give your landlord a Tenant’s Notice to End the Tenancy (Form N9) no later than 30 days after you asked for permission to assign.

In this situation, the usual rules about the timing of your notice do not apply. You can choose any termination date , as long as it is at least 30 days after the day you give your landlord the notice.

You can mail or fax the notice, or give it to your landlord in person. You can also give the notice to your landlord's agent. An agent can be someone who works for your landlord, for example, the superintendent or someone who works in the property manager's office.

NOTE: If you mail the notice you must do this 5 days before the day you need to give it to your landlord.

You might not have a right to assign if you live in

  • subsidized housing
  • a superintendent's unit
  • housing provided by a school where you work or are a student

Steps to Justice Partners

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assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Assignment of a Residential Tenancy

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Tom Entwistle

Assignment is when an existing and ongoing tenancy is transferred from one tenant to another. The person who transfers the tenancy is the 'assignor'� and the person who the tenancy is transferred to is the 'assignee'�.The outgoing tenant transfers his rights and obligations under the tenancy to the incoming tenant through a legal process which involves a Licence to Assign Note 1 below), permission given by the landlord, and a Deed of Assignment (see Note 2 below) to formalise the process. Under the Law of Property Act 1925 any assignment must be completed by deed.Most tenancy agreements, if they expressly permit assignment at all, (most are either silent on the matter or expressly forbid it) will only allow this with the consent of the landlord . Further, under Section 15(1) of the Housing Act 1988 it is an implied term in all Assured Shorthold Tenancies (ASTs) that the tenant will not assign without the Landlord'�s Consent.So long as the AST agreement does not state that the landlords'� consent is required to assign, the landlord CAN withhold consent. Section 15(2) HA 1988 states that Section 19 of the Landlord & tenant Act 1927 (consents to assign not to be unreasonably withheld) does not apply to Assured Tenancies.It is quite rare for standard ASTs to be assigned as they are short term and a new tenancy agreement can be easily arranged and signed, though doing this gives any new tenant a full new term and a minimum of 6 months. I the case of joint tenancies , once one or more tenants leave the rental property this effectively brings the whole joint tenancy to an end. This is because, in law, a joint tenancy is seen as one tenant: they are all individuals, but as far as the law and the landlord is concerned they are one - " the tenant ".Signing up new joining tenants and the remaining tenants to a new agreement starts a new tenancy with a new minimum term of 6 months , which may not suit the landlord, especially with student lets, where periods need to align with therm times. This is where assignments come in. In the case of joint tenancies, and especially in the case of student lets during term times, where tenants may come and go, assignments can be a very useful device for landlords.The new tenant/s take over where the outgoing ones left off leaving the original tenancy untouched. However, great care is needed to ensure that the documentation is completed correctly, deposit arrangements are taken care of between the tenants, and any guarantors are kept fully informed of the changes to ensure their continuing liabilities are preserved.Even where the AST agreement expressly forbids assignment, with the landlord'�s consent assignment can be effected. With the landlord'�s consent therefore an AST can be assigned to anyone.On the other hand, where a tenant assigns without the landlord'�s consent (similar applies when a tenant sub-lets) the landlord could start possession proceedings against the true tenant and the assignee under Ground 12 HA 1988 schedule 2 for breach of contact.Further, once the true AST tenant leaves the rental property as his main residence, the tenancy reverts to a common-law tenancy, no longer under Housing Act protection, and subject to a notice to quit. The original tenant no longer has security of tenure and can be "evicted" along with the new "tenant" who is now an unathourised occupant .Notes: 1. License to Assign '� a document signed by the landlord giving the tenant (assignor) permission to assign.2. Deed of Assignment '� a legal agreement clearly marked as a Deed of Assignment, signed as a deed and independently witnessed.3. LandlordZONE� Combined Licence and Deed of Assignment� By Tom Entwistle, LandlordZONE� ID2010663If you have any questions about any of the issues here, post your question to the LandlordZONE� Forums '� these are the busiest Rental Property Forums in the UK '� you will have an answer in no time at all. �LandlordZONE All Rights Reserved - never rely totally on these general guidelines which apply primarily to England and Wales. They are not definitive statements of the law. Before taking action or not, always do your own research and/or seek professional advice with the full facts of your case and all documents to hand.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

Tom Entwistle has invested in and developed commercial and residential properties since 1979.

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Tom Entwistle tries to shed light on the severity of the crisis and explores some potential solutions, here he gives his opinions on the plans put forward by Michael Gove, the banning of Section 21, and the crisis within the courts system.

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assignment of residential tenancy agreement

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assignment of residential tenancy agreement

  • Entering and staying in the UK
  • Rights of foreign nationals in the UK
  • Right to rent in the UK
  • Landlord's guide to right to rent checks
  • Home Office
  • UK Visas and Immigration

Landlord's guide to right to rent checks: 8 February 2024 (accessible version)

Updated 14 February 2024

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

© Crown copyright 2024

This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] .

Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.

This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/landlords-guide-to-right-to-rent-checks/landlords-guide-to-right-to-rent-checks-8-february-2024-accessible-version

8 February 2024

Produced by the Home Office

About this guidance

This guidance advises a landlord, letting agent or homeowner how to conduct a right to rent check when letting privately rented accommodation. The guidance sets out the specific actions they can take to prevent liability for a civil penalty. This is called establishing a statutory excuse against liability for a penalty. This version of the guidance applies to right to rent checks conducted on or after 13 February 2024 to establish or retain a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty.

The Right to Rent Scheme applies only to residential tenancy agreements first entered into on or after 1 December 2014 in Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Sandwell and Walsall, and on or after 1 February 2016 in the rest of England.

Previous versions of this guidance

The ‘Landlord’s Guide to Right to Rent Checks’ was first published in November 2020. Prior to this, landlords relied on ‘Right to Rent Code of Practice: Scheme for landlords and their agents (applicable as of 1 February 2016)’.

The November 2020 version introduced the online checking service and updated the lists of acceptable documents.

Where a tenancy agreement with an EEA citizen or non-EEA family member commenced on or after 1 January 2021, and a statutory excuse was established for the duration of that person’s tenancy before 1 July 2021, the document checks set out in the ‘Landlord’s guide to right to rent checks’ last updated on 17 March 2021, continue to apply.

Where a tenancy agreement with an EEA citizen or non-EEA family member commenced on or after 1 July 2021, and a statutory excuse was established for the duration of that person’s tenancy before 31 August 2021, the document checks set out in the ‘Landlord’s guide to right to rent checks’ continue to apply.

Applicants to the EU Settlement Scheme (EUSS) have their rights protected whilst their application is determined. Where the tenancy agreement of an EEA citizen or non-EEA family member commenced on or after 1 July 2021, and a statutory excuse was established for the duration of that person’s tenancy before 31 August 2021 , the document checks set out in the Landlords guide to right to rent checks continue to apply. Where a tenancy agreement with an EEA citizen or non-EEA family member commenced on or after 31 August 2021, and a statutory excuse was established for the duration of that person’s tenancy, the document checks set out in the relevant landlords guide at the time of the check continue to apply (guidance: 31 August 2 0 2 1 or 9 February 2 0 2 2 o r 6 April 2 0 2 2 ) .

On 6 April 2022, changes came into force regarding the use of biometric cards. Holders can no longer use their physical card as evidence of a right to rent and are now required to use the Home Office online service. Changes also enabled landlords to use Identity Document Validation Technology (IDVT) via the services of an IDSP. to complete the digital identity verification element of right to rent checks for British and Irish citizens who hold a valid passport (including Irish passport cards).Therefore, where tenancy commenced on or after 6 April 2022, and a statutory excuse was established for the duration of that person’s tenancy agreement before 26 January 2023, the document checks set out in the Landlord’s guide to right to rent checks, last updated on 6 April 2022 still apply.

The February 2023 version provided clarification for landlords on the use of Identity Document Validation Technology (IDVT) and Identity Service Providers (IDSPs) to support manual document-based and Home Office online checking service right to rent checks (Annex B). The changes also covered the use of “Reusable Identities” for checks involving the use of IDSPs (Annex B) and the end of the COVID-19 temporary adjusted checks on 30 September 2022.

The February 2023 changes also enabled some individuals with an outstanding, in-time application for permission to stay in the UK, or an appeal, or administrative review (3C leave) to prove their right to rent using the Home Office online checking service. The February 2023 changes also provided confirmation that Re-Admission to the UK (RUK) endorsements are an acceptable document for the purposes of right to rent checks (List A, no. 4) and provided information on short-dated Biometric Residence Permits (BRPs).

On 9 August 2023, changes were made to the EU Settlement Scheme (EUSS) to tackle spurious applications and prevent abuse of the EUSS Certificate of Application (CoA). For a late application to the EUSS made from 9 August 2023 to be valid and a CoA issued, the applicant needs to show the Home Office there are reasonable grounds for their delay in making their application.

Landlords and letting agents are no longer required to verify a digital Certificate of Application (CoA) with the Landlord Checking Service ( LCS ) when conducting a right to rent online check involving an outstanding EUSS application made on or after 1 July 2021. Therefore, where an EEA citizen or non-EEA family member started renting on or after 17 October 2023, and a statutory excuse was established for the duration of that person’s tenancy before 13 February 2024, the document checks set out in the ‘Landlords guide to right to rent checks’, last updated on 18 October 2023, continue to apply.

Changes from last version of this guidance

This guidance was last updated on 8 February 2024

The most significant updates contained in this guidance relate to:

An increase to the maximum civil penalty for non-compliance in the Right to Rent Scheme. The civil penalty for landlords and letting agents will be raised from £80 per lodger and £1,000 per occupier, to up to £5,000 per lodger and £10,000 per occupier for a first breach. Repeat breaches will be up to £10,000 per lodger and £20,000 per occupier, up from £500 and £3,000 respectively.

Right to Rent checks involving EEA citizens and their non- EEA family members, including those who are identified without lawful immigration status.

Clarification on how individuals who are members of the Armed Forces prove their right to rent.

Introduction

All landlords in England have a responsibility to prevent those without lawful immigration status from accessing the private rented sector. You do this by conducting right to rent checks on all prospective adult tenants before the start date of a tenancy agreement, to make sure the person is not disqualified from renting a property by reason of their immigration status.

This guidance provides information on how and when to conduct a right to rent check. You should also refer to the following documents:

Code of practice on right to rent: civil penalty scheme for landlords and th e i r ag e n t s

Code of practice for landlords avoiding unlawful discrimination w h e n conducti n g ‘r i g h t to rent’ checks in the private residential se c t o r

Right to Rent Checks: A user guide for tenants and landl o r d s .

If you conduct the checks as set out in this guidance and the code of practice, you will have a statutory excuse against liability for a penalty in the event you are found to have rented to a person who is disqualified by reason of their immigration status. This means that if we find that you have rented to someone who does not have the right to rent a property, but you have correctly conducted a right to rent check as required, you will not receive a penalty for that individual.

In addition to the code of practice, this guidance and the ‘ Right to Rent Checks : A user g u i d e for tenants and landl o r d s ’ , th ere are a range of tools available on GOV.UK to support you in conducting right to rent checks.

Legislation

Legislation to limit access to the private rental property sector only to those with the lawful right to be in the UK was introduced through sections 20 to 37 of the Immigration Act 2014 (the 2014 Act).

Under section 28 of the 2014 Act, a landlord who enters into a tenancy agreement with a disqualified person may be subject to a civil penalty.

The Immigration Act (the2016 Act) introduced a criminal offence of knowingly letting to someone disqualified from renting a property. The 2016 Act also set out how a landlord can end a tenancy due to a tenant’s immigration status.

References in this guidance

In this guidance, references to:

3C leave (Section 3C of the Immigration Act 1971) extends existing immigration permission and any associated conditions to a person who makes an ‘in-time’ application to extend their stay in the UK. In-time’ means the application was made before the existing permission expired. The individual will continue to hold 3C leave while they are awaiting a decision on that application and while any appeal or administrative review they are entitled to is pending.

Adult means a person who has attained the age of 18.

Agent means a person (which includes a company under Schedule 1 of the Interpretation Act 1978), acting in the course of a business, who acts on behalf of the landlord.

Breach or breaches means that section 22 of the Immigration Act 2014 has been contravened by renting to an adult who is a disqualified person.

Certificate of Application (CoA) is a digital, or ’non-digital’, document which individuals can rely on to demonstrate their eligibility to rent, work and access to benefits and services. This document is issued when a valid application is made to the EU Settlement Scheme.

Civil penalty or penalty means to a financial penalty imposed by the Home Office on a landlord who has allowed a tenant to occupy private rented residential accommodation but does not have the right to rent.

Current document means a document that has not expired.

Disqualified person means a person with no lawful immigration status and, therefore, doesn’t qualify for right to rent.

Document means an original document unless specified that a copy, electronic or screenshot is acceptable.

EEA citizen means citizens of EEA countries or Switzerland.

The EEA countries are:

  • Republic of Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Liechtenstein
  • Netherlands

EUSS means the EU Settlement Scheme. The EUSS provides a basis for European Economic Area (EEA) and Swiss citizens resident in the UK by 31 December 2020, and their eligible family members, to apply for the UK immigration status which they require to remain here.

eVisa refers to a digital visa provided by the Home Office as evidence of a person’s immigration status (permission to enter or stay in the UK).

Home Office Landlord Checking Service ( LCS ) refers to the enquiry and advice service operated by the Home Office, that landlords are required to contact in certain circumstances to check whether a person has a right to rent.

Home Office online right to rent check means the online checking service allowing landlords to check whether a person is allowed to rent in England. This system is accessible for landlords on the ‘ Ch e c k a tenant’s right to rent in Engl a n d : use th e i r share c o d e ’ pag e on GOV.UK. No other online portal relating to immigration status may be used instead for right to rent purposes.

Homeowner means a person who owns the property used for renting or sub-letting.

Identity Document Validation Technology (IDVT) are forms of technology operated for the purpose of verifying the identity of a person, whereby a digital copy of a physical document relating to that person is produced for verification of the document’s validity, and whether that person is the rightful holder of the document. The Home Office previously published guidance on the use of IDVT for this purpose . An identity service provider (IDSP) is a provider of identity verification services using IDVT. In the context of this guidance, an IDSP may be able to provide identity verification to specific levels of confidence, specified by government standards. IDSPs are sometimes referred to as ‘identity providers’.

Immigration document means a document of a prescribed description which:

  • is issued as evidence that a person who is not a national of an EEA state or Switzerland is entitled to enter or stay in the United Kingdom by virtue of an enforceable EU right or of any provision made under section 2(2) of the European Communities Act 1972, or
  • grants to the holder a right to enter or stay in the United Kingdom for such period as the document may authorise.

Immigration permission (also known as ‘leave’) should be read as ‘Permission to Enter / Leave to Enter or Permission to Stay / Leave to Remain.

A Joining Family Member (JFMs) is an individual of any nationality (including EEA) who was not themselves resident in the UK by 31 December 2020 but is joining an EEA national or relevant sponsor in the UK who either holds EUSS status or, in limited circumstances, would be eligible for EUSS status if they applied.

Landlord means a person who lets accommodation for use by one or more adults as their only or main home. This includes people who take in lodgers and tenants who are sub-letting. References to ‘landlord’ also include agents who have accepted responsibility for complying with the Right to Rent Scheme on behalf of landlords, except for when agents are specifically and separately referred to.

Leave to Enter or Leave to Remain see ‘Permission to Enter’ and ‘Permission to Stay’.

Level of Confidence ( LoC ) is determined through a process required of IDSPs called ‘identity checking’ which is made up of 5 parts. Each step of the identity checking process is scored, and these scores are used to determine the Level of Confidence which has been achieved.

Lodger means someone who takes a room within accommodation that they share with their landlord (this could be the owner or an occupier of the property). ‘Market rent’ means the amount of rent that can be expected for the use of a property, in comparison with similar properties in the same area.

Negative Right to Rent Notice (NRRN) is a negative confirmation that a person does not have the right to rent from the Landlord Checking Service ( LCS ). If a landlord receives an NRRN but continues to enter into a tenancy agreement with this person, the landlord will not have a statutory excuse and may be liable for a civil penalty.

Non-EEA citizens means the citizens of countries outside the EEA.

Occupier means a person who is, or who will be, authorised to occupy the property under the residential tenancy agreement, whether or not they are named on that agreement.

Permission to rent means a person who is disqualified from renting by virtue of their immigration status but to whom the Secretary of State has granted permission to occupy premises.

Permission to Enter also known as ‘Leave to Enter’. Immigration documents and guidance may refer to either term, both are acceptable. This means that a person has permission from the Home Office to enter in the UK.

Permission to Stay also known as ‘Leave to Remain’. Immigration documents and guidance may refer to either term, both are acceptable. This means that a person has permission from the Home Office to be in the UK.

Positive Right to Rent Notice (PRRN) is a positive confirmation of a person’s right to rent from the Landlord Checking Service ( LCS ). This will provide the landlord with a statutory excuse for twelve months from the date specified in the Notice.

Pre-settled status is initially given for five years but will be extended unless the person no longer meets the requirements for it.

Relevant national means a British citizen or an Irish citizen, or a person with settled status or pre-settled status granted under the EUSS.

Rent means a tenant’s regular payment to a landlord for the use of property or land.

Residential tenancy agreement means an arrangement in any form (whether or not in writing) between parties that grants a right to occupy premise for residential use and provides payment of rent.

Right to rent means allowed to occupy privately rented residential accommodation in the UK by virtue of qualifying immigration status.

Right to rent checks refer to prescribed manual document checks, prescribed Home Office online right to rent checks and prescribed use of an Identity Service Provider (IDSP).

Settled status means indefinite leave to enter or remain issued under the EU Settlement Scheme. The person will usually have lived in the UK for a continuous five-year period and not have left the UK for more than five years in a row since then. A person with settled status can stay in the UK indefinitely.

Sub-tenant means a person who leases property from a tenant.

Statutory excuse means the steps a landlord can take to be excused from paying a civil penalty.

Tenant means the person or persons to whom the residential tenancy agreement is granted.

United Kingdom (UK) comprises of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Valid application means individuals who comply with the validation requirement of an application process, including the enrolment of biometrics, if required, and the provision of evidence of nationality and identity.

Validity period in the context of this code of practice means the period for which an immigration document issued to the limited right occupier by or on behalf of the Secretary of State is valid.

Check a tenant’s right to rent in England: use their share co d e means the Home Office online service on GOV.UK allowing landlords or agents to check whether a person has a right to rent and, if so, the nature of any restrictions on that person’s right to do so.

You means the landlord, letting agent or homeowner who is letting private rented accommodation.

Who may be liable for a civil penalty?

Responsibility under the Right to Rent Scheme lies with the landlord; that is the person who authorises the occupation of accommodation by the tenant under an agreement providing for the payment of rent. There are some circumstances in which responsibility for compliance with the Scheme can be transferred to another person. These are outlined below under Transfer of Liability.

Transfer of Liability

Appointing an agent.

You can use the services of an agent to let or manage your property.

You may appoint an agent to conduct right to rent checks on your behalf. There must be a written agreement to make clear that:

the agent is to be responsible for the initial right to rent check and whether or not the agent will be responsible for any follow-up checks for those with a time-limited right to rent

the agent must conduct the checks within the timescales laid out in this guidance and the code of practice on right to rent: civil penalty scheme f o r landlords and their age n t s

liability for civil penalties transfers to the agent, but liability cannot be transferred beyond the agent

Once you and the agent have made a written agreement which includes the above information, the agent then takes over responsibility for the right to rent checks. The agent will also be liable for a penalty in the event of a breach. The agent appointed may act in the course of a business but does not have to be a letting or managing agent.

Where it is agreed in writing that the agent will be responsible for conducting the checks, they must do this before entering into a tenancy agreement with the prospective tenants. If the prospective tenant does not have a right to rent and the agent enters into the tenancy agreement, they remain liable for a penalty.

If an agent establishes that the prospective tenant doesn’t have a right to rent, they should report this to the landlord. If a landlord then enters into a tenancy agreement with this person, then it is the landlord who becomes liable for a penalty. In these circumstances an agent may wish to keep written records and copies of their actions.

Tenants who sub-let and lodgers

Any tenant who sub-lets all or part of their accommodation in an agreement involving the payment of rent to be used as the only or main home of the sub-tenant, will be a landlord for the purposes of the Scheme. The tenant who has sub-let all or part of their accommodation may be liable for a penalty if they do not conduct a right to rent check and allow a person with no right to rent to live there. This applies equally to tenants sub-letting private or social housing.

Where a tenant sub-lets all or part of their accommodation and grants a right of occupation, they can ask their landlord (the ‘superior landlord’) to agree to accept responsibility for occupation by the sub-tenants. This should be an agreement in writing. The superior landlord will then be responsible for conducting right to rent checks and will be treated as though they have authorised the occupation by the sub-tenants. The superior landlord will incur any liability for a penalty.

However, if the superior landlord does not confirm that they are willing to accept this responsibility in writing, the tenant who is sub-letting remains the responsible landlord for the purposes of the Scheme. The tenant will therefore be liable for any penalties. Homeowners who rent out part of their own property to one or more adult lodgers as their only or main home in return for payment are responsible for conducting right to rent checks.

Sitting tenants and changes in landlord

If you buy a property with sitting tenants, you should confirm with the transferring landlord that right to rent checks have been conducted and retain evidence, for example, copies of the documents checked by the previous landlords. Careful note should be taken of whether follow up checks must be conducted, and when these are due, to ensure a statutory excuse against a penalty is maintained.

If a tenancy was entered into before the Right to Rent Scheme came into force, you do not need to confirm with the transferring landlord that a right to rent check has been carried out. However, you should ask for proof of the date the tenancy was entered in to and keep a record of this.

If the tenant had no right to rent at the time the tenancy agreement was granted, then the original landlord who granted the residential tenancy agreement remains liable for a penalty. This is true, even if they have since sold the property on to a new landlord.

If a tenant had a time-limited right to rent when the tenancy agreement was granted, and follow-up checks were not completed, then the landlord at the time the breach was identified will be liable for a penalty. If the transferring landlord is unable to provide you with evidence that a follow-up check was carried out, it is advisable to conduct a check. If the tenant no longer has a right to rent, you must make a rep o r t to the Home Off i c e to maintain your statutory excuse.

Who can occupy residential accommodation?

Under the Right to Rent Scheme, people will fall mainly into two categories depending on their immigration status.

The majority of people will have an unlimited right to rent, and some will have a time limited right to rent. This section sets out information about who falls into these two categories. It also provides information on two further groups; those who have been granted permission to rent by the Home Office and children.

Those with an unlimited right to rent

The following groups of people currently have an unlimited right to rent:

  • British citizens
  • Irish citizens
  • individuals who have the right of abode in the UK, or who have been granted settlement or have settled status, including via the EUSS, or have no time limit on their permission to stay in the UK.

You can conduct checks on those with an unlimited right to rent at any time before the start of a tenancy agreement. You must retain the evidence of the check with the date of when the check was carried out, for the duration of the tenancy agreement and for at least one year thereafter. You do not need to conduct any further checks.

Those with a time-limited right to rent

Those who do not fall into the three categories above will have a time-limited right to rent, if they have valid immigration permission for a limited period of time. They will have a right to reside in the UK and will be able to provide documentary evidence (physical or digital) to demonstrate this. The following group of people have a time limited right to rent:

  • individuals with valid Permission to Enter or Stay for a time limited period, or time-limited permission under the points-based immigration system.
  • individuals with an outstanding application with the Home Office.

For those individuals who have been granted an eVisa, the Home Office online service ‘Check a tenant’s right to rent in England: use their share c o d e ’ page will confirm whether you will need to conduct a follow-up check and, if so, the deadline for when the follow-up check is required.

You will not be liable for a civil penalty if you let accommodation for occupation by someone with a time-limited right to rent. You must conduct checks on those with a time-limited right to rent no sooner than 28 calendar days before the start of a tenancy. You should retain evidence of the check along with the date of when the check was conducted for the duration of the tenancy and for at least one year thereafter.

In-time applications (3C leave)

Where an in-time application to extend or vary leave is made and the application is not decided before the person’s existing leave expires, section 3C of the Immigration Act 1971 extends the person’s existing leave.

An application for further immigration permission to stay in the UK must be made before existing permission expires for it to be deemed ‘in-time’. Upon doing this, any existing rights (including a right to rent) will continue until that in-time application (and any appeal or administrative review) has been determined. Where section 3C is triggered, it will extend leave while any appeal or administrative review they are entitled to is pending.

The Home Office online service now supports a range of individuals, who have outstanding, in-time applications for permission to stay in the UK. Where an individual advises you that they have an outstanding, in-time application, and they are an eVisa holder, you should ask them to provide you with a share code. Once in receipt of the share code, you can use the online service to carry out the right to rent check as set out in this guidance.

In such circumstances, the online service will provide confirmation of the individual’s right to rent and will provide you with a statutory excuse for a period of twelve months. This is the standard duration when right to rent checks are conducted on individuals who have an outstanding, in-time immigration application. Upon any subsequent application to renew the right to rent, you must carry out a further check.

Some users may not be supported by the online service at this time as work continues to move to digital by default. In circumstances where the individual is unable to provide you with a share code, yet they have an outstanding, in time application, please contact the Landlord Checking Service ( LCS ) for verification of this.

Eligibility period

If presented with a document from List B of the list of acceptable documents, you will establish a statutory excuse for a limited time period, ‘the eligibility period’.

The eligibility period will be the longest of the following:

one year, beginning with the date on which the checks were last made.

until the period of the person’s immigration permission in the UK expires.

until the expiry of the validity of the Home Office issued immigration

document which evidences their right to be in the UK.

A further check can take place at any time, such as when a tenant tells you that they have extended their immigration permission.

To maintain a statutory excuse against a penalty, you will need to conduct a follow-up check before the end of the eligibility period.

Those with no right to rent

A person is not permitted to occupy residential accommodation if they require permission to be in the UK and do not have it and do not have an outstanding application with the Home Office. This means they do not have the right to rent. A landlord will normally be liable for a civil penalty if they authorise occupation of accommodation for use as an only or main home by a person who does not have the right to rent.

Those who have been granted permission to rent by the Home Office

In some limited circumstances, when a person is disqualified from renting by reason of their immigration status, the Home Office may grant permission to rent to that person.

A person without permission who is looking to take up a new tenancy can enquire whether their circumstances might permit them to be granted permission to rent through their established contact points within the Home Office, such as at a reporting event, interview appointment or through the team dealing with their case.

To conduct a right to rent check on someone who says they have permission to rent from the Home Office, you must contact the Landlord Checking Service ( L C S ) . The LCS will inform you if the individual has or has not been granted permission to rent. This confirmation will provide you with a statutory excuse against a penalty, providing there is no change to the tenancy agreement. If there is a change to the tenancy agreement, you will need to contact the LCS again.

This Scheme does not apply to children. You do not need to check a tenant’s children, but you should satisfy yourself that they are under the age of 18, at the time the tenancy begins.

You may allow those who will turn 18 years of age during a tenancy agreement to continue to occupy property. You are not required to conduct a right to rent check at the point the child turns 18 years of age. However, where follow-up checks are required for the existing tenants, the now adult should be included in those checks when they are due.

Discrimination

The best way for landlords to ensure they do not discriminate when carrying out right to rent checks is to treat all prospective tenants fairly, making sure their criteria and practices in this regard are appropriate and necessary.

To ensure they are avoiding discrimination in the context of the Right to Rent Scheme, landlords should:

be consistent in how they conduct right to rent checks on all prospective tenants, including those who the landlord believes are more likely to be British citizens

ensure that no prospective tenants are discouraged or excluded, either directly or indirectly, because of known or perceived protected characteristic.

Furthermore, landlords should not:

discriminate when conducting right to rent checks

simply check the status of those who the landlord thinks appear or are likely to be migrants

treat those with a time-limited right to rent more or less favourably

treat those who have access to the Home Office online checking service more or less favourably

treat those who provide a manual documentation as listed in the list of acceptable documents more or less favourably

make assumptions about a person’s right to rent, or their immigration status on the basis of their colour, nationality, ethnic or national origins, accent or length of time they have been resident in the UK.

A landlord who discriminates contrary to the Equality Act 2010 in the way in which right to rent checks are carried out may be subject to a discrimination claim in court. The Equality and Human Rights Commission can also bring proceedings against a landlord who publishes a discriminatory advertisement or who instructs or induces another person to discriminate.

You cannot mandate how an individual proves their right to rent. To ensure that you do not discriminate against anyone, you should provide every opportunity to enable an individual to prove their right to rent.

The code of practice for landlords: avoiding unlawful discrimination when conduct i n g righ t t o rent checks in the private rented residential se c t o r prov ides practical guidance on how to avoid unlawful discrimination when renting to individuals and conducting right to rent checks. We strongly recommend that you refer to this guidance and the code of practice on righ t t o rent: civil penalty scheme for landlo r d s and their ag e n t s when conducting right to rent checks. If you breach this guidance, it may be used as evidence in legal proceedings.

Anyone who believes that they have been discriminated against, either directly or indirectly, by a landlord or a prospective landlord, because of their race or a protected characteristic may bring a complaint before a Tribunal. If the complaint is upheld, the Tribunal will normally order the payment of compensation, for which there is no upper limit.

If you need expert advice and support on discrimination, you can call the Equal i t y Advi s o r y Support Service (E A S S ) o n 0 808 800 0082.

Letting Arrangements that fall within the Scheme

Under the Right to Rent Scheme you must not authorise any adult to occupy a property under a residential tenancy agreement which provides for the payment of rent unless they have a right to rent or have been granted permission to rent.

A landlord is not required to conduct right to rent checks in relation to residential tenancy agreements entered into before the dates set out above. A landlord is also not required to conduct right to rent checks in relation to residential tenancy agreements which are renewed after the dates set out above if the renewed agreement is between the same parties and there has been no break in the tenant’s right to occupy the premises.

Residential tenancy agreements

There is no requirement to create a written tenancy agreement listing all those who will live in the property, but you may find it advisable to do so.

If the tenancy agreement is oral or implied, the checks should still be made on all adults living at the property. If there is evidence that you were aware of a person living in the property but did not conduct a right to rent check, you may be liable for a penalty. This will be the case regardless of whether the agreement is written, oral or implied. It is advisable to keep a record of:

the full name and date of birth of all adults who will live in the property

the names and dates of birth of all children under 18 who will be living with them in the property

whether each of the adults named has current permission to rent.

A right to rent check should be carried out on all adult tenants before a residential tenancy agreement is entered into, regardless of whether they are named in the tenancy agreement. This includes where the tenancy is:

Varied – where a landlord agrees to the variation of a tenancy which grants the right of occupation to one or more new adult(s).

Assigned – where a landlord agrees to the assignment of an existing and ongoing tenancy from one or more tenants which grants a new adult(s) the right of occupation.

Surrendered – where a landlord agrees to the surrender of an existing tenancy and grants a further agreement starting from the time the surrendered tenancy ends, to one or more of the original occupiers and one or more new occupiers as a new ‘joint tenancy’.

This means where a tenancy is varied, assigned or surrendered, and one or more new tenants intends to occupy the property, you must conduct right to rent checks on all adults, not just the ‘new’ tenants, before a new tenancy agreement is taken out.

However, a residential tenancy agreement is not to be treated as being entered into for these purposes where:

It arises by virtue of an order from a court, by or under any statutory provision, or by operation of law, or

It arises between the same parties at the end of a term granted by a residential tenancy as a result of a contractual right exercised by the tenant. This includes instances where one or more tenants has left the property and no new tenants intend to occupy the property after the fact, and at least one of the original tenants remains in the property.

In these instances, you are not required to conduct further right to rent checks on the remaining parties, until a follow-up check is required, should any of the tenants have a time-limited right to rent.

Property for use as an only or main home

A property will be considered a person’s only or main home (with exclusions as detailed in Excluded agreements) if:

it is the only property they live in, or

they live between multiple properties, their personal, legal or family ties to that property are such that it is where they live their settled day to day life

When a tenant lives away from the home for extended periods due to employment, the address to which they return when they are not working is usually taken as being their only or main home. The tenant must physically live in the home for at least some of the time, but they do not need to spend the majority of their time there.

Relevant factors will include whether they:

will keep most of their belongings there

will be registered with a doctor/dentist from that address

will register for voting purposes there

receive post there or

their partner or children live there.

The tenant’s reason for using the property will need to be considered on a case-by- case basis. If in doubt, it is advisable to assume that prospective tenants intend to occupy the property as their only or main home. See initial right to rent checks for further information about the steps you should take to establish who will use the property as their only or main home.

Holiday accommodation

When letting holiday accommodation, you should consider how a person will be using the property to decide whether right to rent checks are necessary.

If the letting is for a short, time-limited period, and the tenants intend to use the premises for leisure related purposes and will not remain in the property after this period, then you may conclude that the property is to be used as holiday accommodation. In this scenario there is no need to conduct right to rent checks.

As a guide, the Home Office would consider that bookings of three months or more may indicate that a person is using the accommodation for a purpose other than leisure purposes and could be intending to use the accommodation as their only or main home.

If the booking is open ended, or the initial booking was time-limited but is subsequently extended on one or more occasions such that the occupier appears to be using the premises as their only or main home, then it would be advisable to conduct right to rent checks.

House guests

House guests, such as friends or family members, will not normally be treated as a tenant under the Scheme. This is because the temporary nature of a guest means they will not be living in the accommodation as their only or main home.

Excluded agreements

Some properties and types of living arrangements are excluded from the requirement to make right to rent checks. These are listed below.

Accommodation arranged by local authorities

The following residential tenancy agreements are exempt from the Scheme, where they are arranged by a local authority which is acting in response to:

a statutory duty owed to an individual

a relevant power [footnote 1] , with the intention of providing accommodation to a person who is homeless, or who is threatened with homelessness

This includes instances where the person is to be placed into private rented property by the local authority.

In such circumstances, landlords should ask for written confirmation from the local authority that the authority is acting in response to a statutory duty and keep this on file.

Social housing

For residential tenancy agreements which grant a right of occupation in social housing by virtue of a relevant legislative provision as to housing [footnote 2] . The local authority has already been required to consider their immigration status before allocating them the property. Also, where a tenant has such an existing tenancy and is seeking to exchange their home for an alternative tenancy are exempt from the Scheme.

Care homes, hospitals and hospices and continuing healthcare provision

Accommodation provided in care homes, hospitals and hospices are exempt from the Scheme. Accommodation arranged by relevant National Health Service bodies, which are acting in response to a statutory duty owed towards individuals as part of a package of continuing health care, is also exempt from the Scheme.

Hostels and refuges

Residential tenancies which grant a right of occupation in a hostel or refuge are exempt from the Scheme. This exemption applies to hostels and refuges which are managed by social landlords, voluntary organisations or charities, or which are not operated on a commercial basis and whose operating costs are provided either wholly or in part by a government department or agency or a local authority.

Mobile homes

An agreement under which a person is entitled to station a mobile home on a protected site and use it as their only or main home, is exempt. However, should a mobile homeowner decide to let their mobile home for use by another adult, this residential tenancy agreement will be subject to the Scheme.

Tied accommodation

A residential tenancy agreement that grants a right of occupation in accommodation provided by an employer to an employee, or by a body providing training to a person in connection with that training, is exempt from the Scheme. However, should the employee be expected to pay rent for that accommodation under a residential tenancy agreement, this will be subject to the Scheme.

Student accommodation

All halls of residence (whether the landlord is an educational institution or private accommodation provider) are exempt from the Scheme, as is any accommodation provided for students directly by a higher or further educational institution. Residential tenancy agreements are also excluded where a student has been nominated to occupy the accommodation by a higher or further educational institution, or a body established for charitable purposes only. The nomination could take a variety of forms but will require communication between you and the institute providing confirmation that the student will take up occupation under the residential tenancy agreement.

You should retain a copy of the nomination document relied upon to support a claim to this exemption. The Scheme applies to all other student accommodation in the private rented sector.

Long leases

Leases which grant a right of occupation for a term of seven years, or more are exempt. Such arrangements are more like home ownership than traditional landlord and tenant arrangements. An agreement will not grant a right of occupation for a term of seven years or more if the agreement can be terminated at the option of a party before the end of seven years from the start of the term. A lease containing a break clause will include an option to terminate and so does not benefit from the exemption. A lease which contains a forfeiture or right of re-entry for the landlord is not considered to include an option to terminate and so is excluded from the Scheme.

How to establish a statutory excuse for right to rent checks

You must conduct a right to rent check before you rent to a prospective tenant to ensure they have a legal status in the UK and are therefore allowed to rent. This includes everyone over the age of 18, including British citizens, who will use the property as their only or main home, even if they are not named on the tenancy agreement and regardless of whether the tenancy agreement is written, oral or implied.

A statutory excuse is a landlord’s defence against a civil penalty. In order to establish a statutory excuse against a civil penalty in the event a tenant is found to be renting, despite not having the right to rent, landlords must do one of the following before entering into a tenancy agreement with a prospective tenant:

1. a manual right to rent check (all)

2. a right to rent check using IDVT via the services of an IDSP (British and Irish citizens only)

3. a Home Office online right to rent check (non-British or Irish citizens)

You can also use the Landlord Checking Serv i c e whe re an individual has an outstanding application, administrative review or appeal, and their digital profile is not yet enabled to evidence this, or if their immigration status requires verification by the Home Office, for example in the case of Crown Dependencies.

In order to establish a statutory excuse against a penalty, right to rent checks must be undertaken within specific time limits:

A check on a person with an unlimited right to rent may be undertaken at any time before the residential agreement is entered into

A check on a person with a time-limited right to rent must be undertaken and recorded no earlier than 28 calendar days before the start date of the tenancy agreement.

However, there will be some limited circumstances where it is not possible to undertake checks before the residential tenancy is agreed. See agreeing to a tenancy in principle for further information.

A statutory excuse against a penalty can be established and maintained if you can show that you have correctly:

conducted initial right to rent checks before authorising an adult to occupy rented accommodation

conducted follow-up checks at the appropriate date if initial checks indicate that a tenant has a time-limited right to rent, and

made a report to the Home Office if follow-up checks indicate that a tenant no longer has the right to rent.

Agreeing to a tenancy in principle

In some cases, it may not be practical to check the documents of someone who will live in the property before the residential tenancy is agreed. For example, if a person lives overseas or in a remote area and wishes to arrange accommodation in advance of their arrival. In these circumstances, you can agree to a tenancy in principle and then check the tenant’s documents in person when they arrive in the UK.

You may wish to see the prospective tenant via live video link before agreeing the tenancy in principle. However, you will still need to conduct a right to rent check, at a later date, before the start of their residential tenancy agreement.

Conducting a manual document-based right to rent check

The documents that are considered acceptable for establishing a statutory excuse when conducting a manual document-based right to rent check are set out in Lists A and B of Annex A in this guidance. Examples of the documents are provided to assist you with conducting right to rent checks, by offering you a visual guide. These can be found in the Right to Rent Checks: A user g u i d e for tenants and landl o r d s .

List A contains the range of documents you may accept for a person who has an unlimited right to rent (including British and Irish citizens). If you carry out the prescribed checks, you will establish a continuous statutory excuse for the duration of that person’s tenancy. You are required to check one document from List A (Group 1) or two documents from List A (Group 2).

List B contains the range of documents you may accept for a person who has a time-limited right to rent. If you carry out the prescribed checks, you will establish a time-limited statutory excuse. You will be required to carry out a follow-up check as set out below

How to conduct a manual right to rent check

There are three steps to conducting a manual document-based right to rent check. You need to complete all three steps before the tenancy commences to ensure you have conducted a check in the prescribed manner, in order to establish a statutory excuse.

You should take all reasonable steps to check the validity of the documents presented to you. If you are given a false document, you will only be liable for a penalty if it is reasonably apparent that it is false. This means that a person who is untrained in the identification of false documents, examining it carefully, but briefly, and without the use of technological aids could reasonably be expected to realise that the document in question is not genuine.

Step 1: Obtain

You must obtain original documents to conduct the right to rent check. The documents you may accept from a person to demonstrate their right to rent are sent out in Annex A of this guidance.

You must ask for and be given original documents from List A or List B of the acceptable document list.

Step 2: Check

In the presence of the prospective tenant or tenants, either in person or by video call, you must check that the:

documents are genuine

documents have not been tampered with

person presenting them is the prospective or existing tenant and the rightful holder

photographs and dates of birth are consistent across documents and with the person’s appearance in order to detect impersonation

reasons for any difference in names across documents can be explained by providing evidence (for example original marriage certificate, divorce decree absolute, deed poll). These supporting documents must also be photographed, and a copy retained

immigration Permission to Enter or Stay in the UK has not expired.

Step 3: Copy

You must make a clear copy of each document in a format which cannot manually be altered and retain the copy securely: electronically or in hardcopy. You must also retain a secure record of the date on which you made the check. Further information can be found under the ‘Retaining Evidence’ below. This date may be written on the document copy as follows: ‘the date on which this right to rent check was made: [insert date].

You must retain the copies securely for at least one year after the tenancy agreement comes to an end. The copies must then be securely destroyed.

Where a person is unable to present a landlord with any of the above acceptable evidence, the landlord can make a request to the LCS to establish whether their prospective tenant has a right to rent.

You must copy and retain copies of:

1. Passports – any page with:

the document expiry date

the holder’s nationality

date of birth

biometric details

any page containing information indicating the holder has an entitlement to permission, Enter or Stay in the UK (visa or entry stamp)

2. All other documents – the documents in full and copy both sides.

Checking the validity of documents

When you are checking the validity of the documents, you should ensure that you do this in the presence of the holder. This can be a physical presence in person or via a live video link. In both cases you must be in physical possession of the original documents. For example, an individual may choose to send their documents to you by post to enable you to conduct the check with them via live video link. You may not rely on the inspection of the document via a live video link or by checking a faxed or scanned copy of the document.

If you are given a false document, you will only be liable for a civil penalty if it is reasonably apparent that it is false. This means that a person who is untrained in the identification of false documents, examining it carefully, but without the use of technological aids could reasonably be expected to realise that the document in question is not genuine.

You will not obtain a statutory excuse if:

it is reasonably apparent that the person presenting the document is not the person referred to in that document, even if the document itself is genuine.

you know that the individual does not have a right to rent; or

you know that the documents are false or do not rightfully belong to the holder.

You may wish to read the online guidance about recognising fraudulent identity documents. Guidan c e on examining identity docu m e n t s can be found on GOV.U K . which contains a help f u l checkl i s t .

You can also compare identity and travel documents against the images published on:

P R A D O - Public Register of Authentic travel and identity Documents O nl i n e o

Ed i s o n T D

These are archives of identity and travel documents.

If you wish to access Home Office on-line training on document fraud, please contact the Immigration Enforcement Checking & Advice Service training team at: [email protected]

If someone gives you a false document or a genuine document that does not belong to them, you should use this link to report the individual t o u s , o r ca ll the Landlord helpline on 0300 790 6268, Monday to Thursday, 9am to 4:45pm Friday, 9am to 4:30pm.

Retaining evidence of a manual check

You must keep a record of every document you have checked. This can be a hardcopy or a scanned copy in a format which cannot be manually altered, such as a jpeg or pdf document. You should keep the copies securely for at least one year

after the tenancy agreement comes to an end. The file must then be securely

destroyed. You should also be able to produce these document copies quickly in the event that you are requested to show them to demonstrate that you have performed a right to rent check and retain a statutory excuse.

You must also make a note of the date on which you conducted the check. This can be by either making a dated declaration on the copy or by holding a separate record, securely, which can be shown to us upon request. This date may be written on the document copy as follows: ‘the date on which this right to rent check was made: [insert date]’ or a manual or digital record may be made at the time you conduct and copy the documents which includes this information. You must be able to show this evidence if requested to do so in order to demonstrate that you have established a statutory excuse. You must repeat this process in respect of any follow up check. You may face a civil penalty if you do not record the date on which the check was performed. Simply writing a date on the copy document does not, in itself, confirm that this is the actual date when the check was undertaken. If you write a date on the copy document, you must also record that this is the date on which you conducted the check.

COVID-19 temporary adjusted checks

The temporary adjustments to right to rent checks, introduced on 30 March 2020 ended on 30 September 2022.

Since 1 October 2022, landlords must carry out one of the prescribed checks before tenancy begins:

2. a right to rent check using IDVT via the services of an identity service provider (IDSP) (British and Irish citizens only)

3. a Home Office online right to rent check (non-British and non-Irish citizens)

You do not need to carry out retrospective checks on tenants who had a COVID-19 adjusted check between 30 March 2020 and 30 September 2022 (inclusive). You will maintain a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty if the check undertaken during this period was done in the prescribed standard manner or as set out in the CO V I D - 19 adjusted checks guida n c e . Ho wever, any individual identified with no lawful immigration status in the UK may be liable to immigration enforcement action.

Using an Identity Service Provider (IDSP)

Since 6 April 2022, landlords have been able to use IDVT via the services of a IDSP to complete the digital identity verification element of right to rent checks for British and Irish citizens who hold a valid passport (including Irish passport cards). The Home Office previously published guidance on the use of IDVT for this purpose

Digital identity verification conducted by IDSPs is the process of obtaining evidence of the prospective tenant’s identity, checking that it is valid and belongs to the person who is claiming it.

If you use the services of an IDSP for digital identity verification, holders of valid British or Irish passports (or Irish passport cards) can demonstrate their right to rent using this method. This will provide you with a continuous statutory excuse. It is your responsibility to obtain evidence of the IDVT check from the IDSP. You will only have a statutory excuse if you reasonably believe that the IDSP has carried out their checks in accordance with guidance.

You must not treat those who do not hold a valid passport, or do not wish to prove their identity using an IDSP less favourably. You must provide individuals with other ways to prove their right to rent and should carry out a manual document-based right to rent check in these circumstances.

However, other than where you use an IDSP expressly for right to rent checks of British or Irish citizens with a valid passport (or Irish passport card), it is not possible to establish a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty if the manual document-based check, or online service right to rent check, is performed by an IDSP.

For a detailed guide on how to complete a right to rent check, using an IDSP, please refer to Annex B of this guidance.

Basic steps to conducting a RTR check using an IDSP:

IDSPs can carry out digital identity verification to a range of standards or levels of confidence. The Home Office recommends that landlords only accept checks via an IDSP that satisfy a minimum of a Medium Level of Confidence. A list of certified providers is available for you to choose from on GOV.UK: Digital identity certification for right to w o r k , right to rent and crimi n a l record ch e c k s . It is not mandatory for you to use a certified provider; you may use a provider not featured within this list if you are satisfied that they are able to provide the required checks.

Satisfy yourself that the photograph and biographic details (for example date of birth) on the output from the IDVT check are consistent with the individual presenting themselves for rent (i.e. the information provided by the check relates to the individual and they are not an imposter). This can be done in person or by video call.

You must retain a clear copy of the IDVT identity check for the duration of the tenancy and for one year after the tenancy has come to an end.

Should you be found to be letting to individuals without their identity and eligibility being verified correctly in the prescribed manner, you will not have a statutory excuse in the event the individual is found to be renting illegally by reason of their immigration status. The landlord remains liable for any civil penalty if there is no statutory excuse.

Conducting a right to rent check using the Home Office online service

A Home Office online right to rent check will provide you with a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty. You can do this by using the online service ‘ Ch e c k a tenant’s righ t t o rent in Engl a n d : us e their share code ’ pag e on GOV.UK.

It will not be possible to conduct a Home Office online check in all circumstances, as not everyone will have an immigration status that can be checked online. The online right to rent service sets out what information you will need to complete an online check. In circumstances in which an online check is not possible, you should conduct a manual check.

Currently, the Home Office online service supports checks for a range of individuals, depending on the type of immigration documentation they are issued with. The use of digital proof of immigration status forms part of our move towards a UK immigration system that is digital by default. This will be simpler, safer and more convenient.

Some individuals have been issued with an eVisa and can only use the online service to prove their right to rent. Biometric Residence Card (BRC), Biometric Residence Permit (BRP) and Frontier Worker Permit (FWP) holders are also only able to evidence their right to rent using the Home Office online service. This means you cannot accept or check a physical BRC, BRP or FWP as proof of right to rent as they only provide evidence of the holder’s immigration status in the UK at the point at which it was printed.

How does the service work?

Individuals using the service must select one of the three reasons for sharing their immigration status. For prospective or current tenants, they must select choose to prove their right to rent in England.

After selecting the correct option, in this case prove your right to rent in England: g e t a sh a r e c o d e , the tenant can then generate a 9-character long share code that can be passed on to a landlord, which, when entered alongside the individual’s date of birth, enables you to access the required information. The share code will be valid for 90 calendar days from the point it has been issued and can be used as many times as needed within that time.

Share codes can only be used for the purpose they were originally selected for. All share codes begin with a letter denoting the purpose the share code can be used for. Where a share code begins with the letter ‘R’, this will indicate that the share code has been generated by a tenant to evidence their right to rent. Landlords will not be able to accept or use share codes which begin with the letter ‘W’ or ‘S’ as these are designed for other services.

If a share code has expired, or the tenant has used a code generated by another service, you must ask them to resend you a new right to rent share code.

Where an individual provides you with a share code via the Home Office online service, you must carry out the check by accessing the landlord part of the online service ‘ Ch e c k a tenant’s right to r e n t in Engl a n d : us e their share code ’ pag e on GOV.UK in order to obtain a statutory excuse against a civil penalty. It is not sufficient to view the details provided to your tenant on the migrant part of the service; ‘Prove your right to r e n t to a land l o r d ’ .

The online service allows checks to be carried out by video call. You do not need to see physical documents as the right to rent information is provided in real time directly from Home Office systems.

There are three steps to conducting a Home Office online check. You need to complete all three steps before the tenancy commences to ensure you have conducted the check in the prescribed manner to establish a statutory excuse.

Step 1: Use the Home Office online service

The tenant may provide the share code with you directly, or they may choose to send it to you via the service. If they choose to send it to you via the service, you will receive an email from [email protected].

To check the tenant’s right to rent details, you will need to:

access the service ‘ check a tenant’s right to rent England: use their sh a r e c o d e ’ via GOV.UK

enter the ‘share code’ provided to you by the person, and

enter their date of birth

A screenshot of the Home Office online service. It shows that a person called Felicia Thais has used the service to provide a share code.

The above image is an example of the message a landlord receives when an individual has sent their share code to the landlord via the online service.

You must check that the photograph from their profile page is of them (i.e. the information provided by the check relates to the person and they are not an imposter). This can be done in person or by video call.

If the image of the individual on their digital profile is showing incorrectly or is of poor quality, you should advise the individual to update the image on their account. They can do this by visiting: Update your Visas and Immigration account deta i l s . Fu rther information and support is also available via the UKVI Resolution Centre .

If you enter into a tenancy agreement with someone on the basis of the online check, but it is reasonably apparent that the person in the photograph on the online service is not the prospective tenant, you may be liable for a penalty if they do not have the right to rent.

The online service will confirm that no further check is required for someone who a continuous right to rent. For someone with a time-limited right to rent the service will advise when a further check is required.

A screenshot of the Home Office online service. It shows a person, named Joe Bloggs', right to rent.

The above image is from the online service and shows the person has a continuous right to rent.

assignment of residential tenancy agreement

The above image is from the online service and shows the holder has a time-limited right to rent and confirms the date a follow-up check is required.

Step 3: Retain evidence of the online check

You must retain evidence of the online right to rent check. This should be the profile page confirming the person’s right to rent (as shown in the pictures above). For online checks, this should be the ‘profile’ page confirming the individual’s right to rent. This is the page that includes the individual’s photo and date on which the check was conducted. You have the option of printing the profile or saving it as a PDF or HTML file.

You should store this securely (electronically or in hardcopy) for the duration of the tenancy agreement and for one year after the tenancy has come to an end. The file must then be securely destroyed. You should also be able to produce these document copies quickly in the event that you are requested to show them to demonstrate that you have performed a right to rent check and retain a statutory excuse.

You must repeat this process in respect of any follow up check.

When to contact the Home Office Landlord Checking Service to verify right to rent

In certain circumstances, you will need to contact the Home Office Landl o r d Chec k i n g Ser v i c e ( LCS ) to establish a statutory excuse. These include:

1. You are presented with a document (non-digital CoA or an acknowledgement letter or email) confirming receipt of an application to EUSS on or before 30 June 2021

2. You are presented with a non-digital CoA confirming receipt of an application to the EUSS on or after 1 July 2021

3. You are satisfied that you have not been provided with any acceptable documents and are unable to carry out a check using the online service

4. The person presents other information indicating they have an outstanding application for permission to stay in the UK with the Home Office which was made before their previous permission, which granted them a right to rent expired and/or has an appeal or administrative review pending against a Home Office decision and, therefore, cannot provide evidence of their right to rent

5. Is an asylum seeker or has an appeal pending against determination in respect of their asylum claim

6. You consider that you have not been provided with any acceptable documents, but the person presents other information indicating they are a long-term resident of the UK who arrived in the UK before 1988.

You should delay entering into a tenancy agreement until you have received a response from the LCS .

You can request a Home Office right to rent check using an online f o r m . If you do not have access to the internet, a request can be made by calling the Landlord Helpline on 0300 790 6268. The LCS will respond to your request with a clear ‘yes’ or ‘no’ response within two working days. This will only be sent to you by the LCS and will contain a unique reference number. The information provided by the LCS will clearly set out whether a follow-up check will be required, and if so, when.

If positive confirmation is received, by way of a Positive Right to Rent Notice (PRRN) (a ‘yes’ response) from the LCS , the statutory excuse will last for 12 months from the date specified. You will then need to make a further check before expiry.

If a ‘no’ response is received from the LCS , you will receive a Negative Right to Rent Notice. This will inform you that the person does not have the right to rent, and if you rent to this person you will not have a statutory excuse and may be liable for a penalty or be committing a criminal offence.

If in a follow-up check, the LCS informs you that your tenant no longer has a right to rent, by way of a ‘no’ response, you must make a report to the Home Off i c e in order to maintain a statutory excuse. If you do not do this, your statutory excuse will expire.

If the LCS has not considered the request within two working days, an automated response will be sent to you informing you that you can let your property to the prospective tenant. You will have an automatic statutory excuse, from the date of the LCS response. The statutory excuse will last for 12 months, at which time you will need to carry out a further check to maintain your statutory excuse. The LCS response must be retained in order for you to avoid a penalty.

Please note that the LCS is for the use of landlords and agents only.

Biometric Residence Permits

Biometric Residence Permits (BRPs) provide evidence of the holder’s immigration status in the UK at the point at which it was printed. They contain the holder’s unique biometric identifiers (fingerprints, digital photograph) within the chip. They also display a photograph and biographical information on the face of the document and details of entitlements, such as access to renting, work and/or public funds.

You may see BRP cards with an expiry date of 31 December 2024, where the holder has permission to stay in the UK after that date. This is not an error and the holder’s rights, and entitlements are unaffected. When the holder provides you with a share code to prove their right to rent, their online profile will display the expiry date of their immigration permission, rather than the card expiry date of the 31 December 2024.

This forms part of our development of a border and immigration system which will be digital by default. The ambition is to phase out physical documents before the end of 2024 as we move towards a system of online evidence of immigration status (eVisas) only. Further information on the future of BRPs will be made available in early 2024 at https://www.gov.uk/biomet r i c - reside n c e - perm i t s .

For migrants overseas, who are granted permission to enter the UK for more than six months, they are issued with a vignette (sticker) in their passport which will be valid for 90 calendar days to enable them to travel to the UK. Following their arrival, they will have 10 calendar days or before their vignette expires (whichever is later) to collect their BRP from the Post Office branch detailed in their decision letter.

BRP holders must still collect their card, but they prove their right to rent using the Home Office online service rather than showing the physical document. They are strongly encouraged to collect their BRP before they enter into a tenancy agreement in order to use the information to generate a right to rent share code. If they need to enter into a tenancy agreement prior to collecting their BRP, they will be able to evidence their right to rent by producing the short validity vignette in their passport which they used to travel to the UK. You will need to conduct a manual right to rent check on the basis of this vignette, which must be valid at the time of the check. However, as this will expire 90 calendar days from issue, you will have to repeat the check using the online service, for the statutory excuse to continue.

If the follow-up check indicates that a tenant no longer has the right to rent you must make a report to the Home Office using an online f o r m . You must make the report as soon as reasonably practicable after discovering that the tenant no longer has a right to rent and before your existing time-limited statutory excuse expires.

Changes to the way in which biometric cards are used to evidence right to rent

The way in which Biometric Residence Card Biometric Residence Permit and Frontier Worker Permit (” biometric cards”) holders evidence their right to rent has changed. Biometric card holders are required to evidence their right to rent using the Home Office online service only. Landlords cannot accept physical cards for the purposes of a right to rent check even if it shows a later expiry date. Biometric cards have been removed from the lists of acceptable documents used to conduct a manual right to rent check.

Retrospective checks will not be required on biometric card holders who, before 6 April 2022, used their physical card to demonstrate their right to rent. Landlords will maintain a statutory excuse against a civil penalty if the initial checks were undertaken in line with the guidance that applied at the time the check was made.

If landlords choose to undertake a retrospective check and identify an existing tenant who no longer has a right to rent, they are required to take the appropriate action.

Nationals of an EEA country, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea or the USA who are visitors to the UK

Nationals of an EEA country, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore,

South Korea or the USA, who enter the UK as a visitor, are able to use eGates at UK airports, seaports, and Brussels and Paris Eurostar terminals, should they hold a biometric passport. If they do not have a biometric passport, they will be informed of their immigration permission and its associated conditions verbally by a Border Force officer. They will not have their passports endorsed with a stamp.

Those coming to live in the UK for more than six months will have a visa in their passport and will collect their biometric residence permit post-arrival or will have been issued an eVisa.

Those entering the UK as a visitor, including for short-term study or for business reasons will be granted automatic Permission to Enter for a maximum period of six months and will not have a document to evidence their lawful status in the UK. These nationals are permitted to use a combination of their passport, plus evidence of entry to the UK to demonstrate their right to rent. Although, by exception, some individuals may receive a stamp in their passport which will evidence their date of entry to the UK. In these circumstances, a landlord can conduct a right to rent check by checking their passport and the endorsement in it.

Acceptable evidence of travel to the UK may include (but is not restricted to) one of the following, or a combination of:

1. an original or copy of a boarding pass or electronic boarding pass for air, rail or sea travel to the UK, establishing the date of arrival in the UK in the preceding six months

2. an original or copy airline, rail or boat ticket or e-ticket establishing the date of arrival in the UK in the preceding six months

3. any type of booking confirmation (original or copy) for air, rail or sea travel to the UK establishing the date of arrival in the UK in the preceding six months

4. any other documentary evidence which establishes the date of arrival in the UK in the preceding six months

In some cases, individuals may choose to see an officer at the border to request a stamp in their passport, which will evidence their date of entry to the UK. In these circumstances, a landlord can conduct a right to rent check by checking their passport and the endorsement in it.

Under the Immigration Rules, non-visa nationals can be granted Permission to Enter as a visitor to the UK for up to six months from the date of their arrival at the border. However, a different legislative framework governs the Right to Rent Scheme, purposely designed to minimise the frequency of checks you need to undertake.

Where you have correctly conducted a right to rent check, you will obtain a statutory excuse for 12 months and must schedule a follow-up check before the end of the 12 months eligibility period if the individual is still occupying the accommodation.

How to conduct a right to rent check on nationals of the EEA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea or the USA who are visitors to the UK

There are three basic steps to conducting a right to rent check on these citizens:

Establish that the individual is a national of the EEA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea or the USA. You must check the individual’s passport to ensure they are a national of one of the countries listed along with evidence of their arrival in the UK in the last six months.

You must check the documents in the presence of the holder. This can be a physical presence in person or via a live video link, although in either case you must be in possession of the original documents.

You must make a clear copy of each document in a format which cannot be altered later, and retain the copy securely, electronically or in hardcopy. You must make a record of the date on which the check was made and retain the copies securely for at least one year after the tenancy agreement comes to an end. This date may be written on the document copy as follows: ‘the date on which this right to rent check was made: [insert date].

Where you have correctly conducted a right to rent check you will obtain a statutory excuse for 12 months and must schedule a follow up check before the end of the 12 month period if the person is still occupying the accommodation.

Windrush generation

The Government has put in place additional safeguards to ensure that non-EEA citizens who have lived lawfully in the UK since before the end of 1988 are not denied access to housing in the private rented sector.

In some circumstances, individuals of the Windrush generation may not be able to provide documentation from the lists of acceptable documents to demonstrate their entitlement to rent. The Windrush Scheme is available for those who came to the UK before the end of 1988 who are lawfully settled here to obtain the necessary documentation to evidence their lawful status to prove their right to rent.

If you encounter someone in this situation, you should contact the Landlord Checking Service to conduct a rent check. The LCS will notify the Windrush Help Team, who will contact the person to confirm their circumstances and arrange for their status to be resolved. Working with the Windrush Help Team, the LCS will be able to confirm a person’s right to rent. The information provided by the LCS will clearly set out whether a repeat check will be required, and if so, when.

The Windrush Help T e a m can offer support and guidance relating to the Windrush Scheme and can advise individuals on how to apply. The Windrush Help Team can also help vulnerable people or those who need additional support. If a prospective tenant or tenant has been affected, they can contact the Windrush Help Team via the above link or by calling 0800 678 1925.

If you are letting accommodation to students in the private rented sector, you are required to conduct right to rent checks in the prescribed manner on all prospective tenants, including British citizens, before the tenancy begins.

The below sections set out a number of different scenarios you may come across when renting to students.

First time students from overseas

If the student is from overseas and will be studying in the UK for the first time, they will have been issued with an endorsement in their passport to enable them to travel to the UK. Following their arrival, they will have either 10 calendar days or until the vignette expires (whichever is later) to collect their Biometric Residence Permit (BRP) from the Post Office branch detailed in their decision letter.

If they enter into a tenancy agreement with you prior to collecting their BRP, they will be able to evidence their right to rent by producing the short validity vignette in their passport which they used to travel to the UK. The vignette must be valid at the time of the check. This will provide you with a time-limited statutory excuse for 12 months.

It may be good practice to encourage a further right to rent check once the student has picked up their BRP as this will provide you with a time-limited statutory excuse for the duration of their immigration permission. The student must use the Home Office online service.

Right to Rent checks when the student is overseas

In some cases, it may not be possible to check the documents of a student before drawing up a tenancy agreement, for example if the student lives overseas or is a returning student, who is out of the country before the new term begins.

In this situation you are permitted to check a person’s right to rent before they take up occupation of the property, rather than before the start of the tenancy agreement. The tenancy can be agreed in principle before the student arrives in the UK. The right to rent check can then be conducted at a later date in the presence of the prospective tenant, before the student moves in. The checks can even be conducted on the day that they move in.

If the student is in possession of a current BRP/C, they have status under the EU Settlement Scheme or status under the points-based immigration system, they must evidence their right to rent using the Home Office online service. Yo u can perform the online check via live video link whilst the student is still abroad. For students with a time-limited right to rent the right to rent check must be undertaken no more than 28 calendar days before the start of the tenancy.

Multiple Name Tenancies

If you are letting your property to multiple students, you are required to confirm how many adults will be living in the property and conduct right to rent checks on each one. In some cases, students may be moving into the property at different times, in this instance you are permitted to conduct the checks on each person before they move in.

Changes to Student Tenancy Agreements

Where a tenancy agreement has been agreed in advance of students moving into a property, and there are subsequent changes to agreement which grants the right of occupation to one or more new adult tenant(s), this is considered to be a varied tenancy. For the purpose of the Right to Rent Scheme, this is considered as a new agreement, which requires a right to rent check for all individuals including existing tenants, regardless of their nationality.

Visitors who are studying in the UK

Individuals who have been accepted onto some short-term courses of study, for up to six months, can enter the UK as a visitor. In these cases, you should undertake a manual check of the visitor endorsement or vignette in their passport. For nationals of the EEA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea or the USA who are visitors to the UK, please see the section on how to conduct a right to rent check on these individuals. You do not need to request information regarding the course of study.

Members of visiting armed forces

Certain members of visiting armed forces deployed in the UK are not subject to immigration control. Some individuals may have an endorsement in their passport or travel document which explains that they are exempt from immigration control. In such cases Right to Rent Scheme checks apply as normal, and their document can be used to satisfy the check.

Other military personnel will travel to the UK using documentation which is not recognisable to many, and which, for security reasons, cannot be photocopied. These people will therefore not be able to satisfy a Right to Rent Scheme check in the manner set out in the Code of Practice ( Right to rent immigration checks: landlords’ code of practice ). If such a person wishes to take up residence in the private rented sector as their only or main home, then they can provide you with a letter from List A, Group 2, 5,6 or 7.

You should retain the letter, or a copy, as evidence that you have acted in the proper manner.

EEA Citizens

Following the UK’s exit from the EU, the Immigration and Social Security Coordination (EU Withdrawal) Act 2020 ended free movement on 31 December 2020 at 23:00 (11pm) GMT. There followed a grace period of six-months during which relevant aspects of free movement were saved to allow eligible EEA citizens and their family members resident in the UK by 31 December 2020 to apply to the EUSS. This period ended on 30 June 2021.

Right to rent checks for EEA citizens since 1 July 2021

EEA citizens and their family members require immigration status in the UK. They can no longer rely on an EEA passport or national identity card, which only confirm their nationality, to prove their right to rent. They will be required to provide evidence of lawful immigration status in the UK, in the same way as other foreign nationals.

There is no requirement for a retrospective check to be undertaken on EEA citizens who entered into a tenancy agreement up to and including 30 June 2021. You will maintain a continuous statutory excuse against a civil penalty if the initial checks were undertaken in line with the guidance that applied at the time you made the check.

If you choose to carry out retrospective checks, you must ensure that you do so in a non-discriminatory manner. The code of practice for landlords: avoiding unlaw f u l discrimina t i o n when conducting ‘right to rent’ checks in the private rented resident i a l se c t o r prov ides practical guidance on how to avoid unlawful discrimination when renting to individuals and conducting right to rent checks.

Irish Citizens

Irish citizens continue to be a relevant national for the purpose of the Right to Rent Scheme and have a continuous right to rent, as they do now. From 1 July 2021, they can prove their right to rent using their Irish passport or Irish passport card, or their Irish birth or adoption certificate along with another document from List A Group 2. Eligible Irish citizens may choose to apply to the EUSS (see below for information on how to check the right to rent of an EUSS status holder). Irish citizens can also apply for a Frontier Worker Permit, this permit can be issued digitally or as a physical permit, so they should prove their right to rent using the Home Office on l i n e ser v i c e .

How EEA citizens are required to prove their right to rent

Eea citizens granted status under the eu settlement scheme (euss).

The majority of EEA citizens now prove their right to rent using the Home Office online service. Where appropriate, the Home Office online service will advise when a follow-up check must be carried out.

From September 2023, the Home Office will automatically extend EUSS pre-settled status holders’ immigration status before the current grant of pre-settled status expires to ensure individuals do not lose any rights and entitlements where a further application to the EU Settlement Scheme has not been made. The extension will be applied automatically to a person’s digital status by the Home Office one to two months before the expiry date of their pre-settled status. This will be reflected in their digital profile when proving their right to rent using the Home Office online service.

Landlords are still required to conduct a right to rent check and retain a result of this check for their records for individuals who hold pre-settled status. As EUSS pre-settled status will be extended shortly before the original expiry date, any follow-up checks on an individual who held pre-settled status should be made in the last month of their original period of leave to ensure that the extension is reflected on their status.

Pre-settled status may be cancelled or curtailed if a person no longer meets, or never met, the requirements for it.

Frontier Workers

A ‘frontier worker’ is an EEA citizen who is resident outside the UK but is economically active (employed or self-employed) in the UK. They have rights under the Withdrawal Agreement, the EEA European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Separation Agreement and the Swiss Citizens’ Rights Agreement (‘the Agreements’) to enter the UK and work for as long as they remain a frontier worker.

Frontier workers are issued with a frontier worker permit either digitally or, in a small number of cases, physically. Using the online service, as set out in this guidance, will provide you with a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty.

It is mandatory for frontier workers to obtain a frontier worker permit as evidence of their right to enter the UK. However, it is not mandatory requirement for frontier workers who have rights under the Agreements to use a frontier permit to evidence their rights, including their right to rent, in the UK.

Consequently, it is open to any frontier worker protected under the Agreements to demonstrate the existence of their rights in a different way to using the online service. To obtain a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty in such cases, if a frontier worker chooses not to provide a share code, or if they were issued with a physical permit, you must request a right to rent check from the LCS .

In these cases, you must obtain a copy of the tenant’s documents which evidence that they were exercising rights as a frontier worker on 31 December 2020 and have continued to do so, as these will form part of your statutory excuse.

Before providing you with a response, the LCS may contact you and ask you to send them a copy of the documents you have checked. The LCS will confirm if the individual has the right to rent, and when you need to carry out a follow-up check. Where the LCS can issue a Positive Right to Rent Notice (PRRN) in the absence of a frontier worker permit, you will be required to carry out a follow-up LCS check in 12 months to maintain your statutory excuse.

If you do choose to accept the alternative evidence, but do not request a Home Office right to rent check through the LCS , you will not establish a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty should the individual be found to have no lawful status in the UK.

Evidence required in the absence of a frontier worker permit:

evidence of the applicant’s own identity and that they are an EEA citizen such as a passport or national identity card

evidence they are primarily resident outside of the UK, such as utility bills or bank statements which include proof of address outside the UK

evidence they worked in the UK as an employed or self-employed person on 31 December 2020

evidence they have continued to be employed or self-employed in the UK since 31 December 2020

Retained frontier worker status:

A frontier worker who has (or had) temporarily stopped working can still be treated as a worker if they can provide proof that they are, or were:

temporarily unable to work because of illness or an accident

in duly recorded involuntary unemployment

Involuntarily unemployed and in vocational training

temporarily unable to work following pregnancy or childbirth

voluntarily stopped working to start vocational training related to their previous occupation

Guidance on what is considered sufficient evidence for retaining frontier worker status can be found in the frontier worker permit case working guidance here: Frontier Worker Pe r m i t Scheme Guid a n c e .

Service provider from Switzerland

A ‘Service provider from Switzerland’ (SPS) is an individual of any nationality who is required by their employer (who must be based in Switzerland) or Swiss national who is self-employed, to execute contracts to temporarily provide services for a party based in the UK. The contract to carry out work must have been signed and started before 11pm on 31 December 2020. Eligible companies have rights under the Swiss Citizens’ Rights Agreement to enable employees, or self-employed Swiss nationals to travel to the UK to provide services for up to 90 calendar days per year. An SPS must obtain their visa in advance of travel.

An SPS visa is a hard copy document without an online checking function. The visa will be in the form of a vignette and will identify the individual as a ‘Service Provider from Switzerland’, and can be issued in two ways:

(All nationalities) within a passport

(Swiss citizens only) on an official form (“Form for Affixing a Visa”) - If the individual is a Swiss citizen, they can choose to apply to the immigration route using their Swiss identity card. In this circumstance, the vignette will be attached to an official Home Office form.

Where an individual presents a Swiss identity card with a vignette, the landlord must take a copy of the Swiss identity card as well as the vignette and ensure the photographs represent the same person.

The SPS visa specifies that an individual is only permitted to work in the UK for 90 days per calendar year, the 90 days’ work can be spread over the entire year. The visa allows the individual to make multiple trips to the UK until the visa expires.

Therefore, an SPS may decide it is beneficial to enter into a tenancy agreement. The visa will confirm the date which it is valid from and valid until (the expiry date). You can find an example of the vignette in Right to rent Checks: A user guide f o r tenants and landlo r d s .

Further information is available in the Service Providers from Switzerl a n d Guida n c e .

Applications submitted to the EU Settlement Scheme

EEA citizens, and their family members, who have made a valid application to the EUSS have temporary protection of rights under the Withdrawal Agreement, the EEA EFTA Separation Agreement and the Swiss Citizens’ Rights Agreement, which gives them a right to rent until their application is finally determined. This includes pending the outcome of any administrative review or appeal against a decision to refuse status. Landlords should not treat those with an outstanding, valid application less favourably.

Certificate of Application (CoA)

Where an individual has been issued with a CoA, you must first check whether this is a ‘digital’ or ‘non-digital’ CoA. A CoA is evidence that an individual has made a valid application to the EUSS and should be used to evidence their right to work until their application (and any appeal or administrative review) is finally determined.

Digital Certificate of Application

Most individuals with an outstanding valid application made to the EUSS have been issued with a digital CoA. In this instance, you should check with the individual and ask them to provide you with a share code. This means you can check their right to rent immediately via the online service and do not need to contact the LCS . The online service will provide confirmation of their right to rent and advise when a follow up check is required.

Previously, where the individual had a digital CoA to evidence an application made on or after 1 July 2021, the online service would direct the landlord to verify this via the LCS . As of 17 October 2023, you will no longer be directed to verify such a check with the LCS .

Non-Digital Certificate of Application

A ‘non-digital’ CoA is a PDF document attached to an email or letter, sent to the individual, advising them how prospective landlords can verify their right to rent. Where a prospective tenant provides you with a non-digital CoA as evidence of an application made to the EUSS, you should check with the individual and ask them to provide you with a share code to verify their right to rent as per the ‘Digital Certificate of Application’ section above.

If they have not been issued a digital version and are unable to provide you with a share code, you should contact the LCS . You must make a copy of the ‘non digital’ CoA and retain this copy, together with a PRRN from the LCS . In doing so you will have a statutory excuse for twelve months from the date stated on the PRRN.

You can request a right to rent check from the LCS using the online form ‘reques t a H o m e Office right to rent ch e c k ’ o n G OV.UK.

EU Settlement Scheme status granted by a Crown Dependency

The Crown Dependencies (the Bailiwick of Jersey, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, and the Isle of Man) each operate their own equivalents of the EU Settlement Scheme (EUSS), for those eligible to apply. The UK and the Crown Dependencies recognise status granted under each other’s schemes, so an individual granted settled or pre-settled status by a Crown Dependency will be considered to have settled or pre-settled status in the UK.

The Isle of Man and Guernsey issue a letter to those granted EUSS status. Jersey issues a letter and operates an immigration status checker service for individuals to obtain confirmation of their status at any point.

When presented with a letter or email confirmation of EUSS immigration permission from a Crown Dependency, you must request a right to rent check from the LCS using the online form ‘request a Home Offi c e right to rent ch e c k ’ o n G OV.UK.

You must keep a copy of the Crown Dependency letter or email and retain this with the response from the Landlord Checking Service to have a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty.

Outstanding EU Settlement Scheme applications in a Crown Dependency

Where an individual has an outstanding application to the EU Settlement Scheme of the Crown Dependencies, they will have a letter or email notification confirming their outstanding, application. You must request a right to rent check from the LCS using the online form ‘request a Home Office r i g h t to rent ch e c k ’ o n G OV.UK. You must retain a copy of the letter or email notification with the response from the LCS to have a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty.

EEA citizens with Indefinite Leave to Enter or Remain

EEA citizens with Indefinite Leave to Enter or Remain are not required to make an application to the EU Settlement Scheme but can do so if they wish. Since 1 July 2021, EEA citizens with Indefinite Leave to Enter or Remain (ILE/R) are required to prove their right to rent in same way as other foreign nationals who do not have digital status.

You can carry out a manual check of their Home Office documentation such as an endorsement / vignette in a passport (current or expired) stating, ‘Indefinite leave to enter or remain’ or ‘settlement’ or ‘no time limit’. Some citizens may have a current Biometric Residence Card (BRC), they should use their BRC to confirm their ILE/R and this can be used to access the online right to rent service.

Carrying out either a manual check of the documents or the online check, as set out in this guidance, will provide you with a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty.

Further information

If you encounter EEA citizens who believe that they have ILE/R, but do not have a document to confirm this, please encourage them to:

  • apply to the Windrush Scheme to get proof of their ILE/R status
  • see if they are eligible to apply to the EU Settlement Scheme , if they have reasonable grounds for the delay in making their application

If they are from Malta or Cyprus, they may also be able to apply for British citizenship through the Windrush Scheme .

Applications for either scheme are free of charge.

EEA citizens who are visitors

For further information about EEA citizens who are visitors to the UK, please see the section on how to conduct a right to rent check on nationals of the EEA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea or the USA who are visitors to the UK.

Points-Based Immigration System

Since 1 January 2021, EEA citizens who come to the UK to live, rent, work or study need to obtain immigration status under the points-based system in the same way as other foreign nationals.

The majority of EEA citizens will be provided with an eVisa. However, this will be dependent upon the immigration route used and how they made their application. Some EEA citizens will have a Biometric Residence Permit (BRP). Those with a valid BRP will use this to access the online right to rent service.

To prove their right to rent from 1 July 2021, individuals will provide you with a share code and their date of birth which will enable you to check their Home Office immigration status via the online right to rent service available on GOV.UK:

https://www.gov.uk/v i e w - ri g h t - t o - r e n t

EEA citizens and non-EEA family members without lawful immigration status

There is no requirement for landlords to carry out a retrospective check on EEA citizens who entered into a tenancy agreement up to and including 30 June 2021. However, we recognise that landlords may wish to ensure that their tenants have lawful immigration status in the UK.

There may be situations in which you identify a tenant who is an EEA citizen or non EEA family member, who has not applied to the EUSS and does not hold any other form of permission to stay in the UK. If you identify EEA citizens or non-EEA family members without status, you can contact the Home Office for support or take steps to terminate the tenancy as these individuals will not have lawful status in the UK or the right to rent. You must make a re p o r t via GOV.UK to the Home Office in order to maintain your statutory excuse.

Family members

Where they were resident in the UK before 11pm GMT on 31 December 2020, non-EEA Family members of EEA citizens are required to make an application to the EUSS to continue living in the UK after 30 June 2021. They will provide a share code and their date of birth which will enable you to check their Home Office immigration status via the online service, ‘Check a tenants right to rent in England: use th e i r sh a r e c o d e ’ , ava ilable on GOV.UK

Eligible EEA and non-EEA family members of EEA citizens with pre-settled or settled status, or of persons of Northern Ireland who were resident in the UK by 31 December 2020, can apply for an EUSS family permit to come to the UK to join or visit their family member in the UK. EUSS family permits are valid for 6 months.

Those with a valid passport will be issued with a EUSS family permit vignette. Where an individual presents a vignette, the landlord must take a copy of the passport as well as the vignette and ensure the photographs are of the same person. For more information on the EUSS family permit, please see EUSS family pe r m i t info rmation on GOV.UK.

Family members who wish to stay in the UK beyond the validity of their family permit should apply to the EUSS within 3 months of arriving in the UK . Where a joining family member makes a valid application to the EUSS, they will receive a CoA issued by the Home Office. They will be able to use their CoA for the purpose of a right to rent check, please see the section above which gives more details regarding CoAs.

When to conduct a follow-up check

You may establish a time-limited statutory excuse where the initial right to rent checks are satisfied with one of the following:

a document from List B at Annex A.

a time-limited response from the Home Office online service

a check for a national of the EEA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea or the USA who is a visitor or the LCS has provided a ‘yes’ response to a request for verification of a right to rent.

This time-limited statutory excuse lasts either for:

12 months from the date of the right to rent check, or

until expiry of the person’s permission to be in the UK, or

until expiry of the validity of their immigration document(s) which evidences their right to be in the UK, whichever is later.

In order to maintain a statutory excuse, follow-up checks should be conducted before the time-limited excuse expires.

You should ask the tenant for proof of their continued right to rent. The tenant can choose to evidence this either by providing the landlord with documents from List A or B as set out in the code of practice or by using the Home Office online checking service, if applicable.

If the tenant is unable to produce their documents, you should contact the Landl o r d Chec k i n g S e r v i c e .

If the tenant cannot produce evidence of their continued right to rent, you must m a k e a report to the Home Off i c e in order to maintain your statutory excuse, which will provide a defence against a civil penalty.

Making a report to the Home Office

If the follow-up checks indicate that a tenant no longer has the right to rent, or an existing tenant or tenants are not co-operating, you must make a report to the Home Office using an online f o r m . You must make the report as soon as reasonably practicable after discovering that the tenant no longer has a right to rent or becomes non-compliant and before your existing time-limited statutory excuse expires.

Copies of documents should not be submitted when making a report but should be retained as set out in initial right to rent checks for future enquiries.

Making a report in the specified way will generate a unique reference number. You must ensure you keep a copy of this number as evidence of your continued statutory excuse. All copies of documents taken should be kept for the duration of the tenancy agreement and for at least one year thereafter.

A statutory excuse can only be maintained when you have correctly conducted initial right to rent checks before the beginning of the tenancy. If you have failed to correctly conduct the initial right to rent checks before the beginning of a tenancy, you cannot establish a statutory excuse by making a report to the Home Office at a later date.

What are the sanctions if you are found to be renting to a disqualified person?

If you are found to be renting to someone who does not have the right to rent and you have not conducted the prescribed checks as set out in the code of practice, you may face sanctions including:

a civil penalty of £5,000 per lodger and £10,000 per occupier for a first breach

a civil penalty of £10,000 per lodger and £20,000 per occupier.in the most serious cases, a criminal conviction carrying a prison sentence.

Civil penalties

The amount of any penalty issued is determined using the framework set out in the cod e o f practice on right to rent checks: civil penalty scheme for landlords and th e i r age n t s

You will have a statutory excuse against a penalty if you can show that you have correctly conducted an initial right to rent check, any follow up checks if necessary, and made any required report to the Home Off i c e .

You will not have a statutory excuse against a penalty if you cannot show that you have correctly conducted an initial right to rent check, any follow-up checks if necessary, and made any required report to the Home Office. If you are found to be renting to a person who does not have a right to rent, you will be liable for a penalty.

The offence of ‘knowingly letting to a disqualified person’

You will commit a criminal offence under section 33a and 33b of the Immigration A c t 20 1 6 , if you know or have reasonable cause to believe that you are renting to a person who does not have the right to rent. You may face an unlimited fine and in the most serious cases, up to five years in prison. This includes:

The tenant does not have permission to Enter or Stay in the UK.

The tenant’s immigration permission has expired.

The tenant’s documents are incorrect, or it is reasonably apparent that they are false.

It is illegal to rent to someone aged 18 or over, who is subject to immigration control and who is not allowed to rent the property in question. The penalty scheme is the sanction applied in most routine cases involving letting to disqualified persons. If you have complied with the Right to Rent Scheme, then you will not be in a position of knowingly letting and will have a statutory excuse. The criminal offence is for the most serious cases. It is not intended for landlords who have simply made a mistake when complying with the Right to Rent Scheme. In the most serious cases, prosecution may be considered where it is deemed the appropriate response to the noncompliance encountered.

How and when a civil penalty is served

The civil penalty process starts when a tenant is found to be renting, despite not having the right to rent. In the event that occupants without lawful immigration status are encountered by officials visiting your property, you will be provided with an opportunity at this time to demonstrate that you have complied with the law. You should do this by showing officials that you have correctly carried out the required right to rent document checks and established a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty.

If you cannot show the checks were made when the suspected breach of the law is identified, you may be served with a Referral Notice during a visit by the Home Office.

A Referral Notice informs you that your case is being sent to Home Office officials with responsibility for administering the civil penalty scheme, to consider your liability for a civil penalty for breaching section 15 of the Act. It also informs you how your case will be considered and the possible outcomes. If appropriate, consideration may be given to prosecution under section 22 of the 2014 Immigration Act if you have knowingly rented to someone, who does not have the right to rent.

If you receive a Referral Notice, officials will refer the evidence gathered in your case to the Civil Penalty Compliance Team. This is the Home Office team responsible for administering the Scheme.

You will then be sent an Information Request. This provides you with an opportunity to present information and evidence. For example, evidence of a statutory excuse against a penalty, evidence that the checks were in fact conducted or that you are not the liable party. After considering the case the Home Office will issue either a Civil Penalty Notice, or a No Action Notice, together with a Statement of Case explaining the decision.

A No Action Notice informs you that no action will be taken against you for any breach of section 22 of the Act on this occasion and your case has now closed for these workers. This notice will not be taken into account if you breach Section 22 of the Act in future.

If you receive a No Action Notice you should ensure that you continue to comply with the law by carrying out the correct document checks on potential and existing tenants as required. You should also not rent to anyone identified on the notice. If you are found doing so, you could be prosecuted for knowingly renting to an individual without a right to rent, which may result in an unlimited fine and/or imprisonment. During any future enforcement visit, you will also be unable to rely on the statutory check you previously carried out to avoid a civil penalty.

The Home Office may routinely share information with other government departments, as required, in administering penalties under the Right to Rent Scheme.

Paying a civil penalty

Your Civil Penalty Notice will state the penalty amount and the date by which your payment should be made. The due date for the full amount is 28 days from the date your Civil Penalty Notice was given and will be clearly shown on your notice. The possible methods of payment will also be explained. If you fail to pay your penalty or exercise your objection or appeal rights by the deadlines given, enforcement action to recover the debt will be taken against you.

Fast payment option

A fast payment option reduces the amount of your penalty by 30 per cent if we receive payment in full within 21 days of it being due. This option is only available for landlords in receipt of their first penalty under the Scheme. A fast payment option may not be paid by instalments. The discounted penalty amount and the final date by which you must pay will be clearly shown on your notice. If you have been found to be renting to any disqualified persons in the previous three years for whom you did not have a statutory excuse, you are not eligible for this reduced payment after the first penalty notice or offence.

Payment by instalments

We will consider the impact of the penalty on you in circumstances where you are unable to pay it in one lump sum. We may agree that you are able to pay your penalty by instalments over an agreed period of time, usually up to 24 months, and exceptionally up to 36 months. We will not reduce the penalty amount.

You may request to pay the penalty by way of an instalment plan by Direct Debit. If you wish to take up this option, you should contact the Home Office Shared Service Centre by e-mail to [email protected] stating that you wish to request an instalment plan or by writing to the Order to Cash Team at:

Order to Cash Team Home Office Shared Service Centre HO Box 5003 Newport Gwent NP20 9BB

Telephone: 0345 0100 122

This should be done within 28 days of the date your Civil Penalty Notice was given, in order for your application to be considered. When we inform you of our decision, we will state when the payment or payments are due. Your request to pay by instalments does not affect the time limits within which an objection against the penalty must be brought.

If you do not pay an instalment on the due date, debt recovery enforcement action will be taken.

Objecting to a civil penalty

If you have been issued with a Civil Penalty Notice, you may object in writing to the Home Office within 28 days of the date specified in the notice, after which you will lose the right to object. You may object on the following grounds:

1. you are not liable to pay the penalty (for example, because you are not the landlord of the disqualified person), or

2. you have a statutory excuse (this means that you conducted the checks and made any necessary reports), or

3. the level of penalty is too high (this means that the Home Office has miscalculated the amount of the penalty by reference to the wrong criteria).

The objection must contain:

1. the reference number of the penalty notice

2. the name and contact address of the landlord and any relevant agent

3. the name and address of the tenant(s) in respect of whom the penalty was issued, and

4. full grounds of objection together with supporting evidence, including copies of any documents relied upon

The Home Office will then consider the objection and reply within 28 days with an Objection Outcome Notice notifying you that either:

1. the penalty is to be maintained,

2. the penalty is to be cancelled, or

3. the penalty is to be reduced.

In the case that the penalty is increased, you will be served with a new Civil Penalty Notice which you may then first object to, and subsequently appeal against.

Appeal against a civil penalty

An appeal against an objection decision may be brought to a County Court on the same acceptable grounds as for an objection and must be made within 28 days of the due date given in the notice.

An appeal must be filed using Form N 1 6 1 , whi ch can be obtained from any County Court office or on the HM Court Serv i c e s webs ite, the form will also include guidance on the process. The completed appeal form will need to be submitted with the relevant fee. You are also required to serve the appeal papers on Secretary of State for the Home Office. This can be done by sending a copy of the papers by recorded delivery to:

Government Legal Department 102 Petty France London SW1H 9GL

or by emailing a copy of the papers to [email protected] .

You should be aware that if your appeal to the court does not succeed, the court may order that you pay the reasonable costs or expenses of the Home Office in defending the appeal. If, however, the appeal is successful, the court may order that the Home Office pay your reasonable costs or expenses.

When to end a tenancy due to immigration status

If you know or have reasonable cause to believe that someone is living in your property and is not allowed to rent due to their immigration status, you have a range of options to end your tenancy with them. If you have made a report to the Home Office, using the online form, which maintains your statutory excuse, you are not required to end the tenancy agreement. However, you must have made the report as soon as reasonably practicable after discovering that the tenant no longer has a right to rent or becomes non-compliant and before your existing time-limited statutory excuse expires. Copies of documents should not be submitted when making a report but should be retained as set out in initial right to rent checks for future enquiries.

Ending a tenancy: your options

The following options may be available to you to end a tenancy with a disqualified person:

1. if multiple people live in the property and some are disqualified and others are not, you can agree with the disqualified person(s) that they will leave the property - if they are a tenant, you can consider reassigning the tenancy to one or more remaining non-disqualified tenants.

2. arrange the surrender of the tenancy by mutual agreement.

3. Rely on a Notice of Letting to a Disqualified Person to begin the process to recover vacant possession – the steps you should take depend on whether this names all occupiers or some of the occupiers.

4. take other steps to recover vacant possession, depending on the kind of tenancy.

Request a Notice of Letting to a Disqualified Person (NLDP)

If you know or have reasonable cause to believe that you are renting to someone who is disqualified from renting, you can request an NLDP.

You can also make this request if you have received an NLDP for some tenants, and you have reasonable cause to believe that other tenants are also disqualified from renting. If all tenants are then named on a Notice, or multiple Notices, you can rely on the Notice(s) to bring the tenancy to an end without a court order. An NLDP can be requested on GOV.UK at:

What do you want to d o ? – GOV.UK (end i n g - a - tenancy.homeoffice.gov. u k )

‘Minded to serve’ process

When considering the issue of a Notice of Letting to a Disqualified Person (NLDP) the Home Office will make enquiries with your tenant giving them an opportunity to demonstrate that they are not a disqualified person. The Home Office will do this by issuing them with a ‘minded to serve’ letter asking them for evidence that they have a right to rent or qualify for permission to rent. Your tenant will have 28 calendar days to provide a response to the Home Office, who will consider whether the evidence provided establishes whether the tenant has a right to rent or if permission to rent is applicable in their case. The Home Office will aim to respond to the tenant within 28 days of receipt of the evidence provided.

If the Home Office agrees that the tenant has a right to rent or could be granted permission to rent, we will advise both you and the tenant, in writing, that we will not issue an NLDP.

If an NLDP is appropriate, this will be issued to you, enabling you to take action to end the tenancy agreement.

Using a Notice of Letting to a Disqualified Person (NLDP)

Where the Home Office have considered it appropriate to issue an NLDP, the notice will show that you have grounds for ending the tenancy. In certain circumstances, the NLDP may allow you to end a tenancy with a disqualified person without a court order. You need to keep this document safe as you may need to show it to your tenant or to the courts.

The Home Office will also inform the person(s) named on the NLDP making them aware that it has been sent.

If a person believes that they have been named in error on an NLDP, even after they have been through the minded to serve process, they should contact the Home Office.

The person can do this by contacting the Home Office, via the team dealing with their case via their reporting centre. They can also email: [email protected] , or telephone: 020 7035 4848 Minicom: 020 7035 4742

Once you have acted on a NLDP, you must let the Home Office know whe n a disqualified person has left your prope r t y .

Using a Notice of Letting to a Disqualified Person (NLDP) when it names all the tenants

If you have received an NLDP which names all the tenants in your property (or the sole tenant if there is only one), or multiple Notices which together name all tenants, you have a number of options to end the tenancy with the disqualified persons:

arrange the surrender of the tenancy by mutual agreement

serve the appropriate Prescribed No t i c e o n a ll your tenants, along with copies of the NLDP from the Home Office, and give the occupiers at least 28 days’ notice for them to leave

If the tenants do not leave by the time their notice period expires, you can:

rely on the NLDP to apply to the district registry of a High Court, to ask that High Court enforcement officers evict them - you can do this without a court order for possession under Section 33D of the Immigration Act 2014

exclude them from the property peacefully after the notice period has expired, for example by changing the locks

Alternatively, you can take other steps to recover vacant possess i o n .

  • The action you take will depend on the type of tenancy you have.

Using a Notice of Letting to a Disqualified Person (NLDP) when it names some of the tenants

If you have received a NLDP which names some of the tenants in your property, but not all of them, you have a number of options to end the tenancy.

You can ask the disqualified person(s) to leave voluntarily if you wish in one of the following ways:

agree with the disqualified person that they will leave the property - if they are a tenant, you can consider reassigning the tenancy to one or more of the remaining non-disqualified tenants

Taking other steps to recover possession

If a disqualified person(s) does not leave under any of the routes described above, you can take other steps to recover vacant possession. The action you take will depend on the kind of tenancy you have.

If the fixed term of an Assured Shorthold Tenancy has already expired, you can serve a Section 21 No t i c e givi ng the appropriate amount of notice. After the notice period has expired, you can apply to the courts for a possession order.

You can give notice to your tenants under Schedule 2 of the Housing Act 1988 using a Section 8 No t i c e , rel ying on ground 7B. You can do this whether or not the fixed term has expired. If the tenants have not left the property after that notice period has expired, you can apply to the court for a mandatory possession order, relying on ground 7B. The court will either grant this order or may use discretion to order a transfer of the tenancy to the tenants that are not disqualified from renting.

If the tenancy is a Rent Act 1977 tenancy (that is, it started before 15 January 1989), you can apply to the court for a possession order relying upon the immigration status of the disqualified person, under case 10A of Schedule 15 of the Rent Act 1977.

Tell the Home Office that a disqualified person has left your property

Let the Home Office know when a disqualified person has left your property afte r you have acted on a Notice of Letting to a Disqualified Person. The Home Office will then update their records.

Check if a person is still disqualified from renting

As it is possible for a tenant’s immigration status to change, it may be advisable to c h e c k that the person is still disqualified from ren t i n g befo re you use the Notice of Letting to a Disqualified Person to recover vacant possession. You may wish to do this if some time has passed since it was issued, and you want to use it now.

Further advice on ending a tenancy

Both landlords and tenants can also seek legal advice from solicitors, housing advice centres or the Citizens Ad v i c e . If you need to apply to a court, you can find your most suitable court using the court finder.

You can call the Landlord Helpline on 0300 790 6268 for general information about ending a tenancy with a disqualified person. The helpline cannot talk about individual cases.

Support for Tenants and Landlords Carrying Out a Right to Rent Check

Landlord helpline.

If you need help carrying out a right to rent check, you should call the Landlord helpline on 0300 790 6268, Monday to Thursday, 9am to 4:45pm Friday, 9am to 4:30pm. If you need access to a device or the internet, many local libraries have computers where you can access the internet. Please visit your local lib r a r y t o access these facilities.

If you wish to access Home Office online training on right to rent checks, please contact the Immigration Enforcement Checking and Advice Service training team at: [email protected] .

Further support available

If any of your existing or prospective tenants require further advice or support with regard to their immigration status, they can access information on view and pr o v e your immigra t i o n statu s : ge t a share code o n GOV.UK. This also provides further information on how to prove immigration status, how to update personal details, and support available.

If your tenant needs help accessing or using their Home Office online immigration status services, they can contact the UKVI Resolution Centre: Telephone: 0300 790 6268, select option 3, Monday to Friday (excluding bank holidays), 8am to 8pm Saturday and Sunday, 9:30am to 4:30pm.

Annex A: List of acceptable documents for a manual right to rent check

Where a right to rent check has been conducted using the Home Office online service, the information is provided in real-time, directly from Home Office systems and there is no requirement to see any or a combination of any of the documents listed below.

Examples of the documents, how to check them and how to copy them can be found in the Right to Rent Checks: A user guide for tenants and landlor d s .

List A – acceptable documents to establish a continuous statutory excuse

If a prospective tenant can produce either one document from group 1 or two documents from group 2 then they will not require a follow-up check.

List A Group 1 – if a prospective tenant can produce one document from this group then a continuous statutory excuse will be established

1. A passport (current or expired) showing that the holder is a British citizen, or a citizen of the UK and Colonies having the ‘right of abode’ in the UK.

2. A passport or passport card (in either case, whether current or expired) showing that the holder is an Irish citizen.

3. A document issued by the Bailiwick of Jersey, the Bailiwick of Guernsey or the Isle of Man, which has been verified as valid by the Home Office Landl o r d Checking Serv i c e , sh owing that the holder has been granted unlimited leave to enter or remain under Appendix EU(J) to the Jersey Immigration Rules, Appendix EU to the Immigration (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Rules 2008 or Appendix EU to the Isle of Man Immigration Rules.

4. A passport or other travel document (in either case, whether current or expired) endorsed to show that the holder is exempt from immigration control, or is allowed to stay indefinitely in the UK, or has the right of abode in the UK, or has no time limit on their stay in the UK [footnote 3] .

5. An immigration status document (current or expired) containing a photograph issued by the Home Office to the holder with an endorsement indicating that the person named in it is allowed to stay in the UK indefinitely or has no time limit on their stay in the UK. Further information on immigration status documents can be found at: Home Office issued documents (accessible) - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

6. A certificate of registration or naturalisation as a British citizen.

List A Group 2 – if a prospective tenant can produce any two documents from this group, then a continuous statutory excuse will be established

1. A birth certificate, long or short, issued in the UK [footnote 4] .

2. An adoption certificate issued in the UK.

3. A birth certificate issued in the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man or Ireland.

4. An adoption certificate issued in the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man or Ireland.

5. A letter which:

(a) is issued by a government department or local authority no longer than three months before the date on which it is presented

(b) is signed by a named official stating their name and professional address

(c) confirms the holder’s name

(d) confirms that the holder has accessed services from that department or authority or is otherwise known to that department or authority.

6. A letter which:

(a) is issued no longer than three months before the date on which it is presented

(b) is signed by a British passport holder who is or has been a professional person or who is otherwise of good standing in their community confirms the holder’s name

(c) states how long the signatory has known the holder, such period being of at least three months’ duration, and in what capacity

(d) states the signatory’s name, address, profession, place of work and passport number.

7. A letter issued by a person who employs the holder no longer than three months before the date on which it is presented, which indicates the holder’s name and confirming their status as an employee and employee reference number or National Insurance number and states the employer’s name and business address.

8. A letter issued by a police force in the UK no longer than three months before the date on which it is presented, confirming that the holder has been the victim of a crime in which a document listed in List A (Group 1) belonging to the holder has been stolen and stating the crime reference number.

9. An identity card or document issued by one of His Majesty’s forces or the Secretary of State confirming that the holder is or has been a serving member in any of His Majesty’s forces.

10. A letter issued by His Majesty’s Prison Service, the Scottish Prison Service or the Northern Ireland Prison Service confirming that the holder has been released from the custody of that service no longer than six months before the date on which that letter is presented and confirming their name and date of birth.

11. A letter issued no longer than three months before the date on which it is presented by an officer of the National Offender Management Service in England and Wales, an officer of a local authority in Scotland who is a responsible officer for the purposes of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 or an officer of the Probation Board for Northern Ireland confirming the holder’s name and date of birth and confirming that the holder is the subject of an order requiring supervision by that officer.

12. A current licence to drive a motor vehicle granted under Part 3 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 (to include the photocard licence in respect of licences issued on or after 1st July 1998) or Part 2 of the Road Traffic (Northern Ireland) Order 1981 (to include the photocard licence).

13. A certificate issued no longer than three months before the date on which it is presented, by the Disclosure and Barring Service under Part V of the Police Act 1997, the Scottish Ministers under Part 2 of the Protection of Vulnerable Groups (Scotland) Act 2007 or the Secretary of State under Part V of the Police Act 1997 in relation to the holder.

14. A document, or a screen shot of an electronic document, issued no longer than three months before the date on which it is presented, by His Majesty’s Revenue and Customs, the Department of Work and Pensions, the Northern Ireland Department for Social Development or a local authority confirming that the holder is in receipt of a benefit listed in section 115(1) or (2) of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999.

15. A letter which:

(b) is issued by a public authority, voluntary organisation or charity in the course of a scheme operated to assist individuals to secure accommodation in the private rented sector in order to prevent or resolve homelessness

(d) states the address of a prospective tenancy which the authority, organisation or charity is assisting the holder to obtain.

16. A letter which:

(a) is issued by a further or higher education institution in the UK

(b) confirms that the holder has been accepted on a current course of studies at that institution

(c) states the name of the institution and the name and duration of the course.

List B - acceptable documents to establish a time-limited statutory excuse

If a prospective tenant can produce one document from this group, then a time limited statutory excuse will be established. A follow-up check will be required within the timescales outlined in Eligibility Periods.

1. A current passport or travel document endorsed to show that the holder is allowed to stay in the UK for a ‘time-limited period’.

2. A current immigration status document issued by the Home Office to the holder, with a valid endorsement indicating that the holder has been granted limited leave to enter or remain in, the UK.

3. A document issued by the Bailiwick of Jersey, or the Bailiwick of Guernsey or the Isle of Man, which has been verified as valid by the Landlord Checking Service, showing that the holder has been granted limited leave to enter or remain under Appendix EU(J) to the Jersey Immigration Rules, Appendix EU to the Immigration (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Rules 2008 or Appendix EU to the Isle of Man Immigration Rules.

4. A document issued by the Bailiwick of Jersey, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, or Isle of Man, showing that the holder has made an application for limited leave to enter or remain under Appendix EU(J) to the Jersey Immigration Rules or Appendix EU to the Immigration (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Rules 2008 or Appendix EU to the Isle of Man Immigration Rules (as the case may be), together with a Positive Right to Rent Notice issued by the Home Office Landlord Checking Service.

5. A document issued by the Home Office, confirming an application for leave to enter or remain, under Appendix EU to the immigration rules (known as the EU Settlement Scheme), made on or before 30 June 2021 together with a Positive Right to Rent Notice issued by the Home Office Landlord Checking Service.

6. A Certificate of Application (non-digital) issued by the Home Office showing that the holder has made an application for leave to enter or remain, under Appendix EU to the immigration rules (known as the EU Settlement Scheme), on or after 1 July 2021, together with a Positive Right to Rent Notice issued by the Home Office Landlord Checking Service.

7. A passport of a national of an EEA country, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea or the USA who is a visitor to the UK together with evidence of travel to the UK that provides documentary evidence of the date of arrival in the UK in the preceding six months.

Annex B: Digital identity verification – Guidance for landlords and Identity

Service providers (idsps).

1. Introduction

1.1 This guidance follows the Home Office announcement of 27 Decembe r 2 0 2 1 and updated information available on GOV.UK about digital identit y certification f o r rig h t to w o r k , right to rent and criminal record ch e c k s . It sets out how landlords (including letting agents) can comply with their responsibilities to conduct right to rent (RTR) checks, when using Identity Service Providers (IDSPs) to complete the identity verification element of checks involving British and Irish citizens who hold a valid passport (including Irish passport cards).

1.2 ‘Identity Document Validation Technology (IDVT)’ are forms of technology operated for the purpose of verifying the identity of a person, whereby a digital copy of a physical document relating to that person is produced for verification of the document’s validity, and whether that person is the rightful holder of the document. The Home Office previously published guidance on the use of IDVT for this purpose.

1.3 ‘Identity Service Provider (IDSP)’ is a provider of identity verification services using IDVT. In the context of this guidance, an IDSP may be certified to provide identity verification to specific levels of confidence, specified by government standards. IDSPs are sometimes referred to as ‘identity providers’.

1.4 ‘IDVT identity check’ means the response generated by an IDSP, using IDVT, when undertaking identity verification with respect to a person.

1.5 The relevant changes to legislation came into force from 6 April 2022.

1.6 IDSPs act on behalf of the landlord (with the landlord becoming a ‘relying party’ in that transaction).

1.7 This guidance sets out the required steps to verify a person’s identity and eligibility using IDVT, for the purposes of RTR checks in order to obtain a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty.

1.8 Landlords and IDSPs must discharge their duties in accordance with this guidance and RTR legislation.

1.9 Changes to the RTR regulations permit the use of IDSPs for identity verification, enabling landlords to delegate elements of the checking process to IDSPs. This allows landlords and IDSPs to utilise IDVT to carry out remote digital checks when using these services. Where the services of an IDSP are used, landlords are encouraged to:

  • Use an IDSP that is a certified provider.
  • Provide appropriate training and guidance to their staff for example, on what information they must obtain from an IDSP to confirm verification of identity, what the information can be used for, and the additional steps they must take to establish eligibility to rent.

1.10 The 2018 Identity Doc ument Vali d a t i o n Technology gui d a n c e recog nises the role of IDSPs in identity verification and should be read in conjunction with this guidance.

1.11 This guidance makes extensive reference to the UK Digital Identity a n d Attrib u t e s Trust Frame w o r k . The UKDIATF will make provision for IDSPs to be certified as providers of identity verification services.

1.12 Certification provides a number of benefits. It is capable of providing reassurance the services can be trusted and are secure. It allows a single identity provider to complete a fully remote checking process. It can also provide certainty for landlords in an evolving technology and digital identity framework.

1.13 The UKDIATF defines:

  • the organisational responsibilities of IDSPs that must be met, in order to be certified, and references the Government Good Practice Gui d e 4 5 ( GPG4 5) as the standard that is used to define how identities should be verified.
  • the ‘levels of confidence’ ( LoC ) in identity verification and ‘identity profiles’ that can meet the aforementioned levels of confidence.

2. A right to rent check using IDVT via the services of an IDSP

2.1 The Home Office prescribes the nature of the checks required and the information that must be retained by landlords in order to have a statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty. The responsibility for the check remains with the landlord, and they must ensure the IDSP they select to complete the identity verification element of the check carries out a prescribed check prior to the commencement of the tenancy agreement.

2.2 Landlords will obtain a statutory excuse where they can demonstrate that they have complied with all the statutory requirements to conduct right to rent checks. Where they have used an IDSP, the statutory excuse will only be obtained where that IDSP has also complied with the required steps. Should they be found to be renting to an individual without their identity and eligibility being checked correctly in accordance with legislation and this guidance, the landlord will not have a statutory excuse in the event the individual is found to be disqualified from renting a property by reason of their immigration status.

3. Documents

3.1 For the purposes of verifying identity for RTR checks through IDVT, only the following specified documents can be accepted:

  • valid British passports
  • valid Irish passports
  • valid Irish passport cards

3.2 For landlords to be able to rely upon the IDVT identity check carried out by an IDSP to prove eligibility for the purpose of a RTR check and obtain a statutory excuse, a valid British or Irish passport (including passport cards) must be provided to the IDSP and checked by them using IDVT for the purposes of identity verification.

3.3 If an individual is reliant upon an expired British or Irish passport (including passport cards) to prove their eligibility for the purpose of a RTR check, an IDVT check is not valid. The landlord will need to carry out a manual check of the original document in the prescribed manner to obtain a statutory excuse.

4. Required steps to be taken by the IDSP

4.1 The IDSP must take all reasonable steps to check the validity of the document and take all reasonable steps to verify the prospective tenant is the rightful holder of the document. The IDSP must also record in a format that cannot subsequently be altered the date on which the check was carried out.

4.2 For each identity verified by the IDSP using IDVT, the following information must be obtained during the check. This must be provided to the landlord (relying party) in a clear, legible format which cannot be altered, and must be stored securely by the relying party in electronic or hard copy for audit and investigation purposes:

5.Required steps to be taken by the landlord

5.1 Where an IDSP is used, landlords retain obligations that they must comply with under the RTR Scheme. The landlord needs to complete the following steps before the tenancy agreement commences to ensure a prescribed check has been undertaken, in order to establish a statutory excuse.

Use an IDSP to check a prospective tenant’s valid British or Irish passport (or Irish passport card) using IDVT.

Obtain an output of the IDVT identity check from the IDSP containing a copy of the IDVT identity check, and the document checked, in a clear, legible format that cannot be altered.

Carry out their own due diligence to satisfy themselves to a reasonable belief that their chosen IDSP has completed the check correctly in the prescribed manner.

Satisfy themselves that the photograph and biographic details (for example, date of birth) on the output from the IDVT identity check are consistent with the individual (i.e. the information provided by the check relates to the individual and they are not an imposter).

Where names differ between documents, the landlord must establish why this is the case and must not let to that individual unless they are satisfied that the documents relate to them. A statutory excuse will not be obtained where it is reasonably apparent that the prospective tenant is not the individual linked to the identity which was verified by the IDSP.

Landlords must retain this information securely for the duration of the tenancy and for one year afterwards. The copy must then be securely destroyed.

The following parts of this guidance set out various recommendations in addition to the requirements set out above.

6.Verifying identities IDSPs

6.1 This guidance recommends that, in order for an IDSP to carry out an identity check, the IDSP should undertake identity verification following GPG45. Verifying an individual’s identity following GPG45 requires IDSPs to follow a process known as ‘identity checking’.

This process is made up of 5 parts:

get evidence of the claimed identity

check the evidence is genuine or valid

check the claimed identity has existed over time

check if the claimed identity is at high risk of identity fraud

check that the identity belongs to the person who’s claiming it

6.2 Each step of the process is scored, and these scores are used to determine what Level of Confidence ( LoC ) has been achieved.

7. Identity profiles

7.1 There are several ways to combine the scores for each part of the identity checking process. These combinations are known as identity profiles. GPG45 has four LoCs. IDSPs can carry out digital identity verification to a range of standards or levels of confidence. The Home Office recommends that landlords only accept checks via an IDSP that satisfy a minimum of a Medium Level of Confidence.

7.2 This is the minimum LoC recommended for RTR checks. Landlords may choose an IDSP who proofs individuals to a higher LoC if their business needs require, but this is not needed for the purposes of undertaking eligibility checks for RTR.

7.3 An activity history or identity fraud check is not required to meet some identity profiles. The Home Office recommends, where possible, an identity fraud check is undertaken on the claimed identity for all profiles, including those where GPG45 profile does not require it.

7.4 GPG45 treats all profiles within a level of confidence as being equal. The Home Office recommends that the strongest piece of evidence available is used to prove the identity exists, such as a passport, and the strongest method of matching the individual to this evidence.

8. OPM for identity verification

8.1 The OPM (available at Appendix A) details how IDSPs can complete identity verification to the recommended LoC , in relation to GPG45.

9. Certification and audit of IDSPs

9.1 Whilst it is not mandatory for landlords to use a certified IDSP for the purposes of right to rent checks, the Home Office recommends landlords use a certified IDSP. This will provide assurance that their chosen IDSP has been independently assessed as being capable of providing ID verification services in accordance with this guidance and the standards set out in the trust framework. However, as set out above and regardless of whether or not the IDSP is certified, the responsibility for the check remains with the landlord, and they must ensure the IDSP they select to complete the identity verification element of the check carries out a prescribed check prior to the commencement of the tenancy agreement.

9.2 The UKDIATF is currently in a first stage industry prototype (or ‘alpha’) and will not move to the live phase until post-legislation, when parliamentary time allows. In the interim, IDSPs who choose to become certified, will be certified against the most current version of the UKDIATF available (alpha or beta) at the time of the certification process commencing. Once certified, IDSPs will be required to undertake annual surveillance audits and biennial recertification against the version of the UKDIATF which is current at the time.

9.3 All IDSPs who choose to become certified to carry out RTR checks on behalf of landlords will be required to become certified to the live version of the UKDIATF after their certification has expired. It is recommended that IDSPs monitor and feedback on the UKDIATF as it develops to ensure they can meet any additional requirements which are not part of the RTR Scheme checks during the UKDIATF alpha and beta phases.

9.4 In addition to this guidance, an Operational Procedures Manual (OPM) is available at Appendix A for IDSPs. The OPM provides additional guidance around how to verify an individual’s identity, alongside how GPG45 should be used to meet government guidance for digital identity verification.

9.5 IDSPs who choose to become certified will be certified by an independent certification body to assure that they are capable of providing identity verification services in accordance with this guidance and meet the standards set out in the UKDIATF. Further information about the certification bodies available to certify IDSPs can be found h e r e .

9.6 This guidance recommends that, in order for an IDSP to carry out an identity check, the IDSP should undertake identity verification following GPG45. The Home Office has adopted specific profiles of GPG45 as the basis of this guidance for IDSPs carrying out RTR checks. This guidance is consistent with the standards set out in the UKDIATF.

9.7 Therefore, IDSPs that are certified and assessed to meet the terms of the UKDIATF, and whose certification includes those specific profiles, will be able to demonstrate to landlords that they are capable of complying with this guidance.

9.8 Certified IDSPs carrying out identity verification for RTR checks must be:

9.8.1 certified they are aware of the purpose of the checks (i.e. to demonstrate they know that the identity checking is to determine eligibility to rent in England. IDSPs must be aware and acknowledge the sanctions and criminal offences that supplement the RTR Scheme and identity checking in the event of noncompliance.

9.8.2 certified that the requirements in 9.8.1 are also met by ensuring appropriate training of their employees and members of staff involved in the identity checking process, with appropriate records maintained of such training.

9.8.3 certified to demonstrate the information security requirements in section 10.1 – 10.2 are met

9.8.4 certified to demonstrate the identity assurance requirements in 11.1 – 11.3 are met.

10. Certified against industry standards for information security

10.1 Certified IDSPs must have appropriate information security management systems in place to look after people’s data and keep it secure.

10.2 They must be certified to confirm that they meet an industry standard for information security management. This involves demonstrating that they have adequate processes in place to look after information securely and safely, and how they set up, maintain, and continuously improve an information security management system (ISMS). The ISMS must meet the requirements of ISO/IEC 27001:2013 or another recognised standard that includes all the requirements of ISO/IEC 27001:2013.

11. Certified against government standards for identity assurance

11.1 Certified companies also have to be certified by an independent certification body, to assure that their service meets recommended Home Office standards for identity assurance.

11.2 The service auditors are accredited by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) for carrying out service assessments.

11.3 Certification will confirm the IDSP is capable of providing ID verification services in accordance with this guidance and the standards set out in the trust framework.

Appendix A: Right to Rent Scheme digital identity operational procedures manual (OPM)

1.1 This OPM provides additional guidance for identity service providers (IDSPs) to undertake identity verification, on behalf of landlords for the purposes of verifying an individual’s identity, as part of a right to rent (RTR) check.

1.2 This OPM references the UK digital identity and attributes tr u s t fram e w o r k ( UKDI ATF) and the Government Good Practice Guide 45 ( G P G 4 5 ) .

1.3 Therefore, the UKDIATF and GPG45 should be followed as normal unless otherwise specified.

2. Verifying identities

2.1 This section should be read with reference to the guidance in Annex D above.

Choosing an identity profile

2.2 GPG45 treats all profiles within a Level of Confidence ( LoC ) as being equal. Home Office recommends that the strongest piece of evidence available is used to prove the identity exists (for example, a valid passport), and the strongest method of matching the individual to this evidence.

Medium level of confidence

2.3 To achieve a ‘medium’ level of confidence, the following profiles can be used. A single document is acceptable using digital means, as long as it meets the strength, validity, and verification scores detailed below.

2.4 Profiles marked as ‘M1’ only require a single high-strength document. Profiles marked as ‘M2’ require two documents - the second document is only checked for ‘Strength’ and ‘Genuine / Valid’. Profiles marked ‘M3A’ require three documents.

2.5 Although some identity profiles do not require an activity history or identity fraud check to be completed, the Home Office recommends, where possible, an identity fraud check is undertaken on the claimed identity for all profiles, including those where GPG45 profile does not require it.

3. Scoring identity evidence

3.1 GPG45 provides a detailed explanation of how identity evidence is scored. This document details specific guidelines applicable to Home Office RTR check requirements. Home Office guidance may restrict how evidence is scored or may provide additional guidance where it is considered that GPG45 does not provide sufficient clarity to enable IDSPs to operate as Home Office intends.

3.2 Where an IDSP is certified, they will be certified against the current published version of UKDIATF and GPG45 in full and must, therefore, refer to the published versions of both UKDIATF and GPG45.

3.3 IDSPs applying to become certified will be required to undergo a specific audit and certification.

3.4 In so doing, IDSPs must be certified by an independent certification body. The service auditors are accredited by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) for carrying out service assessments. Certification will confirm the IDSP has been independently assessed as being capable of providing ID verification services in accordance with this guidance and the standards set out in the UKDIATF.

3.5 The following information provides additional clarity to enable IDSPs to operate as Home Office intends. Please note, headings correlate to those within GPG45.

Get evidence of the claimed identity:

3.6 No amended or supplementary requirements to GPG45.

If the user has changed their name:

3.7 No amended or supplementary requirements to GPG45.

Scoring evidence of the claimed identity:

3.8 Score 1

Evidence that only score 1 are not acceptable.

3.9 Score 2

No amended or supplementary requirements to GPG45.

3.10 Score 3

3.11 Score 4

Check the evidence is genuine or valid:

3.12 Score 1

Evidence that only score 1 are not acceptable, including expired passports.

3.13 Score 2

Detailed below are some clarifications to the GPG45 requirements and a number of examples.

If the evidence is being checked by a person, they must:

be trained in how to detect false documents by a specialist trainer; evidence of the trainer’s specialist capability will be required to be presented to the certification auditor

refresh their training at least every 3 years

All other requirements are as documented in GPG45.

3.14 Score 3

The requirement to confirm any physical security features are genuine and assess UV or IR security features is for physical, in person checks only.

Any evidence protected by cryptographic security features will have a score of 3 if it is ensured that these security features are genuine. Therefore, for a mobile based automated process, mobile chip checking capability must be used to obtain a minimum score of 3. All requirements are as documented in GPG45.

3.15 Score 4

All requirements are as documented in GPG45.

Document validation technology:

3.16 Please refer to Identity Document Validation Technology guid a n c e .

Check the claimed identity has existed over time – activity history

3.17 No amended or supplementary requirements to GPG45.

Check if the claimed identity is at higher risk of identity fraud

3.18 The Home Office recommends an identity fraud check is undertaken on the claimed identity for all profiles, including those where GPG45 profile does not require it.

Check that the identity belongs to the person who’s claiming

3.19 The Home Office recommends the highest-strength identity document available is used to prove the identity belongs to the individual claiming it.

This means that biometric verification of an individual should be used where documents containing biometric information have been used to prove the identity is real. Sources such as digital authentication of bank accounts as verification of identity are preferred to knowledge-based verification (KBV) as they present a simpler user journey and are less susceptible to user error. All other requirements are as documented in GPG45.

4. Reusable identities

IDSPs or attribute service providers who want to create a reusable digital identity or attribute service, must link the digital identity and/or attributes to an authenticator (such as a password, piece of software, or device).

In addition to GPG45, you must follow the guidance on using authenticators t o protect an online serv i c e . Th is is also known as GPG44.

The reusable digital identity must be protected in accordance with GPG44 medium protection and include medium quality authentication factors as a minimum. It is recommended that one of the authentication factors used is biometric information. Right to rent checks and a landlord’s statutory excuse against liability for a civil penalty are not transferrable from one landlord to another.

The IDSP must be able to assure the landlord, at the time the identity is asserted, that there exists in relation to the tenant in a relevant IDVT document. A relevant IDVT document is a current British or Irish passport (or Irish passport card). If the document has expired the assertion is not valid for the purposes of the Scheme. The check must be completed prior to the commencement of tenancy.

It is the responsibility of the IDSP to ensure that the asserted identity meets the identity assurance requirements and the prescribed requirements specified in legislation and this guidance at the time the identity is asserted. A landlord will only obtain a statutory excuse if they are reasonably satisfied that the IDSP has complied with the requirements of the Scheme at the time the identity is asserted. Further information on the required steps to be taken by an IDSP and a landlord when carrying out the checks in line with the requirements of the Scheme can be found in sections 4 and 5 of Annex B in this guidance.

Appendix B: Glossary

Certification.

Is when an independent auditor checks that organisations follow the rules of the trust framework.

Independent certification builds trust that approved IDSPs will protect an individual’s privacy and keep their data safe and secure.

Certification will be undertaken by an independent certification body to assure their service is capable of providing ID verification services in accordance with this guidance and the standards set out in the UKDIATF.

Good Practice Guide 45

The Good Practice Guide 45 (G P G 4 5 ) i s th e government standard for identity verification, against which IDSPs will be certified.

Identity profile

GPG45 has four levels of confidence in terms of proof of identity. These are:

low confidence

medium confidence

high confidence

very high confidence

This guidance document refers to medium confidence and high confidence only.

There are several ways to combine the scores you get for each part of the identity checking process. These combinations are known as ‘ identity prof i l e s ’ .

Identity service providers

An identity service provider (IDSP) is a provider of identity verification services. In the context of this Home Office guidance document, they may be certified to provide identity verification to specific levels of confidence, specified by government standards. IDSPs are sometimes referred to as ‘identity providers’.

Identity verification

Identity verification (IDV) refers to the process of proving that an identity exists and that the individual making the claim is the owner of the identity.

Level of confidence

Completion of the identity proofing process will result in a proof that has a ‘level of confidence’ ( LoC ). The higher the LoC , the stronger the evidence required to support that LoC . The evidence needed to achieve an LoC is defined within GPG45.

Operational procedures manual

The operational procedures manual (OPM) is a document that provides detailed procedures for IDSPs to meet the Home Office guidance. The OPM aims to aid interpretation of GPG45, to allow IDSPs to develop solutions with certainty and provide a simple reference for auditors to certify against.

Relying party

The role of relying party is defined in the UKDIATF as an organisation that receives, interprets, and, depending on the use case, stores information received from other trust framework organisations. Relying parties do not need to be certified against the UKDIATF. The landlord is the relying party when a right to rent (RTR) check is carried out.

UK digital identity and attributes trust framework

The UK digital identity and attributes trust fram e w o r k ( UKDI ATF) is being implemented by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media, and Sport, and will be backed by legislation to enable the legal development of digital ID services. This guidance is being created in line with the UKDIATF.

Annex C: Ukrainian nationals and right to rent

In response to the evolving conflict in Ukraine, the Home Office has introduced visa schemes to support Ukrainian nationals, and their family members, to come to the UK.

Those who are granted a visa under these schemes are able to work, rent a home, and access benefits and public services, such as medical treatment and education.

On 14 February 2022, changes were made to the Standard Family Visa route to make it easier for dependants of British citizens who were resident in Ukraine to apply. Successful applicants were issued with a visa in their passport. On 1 March 2022, the scheme was extended to include family members who were not living in Ukraine as a family unit.

Where requirements for a Standard Family Visa were not met, visas were issued in some cases stating Leave Outside the Rules (LOTR). These visas allowed travel to the UK, where they then collect a Biometric Residence Permit (BRP). The Standard Family Visa concession then closed on 4 March 2022, as the established Ukraine Schemes were introduced.

The Ukraine Schemes

On the following dates, further visa routes were launched:

4 March 2022 – the Ukraine Family scheme

18 March 2022 - the Homes for Ukraine Sch e m e

3 May 2022 - The Ukraine Extension Sch e m e

These schemes are fee free and do not include salary or language requirements for applicants.

Under these schemes, successful applicants are able to stay in the UK for up to three years.

Under each scheme individuals are able to work, study, rent a home and access benefits in the UK.

Ukrainians with a valid Ukrainian Passport

A concession to the Ukraine Schemes was introduced on 15 March 2022, which allowed those with a valid Ukrainian passport to submit an application without attending an overseas Visa Application Centre (VAC) to submit biometrics. Those who are assessed without submitting their biometrics are issued with a permission to travel letter. Permission to travel letters are not evidence of immigration rights to access work, rent a home, benefits and services in the UK.

On arrival, Border Force should stamp the passport with permission to enter the UK, valid for six months with no restrictions on taking employment, renting a home or recourse to public funds – Leave Outside the Rules (LOTR). This is a Code 1A or Amended Code 1 endorsement.

Where Border Force have granted LOTR for six months, the individual will need to obtain a Biometric Residence Permit (BRP) which will be endorsed with up to 36-month permission to stay. This can be done at any point during the six-months validity of the stamp.

Those with a stamp or a visa in their valid Ukrainian passport granting permission to stay under the Ukrainian Schemes, have a time-limited right to rent. If a landlord manually checks this document as outlined in this guidance and records it correctly, this will give them a time-limited statutory excuse. These endorsements are already included in the acceptable documents for a manual check under Annex A of t h e Landlords G u i d e , List B, Group 1, Number 1.

Landlords will need to carry out a follow-up check of those individuals who have time-limited right to rent in the UK. This should occur when their previous permission comes to an end. All Ukrainian nationals arriving under the Schemes should obtain a BRP granting them up to 3 years (36 months) leave. BRP holders will need to use the Home Office online checking service as set out in this guidance to prove their right to rent in the UK.

From 7 December 2023, we ceased this concession and aligned the Ukraine scheme application processes with those used by other visa nationals, requiring all new applicants to attend an overseas VAC to provide their full biometrics prior to the consideration of their application.

If their application is approved, they will need to collect their visa before traveling to the UK.

Applicants who applied to the schemes before 7 December 2023 will continue on the pathway they used to apply. Therefore, those who have already received a Permission to Travel Letter will still be able to use this to travel to the UK.

Example Code 1A and Code 1 stamp, endorsed with an Immigration Officer’s date stamp

An example of a Code 1A stamp

The above image shows an example of a Code 1A Stamp

An example of an immigration officers date stamp

The above image shows an example of an Immigration Officer’s Date Stamp

In a small number of cases, when the Schemes went live, a Code 1A was not available, in place of this a Code 1 was used with the “no recourse to public funds” scored out in ink and possibly initialled by the Officer.

An example of a Code 1 stamp

The above image shows an example of a Code 1 Stamp

Similarly, a Code1/Code 1A may have been endorsed in Ukrainian passports, if those individuals had entry stamps to Ireland from 25 February 2022. The stamps were manually amended from ‘Leave to enter’ to ‘Leave to remain’ possibly with the Officer’s initials.

There may be situations in which you identify an individual who has an Irish entry stamp in their passport but does not have a Code 1/Code 1A stamp and does not hold any other form of permission to stay in the UK. In these situations, you must point the individual to the Home Office to make an application to stay in the UK.

Any prospective tenant who is a Ukrainian national, who has not applied for permission to stay in the UK, will not have a right to rent. This means you should not rent a property to them until they have taken action to regularise their status in the UK.

Example Ukraine Scheme Entry Clearance Vignette / Visa

An example of a Ukraine Scheme Entry Clearance Vignette / Visa in a passport

The above image shows an example Ukraine Scheme Entry Clearance Vignette/Visa

Ukrainian nationals who do not have a valid Ukrainian passport

If an individual does not have a valid Ukrainian passport, they will be required to provide their biometric information at a VAC and will then be provided with an entry clearance vignette attached to a ‘Form for Affixing the Visa’ (FAV). Shortly after arrival, a BRP is available for collection, and this can be used to access the Home Office online checking service as set out in guidance to prove a right to rent. Where necessary, individuals can use their FAV document as proof of their right to rent in conjunction with confirmation from the Home Office Landlord Checking Service ( LCS ) in the form of a Positive Right to Rent Notice (PRRN).

Therefore, once an individual with an entry clearance vignette attached to a FAV is in the UK, they are expected to collect their BRP urgently, which can be used for right to rent checks as normal, and a statutory excuse obtained for the full period of permission to stay. This means, once they have collected their BRP landlords are not required to make a check with the LCS . Where landlords contact the LCS and Home Office systems show that the individual has a BRP available, landlords will receive a response from the LCS directing them to advise the individual to collect their BRP and prove their right to rent using the Home Office online checking service. In this scenario LCS will not issue a PRRN to provide a statutory excuse and landlords should use the online checking service.

Example of a Form for Affixing the Visa (FAV)

Example of a form for affixing the visa

The above image shows an example of a form for affixing the visa (FAV)

Annex D: Letter templates to support List A, Group 2

The following letter templates are provided to support a British citizen to evidence their right to rent in England.

The letter templates provide examples of wording which can be used to verify to the landlord or letting agent the individual’s right to rent, alongside another document from List A, Group 2:

A letter issued within the three months prior to the check, signed by a representative of a public authority, voluntary organisation or charity which operates a scheme to assist individuals to secure accommodation in the private rented sector in order to prevent or resolve homelessness

A letter within the three months prior to the check confirming the holder’s name signed by the person who employs the holder (giving their name and business address) confirming the holder’s status as an employee, and their employee reference number or their National Insurance number.

A letter issued within the three months prior to the check from a UK further or higher education institution, confirming the holder’s acceptance on a current course of studies.

A letter issued within the three months prior to the check from a British passport holder who works in (or is retired from) an acceptable profession as specified in the list of acceptable professional persons in Annex E.

Name of PRS Access Scheme Address line 1 Address line 2 Town/City County Postcode

Prospective tenant name Date Current address line 1 Address line 2 Town/City County Postcode

Dear [Lead tenant’s name]

Prospective tenancy of [prospective address in full]

We have worked with you in order to arrange your tenancy of the above property.

In most cases, upon letting a property in the private rented sector, a landlord should carry out right to rent checks on each adult living at that property. These are simple document checks, and this letter can be used towards satisfying such a check when used in combination with another acceptable document.

In your case, you intend to use [insert name of document] along with this letter in order to satisfy the right to rent check. We believe that this should be acceptable under the code of practice for the Scheme, however, it is the landlord or agent who must carry out the check.

A simple, interactive guide around which documents are accepted in Right to Rent checks is available on GOV.UK, here:

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/right-to-rent-document-checks-a-user-guide

[name of representative of PRS access scheme and position within organisation with signature above]

Business address of employer Address line 1 Address line 2 Town/City County Postcode

Prospective tenant’s name Date Current address line 1 Address line 2 Town/City County Postcode

Dear [Prospective tenant’s name]

Confirmation of employment

My name is [insert name of official] and I hold the position of [insert job title] at insert name of organisation>.

This letter is to confirm that you are in the employment of [insert name of organisation], and that your staff reference number is [insert national insurance/staff number].

name of author, with signature above

[To be printed on headed letter from educational institution, providing name and address details]

Prospective tenant name Date Current address line 1 (applicable) Address line 2 Town/City County Postcode

Confirmation of enrolment on course of studies.

This letter is to confirm that you are enrolled on a course of [insert name of course], beginning on [insert date] and due to end on [insert end].

[name of representative of institution, with job title and signature above]

Name of British Passport Holder Address line 1 Address line 2 Town/City County Postcode

Confirmation of British passport holder knowing [insert name of prospective tenant].

My name is [insert name of British passport holder] and I am a British passport holder number [insert British passport number]. I can confirm that I live at the address given at the top of this letter. I am a [retired] [insert profession], and [most recently] work[ed] at [insert name and location of workplace].

I can confirm that I have known you as [insert capacity] for [insert length of time].

[name of British passport holder, with signature above]

Annex E: List of acceptable professional persons

  • airline pilot
  • articled clerk of a limited company
  • assurance agent of recognised company
  • bank/building society official
  • chairman/director of limited company
  • chiropodist
  • civil servant (permanent)
  • commissioner of oaths
  • councillor, e.g. local or county
  • director/manager/personnel officer of a VAT-registered company
  • engineer - with professional qualifications
  • financial services intermediary, for example a stockbroker or insurance broker
  • fire service official
  • funeral director
  • general practitioner
  • insurance agent (full time) of a recognised company
  • Justice of the Peace
  • legal secretary - fellow or associate member of the Institute of Legal Secretaries and PAs
  • licensee of public house
  • local government officer
  • manager/personnel officer of a limited company
  • member, associate or fellow of a professional body
  • Member of Parliament
  • Merchant Navy officer
  • Minister of a recognised religion
  • nurse - RGN or RMN
  • officer of the armed services
  • paralegal - certified paralegal, qualified paralegal or associated member of the Institute of Paralegals
  • person with honours, for example an OBE or MBE
  • photographer - professional
  • police officer
  • Post Office official
  • president/secretary of a recognised organisation
  • Salvation Army officer
  • social worker
  • teacher, lecturer
  • trade union officer
  • travel agent - qualified
  • valuer or auctioneer - fellows and associate members of the incorporated society
  • Warrant Officers and Chief Petty Office

As defined in paragraph 7(2) of Schedule 3, a ‘relevant power’ means a power that is exercised for, or in connection with, a purpose of providing accommodation to a person who is homeless or threatened with homelessness  ↩

See paragraph 1 to Schedule 3 to the Immigration Act 2014 for the specified relevant provisions.  ↩

Definition includes those with a document which shows that the holder is entitled to readmission to the UK (RUK endorsement)’  ↩

Definition includes a full birth certificate issued by a UK diplomatic mission (British Embassy or British High Commission)  ↩

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  • Student Specific Accommodation
  • Sample Notices of Termination

Residential Tenancy Agreement Template

This webpage provides information on the Residential Tenancies Board (RTB) template Residential Tenancy Agreement and a Sample Inventory and Condition Report which are resources specifically provided for landlords.

Rights and Responsibilities

Page contents, sample inventory and condition report, residential tenancy agreement template  .

The RTB acknowledges that rental law can be complex and intimidating to both landlords and tenants. To help landlords get things right with their tenancy agreements, the RTB created a Residential Tenancy Agreement template to assist landlord and tenants set out the terms of their relationship.

The Residential Tenancy Agreement Template can be downloaded in the 'Downloads' section at the bottom of this page.  

Landlords and tenants are encouraged to enter into a written tenancy agreement so that they are clear on the obligations that they owe each other. This template is suitable for new residential tenancies created on or after 11 June 2022, with the exception of tenancies provided by Approved Housing Bodies (including Cost Rental tenancies) and Student Specific Accommodation.

The RTB reminds member do the public to be aware of potentially fraudulent rental advertisements and tenancy agreements. If an individual responds to a private rental advertisement and receives forms purporting to be from the Department of Housing, Local Government and Heritage or the RTB in return, they should not engage further with them.

Anyone who believes they have mistakenly provided personal information or paid a deposit in response to these types of fraudulent advertisements and false rental applications/tenancy agreements calls should immediately alert An Garda Síochána.

It is a good idea to take photographs of the property before the commencement of a new tenancy, and if possible to date them. Similarly, photos should be taken of the property before the tenant moves out. This is important should an issue arise regarding the condition of the property when the tenancy ends.  

It is a good idea for landlords to take an inventory of the contents of the property and note any damage and identify breakages or things that don't work. Both landlords and tenants should sign an inventory and condition report. 

A sample inventory and condition report can be downloaded below. 

Please click here  for further information on landlords and tenants' rights and responsibilities as well as useful checklists for landlords and tenants at the beginning of a tenancy. 

Residential Tenancies Agreement template

Sample inventory and condition report, related content.

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Writing About COVID-19 in College Essays

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Experts say students should be honest and not limit themselves to merely their experiences with the pandemic. (Getty Images)

The global impact of COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel coronavirus, means colleges and prospective students alike are in for an admissions cycle like no other. Both face unprecedented challenges and questions as they grapple with their respective futures amid the ongoing fallout of the pandemic.

Colleges must examine applicants without the aid of standardized test scores for many – a factor that prompted many schools to go test-optional for now . Even grades, a significant component of a college application, may be hard to interpret with some high schools adopting pass-fail classes last spring due to the pandemic. Major college admissions factors are suddenly skewed.

"I can't help but think other (admissions) factors are going to matter more," says Ethan Sawyer, founder of the College Essay Guy, a website that offers free and paid essay-writing resources.

College essays and letters of recommendation , Sawyer says, are likely to carry more weight than ever in this admissions cycle. And many essays will likely focus on how the pandemic shaped students' lives throughout an often tumultuous 2020.

But before writing a college essay focused on the coronavirus, students should explore whether it's the best topic for them.

Writing About COVID-19 for a College Application

Much of daily life has been colored by the coronavirus. Virtual learning is the norm at many colleges and high schools, many extracurriculars have vanished and social lives have stalled for students complying with measures to stop the spread of COVID-19.

"For some young people, the pandemic took away what they envisioned as their senior year," says Robert Alexander, dean of admissions, financial aid and enrollment management at the University of Rochester in New York. "Maybe that's a spot on a varsity athletic team or the lead role in the fall play. And it's OK for them to mourn what should have been and what they feel like they lost, but more important is how are they making the most of the opportunities they do have?"

That question, Alexander says, is what colleges want answered if students choose to address COVID-19 in their college essay.

But the question of whether a student should write about the coronavirus is tricky. The answer depends largely on the student.

"In general, I don't think students should write about COVID-19 in their main personal statement for their application," Robin Miller, master college admissions counselor at IvyWise, a college counseling company, wrote in an email.

"Certainly, there may be exceptions to this based on a student's individual experience, but since the personal essay is the main place in the application where the student can really allow their voice to be heard and share insight into who they are as an individual, there are likely many other topics they can choose to write about that are more distinctive and unique than COVID-19," Miller says.

Opinions among admissions experts vary on whether to write about the likely popular topic of the pandemic.

"If your essay communicates something positive, unique, and compelling about you in an interesting and eloquent way, go for it," Carolyn Pippen, principal college admissions counselor at IvyWise, wrote in an email. She adds that students shouldn't be dissuaded from writing about a topic merely because it's common, noting that "topics are bound to repeat, no matter how hard we try to avoid it."

Above all, she urges honesty.

"If your experience within the context of the pandemic has been truly unique, then write about that experience, and the standing out will take care of itself," Pippen says. "If your experience has been generally the same as most other students in your context, then trying to find a unique angle can easily cross the line into exploiting a tragedy, or at least appearing as though you have."

But focusing entirely on the pandemic can limit a student to a single story and narrow who they are in an application, Sawyer says. "There are so many wonderful possibilities for what you can say about yourself outside of your experience within the pandemic."

He notes that passions, strengths, career interests and personal identity are among the multitude of essay topic options available to applicants and encourages them to probe their values to help determine the topic that matters most to them – and write about it.

That doesn't mean the pandemic experience has to be ignored if applicants feel the need to write about it.

Writing About Coronavirus in Main and Supplemental Essays

Students can choose to write a full-length college essay on the coronavirus or summarize their experience in a shorter form.

To help students explain how the pandemic affected them, The Common App has added an optional section to address this topic. Applicants have 250 words to describe their pandemic experience and the personal and academic impact of COVID-19.

"That's not a trick question, and there's no right or wrong answer," Alexander says. Colleges want to know, he adds, how students navigated the pandemic, how they prioritized their time, what responsibilities they took on and what they learned along the way.

If students can distill all of the above information into 250 words, there's likely no need to write about it in a full-length college essay, experts say. And applicants whose lives were not heavily altered by the pandemic may even choose to skip the optional COVID-19 question.

"This space is best used to discuss hardship and/or significant challenges that the student and/or the student's family experienced as a result of COVID-19 and how they have responded to those difficulties," Miller notes. Using the section to acknowledge a lack of impact, she adds, "could be perceived as trite and lacking insight, despite the good intentions of the applicant."

To guard against this lack of awareness, Sawyer encourages students to tap someone they trust to review their writing , whether it's the 250-word Common App response or the full-length essay.

Experts tend to agree that the short-form approach to this as an essay topic works better, but there are exceptions. And if a student does have a coronavirus story that he or she feels must be told, Alexander encourages the writer to be authentic in the essay.

"My advice for an essay about COVID-19 is the same as my advice about an essay for any topic – and that is, don't write what you think we want to read or hear," Alexander says. "Write what really changed you and that story that now is yours and yours alone to tell."

Sawyer urges students to ask themselves, "What's the sentence that only I can write?" He also encourages students to remember that the pandemic is only a chapter of their lives and not the whole book.

Miller, who cautions against writing a full-length essay on the coronavirus, says that if students choose to do so they should have a conversation with their high school counselor about whether that's the right move. And if students choose to proceed with COVID-19 as a topic, she says they need to be clear, detailed and insightful about what they learned and how they adapted along the way.

"Approaching the essay in this manner will provide important balance while demonstrating personal growth and vulnerability," Miller says.

Pippen encourages students to remember that they are in an unprecedented time for college admissions.

"It is important to keep in mind with all of these (admission) factors that no colleges have ever had to consider them this way in the selection process, if at all," Pippen says. "They have had very little time to calibrate their evaluations of different application components within their offices, let alone across institutions. This means that colleges will all be handling the admissions process a little bit differently, and their approaches may even evolve over the course of the admissions cycle."

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  • Volume 76, Issue 2
  • COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on social relationships and health
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  • http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1512-4471 Emily Long 1 ,
  • Susan Patterson 1 ,
  • Karen Maxwell 1 ,
  • Carolyn Blake 1 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7342-4566 Raquel Bosó Pérez 1 ,
  • Ruth Lewis 1 ,
  • Mark McCann 1 ,
  • Julie Riddell 1 ,
  • Kathryn Skivington 1 ,
  • Rachel Wilson-Lowe 1 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4409-6601 Kirstin R Mitchell 2
  • 1 MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit , University of Glasgow , Glasgow , UK
  • 2 MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health & Wellbeing , University of Glasgow , Glasgow , UK
  • Correspondence to Dr Emily Long, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G3 7HR, UK; emily.long{at}glasgow.ac.uk

This essay examines key aspects of social relationships that were disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It focuses explicitly on relational mechanisms of health and brings together theory and emerging evidence on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic to make recommendations for future public health policy and recovery. We first provide an overview of the pandemic in the UK context, outlining the nature of the public health response. We then introduce four distinct domains of social relationships: social networks, social support, social interaction and intimacy, highlighting the mechanisms through which the pandemic and associated public health response drastically altered social interactions in each domain. Throughout the essay, the lens of health inequalities, and perspective of relationships as interconnecting elements in a broader system, is used to explore the varying impact of these disruptions. The essay concludes by providing recommendations for longer term recovery ensuring that the social relational cost of COVID-19 is adequately considered in efforts to rebuild.

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This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ .

https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2021-216690

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  • Introduction

Infectious disease pandemics, including SARS and COVID-19, demand intrapersonal behaviour change and present highly complex challenges for public health. 1 A pandemic of an airborne infection, spread easily through social contact, assails human relationships by drastically altering the ways through which humans interact. In this essay, we draw on theories of social relationships to examine specific ways in which relational mechanisms key to health and well-being were disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Relational mechanisms refer to the processes between people that lead to change in health outcomes.

At the time of writing, the future surrounding COVID-19 was uncertain. Vaccine programmes were being rolled out in countries that could afford them, but new and more contagious variants of the virus were also being discovered. The recovery journey looked long, with continued disruption to social relationships. The social cost of COVID-19 was only just beginning to emerge, but the mental health impact was already considerable, 2 3 and the inequality of the health burden stark. 4 Knowledge of the epidemiology of COVID-19 accrued rapidly, but evidence of the most effective policy responses remained uncertain.

The initial response to COVID-19 in the UK was reactive and aimed at reducing mortality, with little time to consider the social implications, including for interpersonal and community relationships. The terminology of ‘social distancing’ quickly became entrenched both in public and policy discourse. This equation of physical distance with social distance was regrettable, since only physical proximity causes viral transmission, whereas many forms of social proximity (eg, conversations while walking outdoors) are minimal risk, and are crucial to maintaining relationships supportive of health and well-being.

The aim of this essay is to explore four key relational mechanisms that were impacted by the pandemic and associated restrictions: social networks, social support, social interaction and intimacy. We use relational theories and emerging research on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic response to make three key recommendations: one regarding public health responses; and two regarding social recovery. Our understanding of these mechanisms stems from a ‘systems’ perspective which casts social relationships as interdependent elements within a connected whole. 5

Social networks

Social networks characterise the individuals and social connections that compose a system (such as a workplace, community or society). Social relationships range from spouses and partners, to coworkers, friends and acquaintances. They vary across many dimensions, including, for example, frequency of contact and emotional closeness. Social networks can be understood both in terms of the individuals and relationships that compose the network, as well as the overall network structure (eg, how many of your friends know each other).

Social networks show a tendency towards homophily, or a phenomenon of associating with individuals who are similar to self. 6 This is particularly true for ‘core’ network ties (eg, close friends), while more distant, sometimes called ‘weak’ ties tend to show more diversity. During the height of COVID-19 restrictions, face-to-face interactions were often reduced to core network members, such as partners, family members or, potentially, live-in roommates; some ‘weak’ ties were lost, and interactions became more limited to those closest. Given that peripheral, weaker social ties provide a diversity of resources, opinions and support, 7 COVID-19 likely resulted in networks that were smaller and more homogenous.

Such changes were not inevitable nor necessarily enduring, since social networks are also adaptive and responsive to change, in that a disruption to usual ways of interacting can be replaced by new ways of engaging (eg, Zoom). Yet, important inequalities exist, wherein networks and individual relationships within networks are not equally able to adapt to such changes. For example, individuals with a large number of newly established relationships (eg, university students) may have struggled to transfer these relationships online, resulting in lost contacts and a heightened risk of social isolation. This is consistent with research suggesting that young adults were the most likely to report a worsening of relationships during COVID-19, whereas older adults were the least likely to report a change. 8

Lastly, social connections give rise to emergent properties of social systems, 9 where a community-level phenomenon develops that cannot be attributed to any one member or portion of the network. For example, local area-based networks emerged due to geographic restrictions (eg, stay-at-home orders), resulting in increases in neighbourly support and local volunteering. 10 In fact, research suggests that relationships with neighbours displayed the largest net gain in ratings of relationship quality compared with a range of relationship types (eg, partner, colleague, friend). 8 Much of this was built from spontaneous individual interactions within local communities, which together contributed to the ‘community spirit’ that many experienced. 11 COVID-19 restrictions thus impacted the personal social networks and the structure of the larger networks within the society.

Social support

Social support, referring to the psychological and material resources provided through social interaction, is a critical mechanism through which social relationships benefit health. In fact, social support has been shown to be one of the most important resilience factors in the aftermath of stressful events. 12 In the context of COVID-19, the usual ways in which individuals interact and obtain social support have been severely disrupted.

One such disruption has been to opportunities for spontaneous social interactions. For example, conversations with colleagues in a break room offer an opportunity for socialising beyond one’s core social network, and these peripheral conversations can provide a form of social support. 13 14 A chance conversation may lead to advice helpful to coping with situations or seeking formal help. Thus, the absence of these spontaneous interactions may mean the reduction of indirect support-seeking opportunities. While direct support-seeking behaviour is more effective at eliciting support, it also requires significantly more effort and may be perceived as forceful and burdensome. 15 The shift to homeworking and closure of community venues reduced the number of opportunities for these spontaneous interactions to occur, and has, second, focused them locally. Consequently, individuals whose core networks are located elsewhere, or who live in communities where spontaneous interaction is less likely, have less opportunity to benefit from spontaneous in-person supportive interactions.

However, alongside this disruption, new opportunities to interact and obtain social support have arisen. The surge in community social support during the initial lockdown mirrored that often seen in response to adverse events (eg, natural disasters 16 ). COVID-19 restrictions that confined individuals to their local area also compelled them to focus their in-person efforts locally. Commentators on the initial lockdown in the UK remarked on extraordinary acts of generosity between individuals who belonged to the same community but were unknown to each other. However, research on adverse events also tells us that such community support is not necessarily maintained in the longer term. 16

Meanwhile, online forms of social support are not bound by geography, thus enabling interactions and social support to be received from a wider network of people. Formal online social support spaces (eg, support groups) existed well before COVID-19, but have vastly increased since. While online interactions can increase perceived social support, it is unclear whether remote communication technologies provide an effective substitute from in-person interaction during periods of social distancing. 17 18 It makes intuitive sense that the usefulness of online social support will vary by the type of support offered, degree of social interaction and ‘online communication skills’ of those taking part. Youth workers, for instance, have struggled to keep vulnerable youth engaged in online youth clubs, 19 despite others finding a positive association between amount of digital technology used by individuals during lockdown and perceived social support. 20 Other research has found that more frequent face-to-face contact and phone/video contact both related to lower levels of depression during the time period of March to August 2020, but the negative effect of a lack of contact was greater for those with higher levels of usual sociability. 21 Relatedly, important inequalities in social support exist, such that individuals who occupy more socially disadvantaged positions in society (eg, low socioeconomic status, older people) tend to have less access to social support, 22 potentially exacerbated by COVID-19.

Social and interactional norms

Interactional norms are key relational mechanisms which build trust, belonging and identity within and across groups in a system. Individuals in groups and societies apply meaning by ‘approving, arranging and redefining’ symbols of interaction. 23 A handshake, for instance, is a powerful symbol of trust and equality. Depending on context, not shaking hands may symbolise a failure to extend friendship, or a failure to reach agreement. The norms governing these symbols represent shared values and identity; and mutual understanding of these symbols enables individuals to achieve orderly interactions, establish supportive relationship accountability and connect socially. 24 25

Physical distancing measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 radically altered these norms of interaction, particularly those used to convey trust, affinity, empathy and respect (eg, hugging, physical comforting). 26 As epidemic waves rose and fell, the work to negotiate these norms required intense cognitive effort; previously taken-for-granted interactions were re-examined, factoring in current restriction levels, own and (assumed) others’ vulnerability and tolerance of risk. This created awkwardness, and uncertainty, for example, around how to bring closure to an in-person interaction or convey warmth. The instability in scripted ways of interacting created particular strain for individuals who already struggled to encode and decode interactions with others (eg, those who are deaf or have autism spectrum disorder); difficulties often intensified by mask wearing. 27

Large social gatherings—for example, weddings, school assemblies, sporting events—also present key opportunities for affirming and assimilating interactional norms, building cohesion and shared identity and facilitating cooperation across social groups. 28 Online ‘equivalents’ do not easily support ‘social-bonding’ activities such as singing and dancing, and rarely enable chance/spontaneous one-on-one conversations with peripheral/weaker network ties (see the Social networks section) which can help strengthen bonds across a larger network. The loss of large gatherings to celebrate rites of passage (eg, bar mitzvah, weddings) has additional relational costs since these events are performed by and for communities to reinforce belonging, and to assist in transitioning to new phases of life. 29 The loss of interaction with diverse others via community and large group gatherings also reduces intergroup contact, which may then tend towards more prejudiced outgroup attitudes. While online interaction can go some way to mimicking these interaction norms, there are key differences. A sense of anonymity, and lack of in-person emotional cues, tends to support norms of polarisation and aggression in expressing differences of opinion online. And while online platforms have potential to provide intergroup contact, the tendency of much social media to form homogeneous ‘echo chambers’ can serve to further reduce intergroup contact. 30 31

Intimacy relates to the feeling of emotional connection and closeness with other human beings. Emotional connection, through romantic, friendship or familial relationships, fulfils a basic human need 32 and strongly benefits health, including reduced stress levels, improved mental health, lowered blood pressure and reduced risk of heart disease. 32 33 Intimacy can be fostered through familiarity, feeling understood and feeling accepted by close others. 34

Intimacy via companionship and closeness is fundamental to mental well-being. Positively, the COVID-19 pandemic has offered opportunities for individuals to (re)connect and (re)strengthen close relationships within their household via quality time together, following closure of many usual external social activities. Research suggests that the first full UK lockdown period led to a net gain in the quality of steady relationships at a population level, 35 but amplified existing inequalities in relationship quality. 35 36 For some in single-person households, the absence of a companion became more conspicuous, leading to feelings of loneliness and lower mental well-being. 37 38 Additional pandemic-related relational strain 39 40 resulted, for some, in the initiation or intensification of domestic abuse. 41 42

Physical touch is another key aspect of intimacy, a fundamental human need crucial in maintaining and developing intimacy within close relationships. 34 Restrictions on social interactions severely restricted the number and range of people with whom physical affection was possible. The reduction in opportunity to give and receive affectionate physical touch was not experienced equally. Many of those living alone found themselves completely without physical contact for extended periods. The deprivation of physical touch is evidenced to take a heavy emotional toll. 43 Even in future, once physical expressions of affection can resume, new levels of anxiety over germs may introduce hesitancy into previously fluent blending of physical and verbal intimate social connections. 44

The pandemic also led to shifts in practices and norms around sexual relationship building and maintenance, as individuals adapted and sought alternative ways of enacting sexual intimacy. This too is important, given that intimate sexual activity has known benefits for health. 45 46 Given that social restrictions hinged on reducing household mixing, possibilities for partnered sexual activity were primarily guided by living arrangements. While those in cohabiting relationships could potentially continue as before, those who were single or in non-cohabiting relationships generally had restricted opportunities to maintain their sexual relationships. Pornography consumption and digital partners were reported to increase since lockdown. 47 However, online interactions are qualitatively different from in-person interactions and do not provide the same opportunities for physical intimacy.

Recommendations and conclusions

In the sections above we have outlined the ways in which COVID-19 has impacted social relationships, showing how relational mechanisms key to health have been undermined. While some of the damage might well self-repair after the pandemic, there are opportunities inherent in deliberative efforts to build back in ways that facilitate greater resilience in social and community relationships. We conclude by making three recommendations: one regarding public health responses to the pandemic; and two regarding social recovery.

Recommendation 1: explicitly count the relational cost of public health policies to control the pandemic

Effective handling of a pandemic recognises that social, economic and health concerns are intricately interwoven. It is clear that future research and policy attention must focus on the social consequences. As described above, policies which restrict physical mixing across households carry heavy and unequal relational costs. These include for individuals (eg, loss of intimate touch), dyads (eg, loss of warmth, comfort), networks (eg, restricted access to support) and communities (eg, loss of cohesion and identity). Such costs—and their unequal impact—should not be ignored in short-term efforts to control an epidemic. Some public health responses—restrictions on international holiday travel and highly efficient test and trace systems—have relatively small relational costs and should be prioritised. At a national level, an earlier move to proportionate restrictions, and investment in effective test and trace systems, may help prevent escalation of spread to the point where a national lockdown or tight restrictions became an inevitability. Where policies with relational costs are unavoidable, close attention should be paid to the unequal relational impact for those whose personal circumstances differ from normative assumptions of two adult families. This includes consideration of whether expectations are fair (eg, for those who live alone), whether restrictions on social events are equitable across age group, religious/ethnic groupings and social class, and also to ensure that the language promoted by such policies (eg, households; families) is not exclusionary. 48 49 Forethought to unequal impacts on social relationships should thus be integral to the work of epidemic preparedness teams.

Recommendation 2: intelligently balance online and offline ways of relating

A key ingredient for well-being is ‘getting together’ in a physical sense. This is fundamental to a human need for intimate touch, physical comfort, reinforcing interactional norms and providing practical support. Emerging evidence suggests that online ways of relating cannot simply replace physical interactions. But online interaction has many benefits and for some it offers connections that did not exist previously. In particular, online platforms provide new forms of support for those unable to access offline services because of mobility issues (eg, older people) or because they are geographically isolated from their support community (eg, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth). Ultimately, multiple forms of online and offline social interactions are required to meet the needs of varying groups of people (eg, LGBTQ, older people). Future research and practice should aim to establish ways of using offline and online support in complementary and even synergistic ways, rather than veering between them as social restrictions expand and contract. Intelligent balancing of online and offline ways of relating also pertains to future policies on home and flexible working. A decision to switch to wholesale or obligatory homeworking should consider the risk to relational ‘group properties’ of the workplace community and their impact on employees’ well-being, focusing in particular on unequal impacts (eg, new vs established employees). Intelligent blending of online and in-person working is required to achieve flexibility while also nurturing supportive networks at work. Intelligent balance also implies strategies to build digital literacy and minimise digital exclusion, as well as coproducing solutions with intended beneficiaries.

Recommendation 3: build stronger and sustainable localised communities

In balancing offline and online ways of interacting, there is opportunity to capitalise on the potential for more localised, coherent communities due to scaled-down travel, homeworking and local focus that will ideally continue after restrictions end. There are potential economic benefits after the pandemic, such as increased trade as home workers use local resources (eg, coffee shops), but also relational benefits from stronger relationships around the orbit of the home and neighbourhood. Experience from previous crises shows that community volunteer efforts generated early on will wane over time in the absence of deliberate work to maintain them. Adequately funded partnerships between local government, third sector and community groups are required to sustain community assets that began as a direct response to the pandemic. Such partnerships could work to secure green spaces and indoor (non-commercial) meeting spaces that promote community interaction. Green spaces in particular provide a triple benefit in encouraging physical activity and mental health, as well as facilitating social bonding. 50 In building local communities, small community networks—that allow for diversity and break down ingroup/outgroup views—may be more helpful than the concept of ‘support bubbles’, which are exclusionary and less sustainable in the longer term. Rigorously designed intervention and evaluation—taking a systems approach—will be crucial in ensuring scale-up and sustainability.

The dramatic change to social interaction necessitated by efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 created stark challenges but also opportunities. Our essay highlights opportunities for learning, both to ensure the equity and humanity of physical restrictions, and to sustain the salutogenic effects of social relationships going forward. The starting point for capitalising on this learning is recognition of the disruption to relational mechanisms as a key part of the socioeconomic and health impact of the pandemic. In recovery planning, a general rule is that what is good for decreasing health inequalities (such as expanding social protection and public services and pursuing green inclusive growth strategies) 4 will also benefit relationships and safeguard relational mechanisms for future generations. Putting this into action will require political will.

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Twitter @karenmaxSPHSU, @Mark_McCann, @Rwilsonlowe, @KMitchinGlasgow

Contributors EL and KM led on the manuscript conceptualisation, review and editing. SP, KM, CB, RBP, RL, MM, JR, KS and RW-L contributed to drafting and revising the article. All authors assisted in revising the final draft.

Funding The research reported in this publication was supported by the Medical Research Council (MC_UU_00022/1, MC_UU_00022/3) and the Chief Scientist Office (SPHSU11, SPHSU14). EL is also supported by MRC Skills Development Fellowship Award (MR/S015078/1). KS and MM are also supported by a Medical Research Council Strategic Award (MC_PC_13027).

Competing interests None declared.

Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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Home / Blog

Social Analysis of a Pandemic: How COVID-19 Impacted Society

February 25, 2022 

effect of covid essay

COVID-19 sickened or killed more than 375 million people globally by early 2022, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), but its impact goes beyond that striking figure.

The effects of the pandemic touch nearly every facet of society in the United States and abroad, including overall health, the economy, and human behavior. Social analysis reveals that the impact of COVID-19 has been especially pronounced for already vulnerable groups — including people living in poverty, older individuals, people with disabilities, and ethnic minorities.

Impact of COVID-19 on Health

The initial impact of COVID-19 on individuals who contract it can be serious. Hundreds of thousands of people have died from the illness in the U.S. Older people, the unvaccinated, and those with chronic health conditions and weakened immune systems face the greatest risk, and marginalized populations have experienced a higher rate of poor outcomes.

A masked server stands in a closed restaurant.

But the pandemic’s implications for health go beyond COVID-19’s initial symptoms to encompass a longer time period and other health conditions.

Health Implications for COVID-19 Patients

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 — fever, cough, fatigue, and loss of taste or smell — typically dissipate after about four weeks. But for those hospitalized after being diagnosed with the virus, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reported in 2021, about 9% are readmitted to the hospital within five days of discharge.

Additionally, COVID-19 “long-haulers,” as the Mayo Clinic describes them, can continue to struggle with a host of symptoms, from cough to concentration problems. A 2021 report in PLOS Medicine showed that about a third of the American COVID-19 patients studied had long-term health effects.

The pandemic has lowered life expectancy for Americans overall by a year, according to a report of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). For the Black population, life expectancy decreased by two years, and for Latinos, it decreased by three years.

The United Nations reports that vulnerable populations face steeper challenges in navigating the COVID-19 pandemic. The organization cites the example of people experiencing homelessness, noting their inability to take protective measures against the illness.

COVID-19 Implications for Other Health Concerns

The health impact of COVID-19 goes beyond those who contract the illness. The 2021 HHS report describes the impact of COVID-19’s symptoms as four waves: The first wave represents the initial illness for those who contract it, and subsequent waves relate to long-term recovery, health challenges stemming from delays in care, and trauma and mental health concerns.

Emergency department visits for non-coronavirus-related concerns were down significantly in many parts of the U.S. during early stages of the pandemic, as individuals sought to avoid exposure to the virus and adhere to community mitigation measures, HHS reports. Many people postponed in-person medical office visits or elective procedures for the same reasons. With high rates of job loss, especially early in the pandemic, many couldn’t afford healthcare — leading to more delayed medical visits.

The decline in the number of in-person ER visits and elective procedures reduced revenue at many medical facilities, HHS reports, leading to layoffs in a professional field already experiencing shortages.

Additionally, people who put off treatment were vulnerable to disease progression, infection risk, increased complexity of treatment, and increased recovery times. When individuals did visit the emergency room, for example, often their conditions had become so severe as to put them at greater risk of complications or death. In fact, according to a 2021 Epic Research study, emergency department visits that led to hospitalization increased 55% above the expected rate during the month after COVID-19 became a national emergency in March 2020.

Impact of COVID-19 on the Economy

Social analysis of the pandemic’s economic impact shows sudden turmoil that yielded long-term changes to everything from how companies do business to what employees expect from their jobs. But the financial impact differed according to types of industries and populations of people.

Brookings reports that, at the onset of the pandemic in early 2020, more than 90% of the global economy’s gross domestic product contracted because of supply and demand disruptions. As the U.S. struggled through a recession, 115 million people lost their jobs or saw their work hours reduced between March 2020 and February 2021, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. In comparison, 30 million people lost their jobs or experienced a reduction in work hours in 2017.

By 2021, the U.S. economy was rebounding, but effects lingered or worsened in some sectors, leading to what economists call a K-shaped recovery. The long-term impacts of this type of recovery include:

  • Continuing unemployment among low-income workers
  • Increasing racial wealth gap
  • Rising wealth inequality
  • Growing corporate monopolies

Economic Impact of COVID-19 on Different Job Sectors

With restrictions on in-person activities and traveling, the travel and hospitality sectors took a big hit in the COVID-19 economy. The U.S. Travel Association reports that travel spending declined by 42% in 2020, for example.

Those same restrictions, however, proved a boon for other fields — particularly those related to technology, whose dominance strengthened as people relied on electronic tools to interact with others and conduct business. The top five tech companies already comprised 17.5% of the S&P 500 heading into the pandemic, according to CNBC. By July 2021, Barron’s reported, they accounted for 23%.

The demand for workers in some sectors has outpaced that in others. Meanwhile, many who left the workforce during coronavirus-related disruptions did not return, thanks to concerns such as health, work-life balance, and child care.

Economic Impact of COVID-19 on Different Populations

Low-income employees — many of whom worked in the hardest-hit job sectors — felt the greatest effect in the initial crush of the pandemic-induced economic downturn, and the effects were longer lasting.

For example, according to the Opportunity Insights Economic Tracker, by June 2021, employment for people earning $60,000 or more a year had increased by 9.6% compared with February 2020. For those whose income was below $27,000 a year, employment during that period had decreased by 21%. Among the factors driving this discrepancy is the inability of many low-income employees to do their jobs remotely.

People of color also were at risk of more deeply experiencing the effects of the pandemic-related economic downturn, with existing inequalities becoming more pronounced as they navigated challenges such as job loss and unexpected expenses.

Impact of COVID-19 on Human Behavior

From how people interact to how they cope with stress, behaviors changed during the coronavirus pandemic, social analysis reveals. Some short-term impacts, such as isolation during lockdowns, led to longer-term problems, such as increases in crime and substance abuse.

Mental Health

Social distancing and stay-at-home measures affected how people perceive and relate to others. As friends, families, students, and employees gathered only through technology, many suffered the effects of separation from loved ones, loss of freedom, and concern about their safety.

A 2020 Frontiers in Psychology research article shows children and young adults were particularly at risk for stress and anxiety, as were healthcare workers, who were most likely to experience post-traumatic stress disorder. In an October 2020 survey by the American Psychological Association, about two-thirds of U.S. adults reported increased stress because of the pandemic.

Drug and Alcohol Use

Researchers found an increase in substance abuse and drug overdoses during the COVID-19 pandemic. The National Center for Health Statistics, for example, indicates that drug overdose deaths increased by 27% between April 2020 and April 2021, likely due to the stress and uncertainty of COVID-19. And a 2020 Psychiatry Research piece shows an increase in dangerous alcohol consumption among 1,000 people surveyed nationwide, from 21% engaging in this behavior to 40% between April and September 2020.

While property crime and drug offense rates fell between 2019 and 2020, according to the Council on Criminal Justice, homicide rates increased by 42% between June and August of 2020 — a spike that may be due to increased stress and a change in routines.

The organization also notes that the pandemic may have exacerbated existing racial and ethnic disparities in the criminal justice system; as jail populations began to drop at the start of the pandemic, the proportion of inmates who were Black, male, and 25 or younger increased. This scenario continued even as jail populations rose in May 2020.

Take a Brave Step Toward Addressing COVID-19’s Social Challenges

Individuals with a passion for social change can use their talents to address the far-ranging effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. If you’re ready to take the brave leap toward making a difference in your community, start your journey with Maryville University’s online Bachelor of Arts in Sociology . The program covers current events and social challenges, such as COVID-19, with concentrations in social work, social justice, and criminology — and the flexibility and convenience of online courses.

Discover how Maryville’s online Bachelor of Arts in Sociology can help you pursue your professional goals.

Recommended Reading

Exploring Services: Human Services vs. Social Services

Social Issues in Healthcare: Key Policies and Challenges

What Are Social Justice Issues?

American Psychological Association, “Stress in America 2020”

Barron’s, “Big 5 Tech Stocks Now Account for 23% of the S&P 500”

Brookings, “Social and Economic Impact of COVID-19”

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, COVID Data Tracker

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Emergency Department Visits — United States, January 1, 2019-May 30, 2020”

Center for American Progress, “The Economic Fallout of the Coronavirus for People of Color”

CNBC, “The Five Biggest Tech Companies Now Make Up 17.5% of the S&P 500 — Here’s How to Protect Yourself”

CNN Business, “Millions of Jobs and a Shortage of Applicants. Welcome to the New Economy”

Council on Criminal Justice, “Experience to Action: Reshaping Criminal Justice After COVID-19”

Epic Research, “Fewer Visits, Sicker Patients: The Changing Character of Emergency Department Visits During the COVID-19 Pandemic”

Frontiers in Psychology, “The Psychological and Social Impact of COVID-19: New Perspectives of Wellbeing”

Investopedia, “Long-Term Impacts of the COVID-19 K-Shaped Recovery”

Mayo Clinic, “COVID-19 (Coronavirus): Long-Term Effects”

National Center for Health Statistics, Vital Statistics Rapid Release, Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts

National Institute on Drug Abuse, “COVID-19 and Substance Use”

Opportunity Insights Economic Tracker, Recession Has Ended for High-Wage Workers, Job Losses Persist for Low-Wage Workers

PLOS Medicine, “Incidence, Co-Occurrence, and Evolution of Long-COVID Features: A 6-Month Retrospective Cohort Study of 273,618 Survivors of COVID-19”

Psychiatry Research, “Alcohol Dependence During COVID-19 Lockdowns”

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, “Reductions in 2020 U.S. Life Expectancy Due to COVID-19 and the Disproportionate Impact on the Black and Latino Populations”

Recovering Civility During COVID-19, “The Human, Economic, Social, and Political Costs of COVID-19”

United Nations, “Everyone Included: Social Impact of COVID-19”

U.S. Census Bureau, “Putting Economic Impact of Pandemic in Context”

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “COVID-19 Healthcare Delivery Impacts”

U.S. Travel Association, COVID-19 Travel Industry Research

World Health Organization, WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard

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Open Access

Peer-reviewed

Research Article

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on scientific research in the life sciences

Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliation AXES, IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Lucca, Italy

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Software, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

* E-mail: [email protected]

Affiliation Chair of Systems Design D-MTEC, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

ORCID logo

  • Massimo Riccaboni, 
  • Luca Verginer

PLOS

  • Published: February 9, 2022
  • https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263001
  • Reader Comments

Table 1

The COVID-19 outbreak has posed an unprecedented challenge to humanity and science. On the one side, public and private incentives have been put in place to promptly allocate resources toward research areas strictly related to the COVID-19 emergency. However, research in many fields not directly related to the pandemic has been displaced. In this paper, we assess the impact of COVID-19 on world scientific production in the life sciences and find indications that the usage of medical subject headings (MeSH) has changed following the outbreak. We estimate through a difference-in-differences approach the impact of the start of the COVID-19 pandemic on scientific production using the PubMed database (3.6 Million research papers). We find that COVID-19-related MeSH terms have experienced a 6.5 fold increase in output on average, while publications on unrelated MeSH terms dropped by 10 to 12%. The publication weighted impact has an even more pronounced negative effect (-16% to -19%). Moreover, COVID-19 has displaced clinical trial publications (-24%) and diverted grants from research areas not closely related to COVID-19. Note that since COVID-19 publications may have been fast-tracked, the sudden surge in COVID-19 publications might be driven by editorial policy.

Citation: Riccaboni M, Verginer L (2022) The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on scientific research in the life sciences. PLoS ONE 17(2): e0263001. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263001

Editor: Florian Naudet, University of Rennes 1, FRANCE

Received: April 28, 2021; Accepted: January 10, 2022; Published: February 9, 2022

Copyright: © 2022 Riccaboni, Verginer. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: The processed data, instructions on how to process the raw PubMed dataset as well as all code are available via Zenodo at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5121216 .

Funding: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

The COVID-19 pandemic has mobilized the world scientific community in 2020, especially in the life sciences [ 1 , 2 ]. In the first three months after the pandemic, the number of scientific papers about COVID-19 was fivefold the number of articles on H1N1 swine influenza [ 3 ]. Similarly, the number of clinical trials related to COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatments skyrocketed [ 4 ]. Thanks to the rapid mobilization of the world scientific community, COVID-19 vaccines have been developed in record time. Despite this undeniable success, there is a rising concern about the negative consequences of COVID-19 on clinical trial research, with many projects being postponed [ 5 – 7 ]. According to Evaluate Pharma, clinical trials were one of the pandemic’s first casualties, with a record number of 160 studies suspended for reasons related to COVID-19 in April 2020 [ 8 , 9 ] reporting a total of 1,200 trials suspended as of July 2020. As a consequence, clinical researchers have been impaired by reduced access to healthcare research infrastructures. Particularly, the COVID-19 outbreak took a tall on women and early-career scientists [ 10 – 13 ]. On a different ground, Shan and colleagues found that non-COVID-19-related articles decreased as COVID-19-related articles increased in top clinical research journals [ 14 ]. Fraser and coworker found that COVID-19 preprints received more attention and citations than non-COVID-19 preprints [ 1 ]. More recently, Hook and Porter have found some early evidence of ‘covidisation’ of academic research, with research grants and output diverted to COVID-19 research in 2020 [ 15 ]. How much should scientists switch their efforts toward SARS-CoV-2 prevention, treatment, or mitigation? There is a growing consensus that the current level of ‘covidisation’ of research can be wasteful [ 4 , 5 , 16 ].

Against this background, in this paper, we investigate if the COVID-19 pandemic has induced a shift in biomedical publications toward COVID-19-related scientific production. The objective of the study is to show that scientific articles listing covid-related Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) when compared against covid-unrelated MeSH have been partially displaced. Specifically, we look at several indicators of scientific production in the life sciences before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) number of papers published, (2) impact factor weighted number of papers, (3) opens access, (4) number of publications related to clinical trials, (5) number of papers listing grants, (6) number of papers listing grants existing before the pandemic. Through a natural experiment approach, we analyze the impact of the pandemic on scientific production in the life sciences. We consider COVID-19 an unexpected and unprecedented exogenous source of variation with heterogeneous effects across biomedical research fields (i.e., MeSH terms).

Based on the difference in difference results, we document the displacement effect that the pandemic has had on several aspects of scientific publishing. The overall picture that emerges from this analysis is that there has been a profound realignment of priorities and research efforts. This shift has displaced biomedical research in fields not related to COVID-19.

The rest of the paper is structured as follows. First, we describe the data and our measure of relatedness to COVID-19. Next, we illustrate the difference-in-differences specification we rely on to identify the impact of the pandemic on scientific output. In the results section, we present the results of the difference-in-differences and network analyses. We document the sudden shift in publications, grants and trials towards COVID-19-related MeSH terms. Finally, we discuss the findings and highlight several policy implications.

Materials and methods

The present analysis is based primarily on PubMed and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology. This data is used to estimate the effect of the start of the COVID 19 pandemic via a difference in difference approach. This section is structured as follows. We first introduce the data and then the econometric methodology. This analysis is not based on a pre-registered protocol.

Selection of biomedical publications.

We rely on PubMed, a repository with more than 34 million biomedical citations, for the analysis. Specifically, we analyze the daily updated files up to 31/06/2021, extracting all publications of type ‘Journal Article’. For the principal analysis, we consider 3,638,584 papers published from January 2019 to December 2020. We also analyze 11,122,017 papers published from 2010 onwards to identify the earliest usage of a grant and infer if it was new in 2020. We use the SCImago journal ranking statistics to compute the impact factor weighted number (IFWN) of papers in a given field of research. To assign the publication date, we use the ‘electronically published’ dates and, if missing, the ‘print published’ dates.

Medical subject headings.

We rely on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology to approximate narrowly defined biomedical research fields. This terminology is a curated medical vocabulary, which is manually added to papers in the PubMed corpus. The fact that MeSH terms are manually annotated makes this terminology ideal for classification purposes. However, there is a delay between publication and annotation, on the order of several months. To address this delay and have the most recent classification, we search for all 28 425 MeSH terms using PubMed’s ESearch utility and classify paper by the results. The specific API endpoint is https://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/esearch.fcgi , the relevant scripts are available with the code. For example, we assign the term ‘Ageusia’ (MeSH ID D000370) to all papers listed in the results of the ESearch API. We apply this method to the whole period (January 2019—December 2020) and obtain a mapping from papers to the MeSH terms. For every MeSH term, we keep track of the year they have been established. For instance, COVID-19 terms were established in 2020 (see Table 1 ): in January 2020, the WHO recommended 2019-nCoV and 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease as provisional names for the virus and disease. The WHO issued the official terms COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 at the beginning of February 2020. By manually annotating publications, all publications referring to COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 since January 2020 have been labelled with the related MeSH terms. Other MeSH terms related to COVID-19, such as coronavirus, for instance, have been established years before the pandemic (see Table 2 ). We proxy MeSH term usage via search terms using the PubMed EUtilities API; this means that we are not using the hand-labelled MeSH terms but rather the PubMed search results. This means that the accuracy of the MeSH term we assign to a given paper is not perfect. In practice, this means that we have assigned more MeSH terms to a given term than a human annotator would have.

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263001.t001

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The list contains only terms with at least 100 publications in 2020.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263001.t002

Clinical trials and publication types.

We classify publications using PubMed’s ‘PublicationType’ field in the XML baseline files (There are 187 publication types, see https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/pubtypes.html ). We consider a publication to be related to a clinical trial if it lists any of the following descriptors:

  • D016430: Clinical Trial
  • D017426: Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • D017427: Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • D017428: Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • D017429: Clinical Trial, Phase IV
  • D018848: Controlled Clinical Trial
  • D065007: Pragmatic Clinical Trial
  • D000076362: Adaptive Clinical Trial
  • D000077522: Clinical Trial, Veterinary

In our analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on publications related to clinical trials, we only consider MeSH terms that are associated at least once with a clinical trial publication over the two years. We apply this restriction to filter out MeSH terms that are very unlikely to be relevant for clinical trial types of research.

Open access.

We proxy the availability of a journal article to the public, i.e., open access, if it is available from PubMed Central. PubMed Central archives full-text journal articles and provides free access to the public. Note that the copyright license may vary across participating publishers. However, the text of the paper is for all effects and purposes freely available without requiring subscriptions or special affiliation.

We infer if a publication has been funded by checking if it lists any grants. We classify grants as either ‘old’, i.e. existed before 2019, or ‘new’, i.e. first observed afterwards. To do so, we collect all grant IDs for 11,122,017 papers from 2010 on-wards and record their first appearance. This procedure is an indirect inference of the year the grant has been granted. The basic assumption is that if a grant number has not been listed in any publication since 2010, it is very likely a new grant. Specifically, an old grant is a grant listed since 2019 observed at least once from 2010 to 2018.

Note that this procedure is only approximate and has a few shortcomings. Mistyped grant numbers (e.g. ‘1234-M JPN’ and ‘1234-M-JPN’) could appear as new grants, even though they existed before, or new grants might be classified as old grants if they have a common ID (e.g. ‘Grant 1’). Unfortunately, there is no central repository of grant numbers and the associated metadata; however, there are plans to assign DOI numbers to grants to alleviate this problem (See https://gitlab.com/crossref/open_funder_registry for the project).

Impact factor weighted publication numbers (IFWN).

In our analysis, we consider two measures of scientific output. First, we simply count the number of publications by MeSH term. However, since journals vary considerably in terms of impact factor, we also weigh the number of publications by the impact factor of the venue (e.g., journal) where it was published. Specifically, we use the SCImago journal ranking statistics to weigh a paper by the impact factor of the journal it appears in. We use the ‘citation per document in the past two years’ for 45,230 ISSNs. Note that a journal may and often has more than one ISSN, i.e., one for the printed edition and one for the online edition. SCImago applies the same score for a venue across linked ISSNs.

For the impact factor weighted number (IFWN) of publication per MeSH terms, this means that all publications are replaced by the impact score of the journal they appear in and summed up.

COVID-19-relatedness.

To measure how closely related to COVID-19 is a MeSH term, we introduce an index of relatedness to COVID-19. First, we identify the focal COVID-19 terms, which appeared in the literature in 2020 (see Table 1 ). Next, for all other pre-existing MeSH terms, we measure how closely related to COVID-19 they end up being.

Our aim is to show that MeSH terms that existed before and are related have experienced a sudden increase in the number of (impact factor weighted) papers.

effect of covid essay

Intuitively we can read this measure as: what is the probability in 2020 that a COVID-19 MeSH term is present given that we chose a paper with MeSH term i ? For example, given that in 2020 we choose a paper dealing with “Ageusia” (i.e., Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste), there is a 96% probability that this paper also lists COVID-19, see Table 1 .

Note that a paper listing a related MeSH term does not imply that that paper is doing COVID-19 research, but it implies that one of the MeSH terms listed is often used in COVID-19 research.

In sum, in our analysis, we use the following variables:

  • Papers: Number of papers by MeSH term;
  • Impact: Impact factor weighted number of papers by MeSH term;
  • PMC: Papers listed in PubMed central by MeSH term, as a measure of Open Access publications;
  • Trials: number of publications of type “Clinical Trial” by MeSH term;
  • Grants: number of papers with at least one grant by MeSH term;
  • Old Grants: number of papers listing a grant that has been observed between 2010 and 2018, by MeSH term;

Difference-in-differences

The difference-in-differences (DiD) method is an econometric technique to imitate an experimental research design from observation data, sometimes referred to as a quasi-experimental setup. In a randomized controlled trial, subjects are randomly assigned either to the treated or the control group. Analogously, in this natural experiment, we assume that medical subject headings (MeSH) have been randomly assigned to be either treated (related) or not treated (unrelated) by the pandemic crisis.

Before the COVID, for a future health crisis, the set of potentially impacted medical knowledge was not predictable since it depended on the specifics of the emergency. For instance, ageusia (loss of taste), a medical concept existing since 1991, became known to be a specific symptom of COVID-19 only after the pandemic.

Specifically, we exploit the COVID-19 as an unpredictable and exogenous shock that has deeply affected the publication priorities for biomedical scientific production, as compared to the situation before the pandemic. In this setting, COVID-19 is the treatment, and the identification of this new human coronavirus is the event. We claim that treated MeSH terms, i.e., MeSH terms related to COVID-19, have experienced a sudden increase in terms of scientific production and attention. In contrast, research on untreated MeSH terms, i.e., MeSH terms not related to COVID-19, has been displaced by COVID-19. Our analysis compares the scientific output of COVID-19 related and unrelated MeSH terms before and after January 2020.

effect of covid essay

In our case, some of the terms turn out to be related to COVID-19 in 2020, whereas most of the MeSH terms are not closely related to COVID-19.

Thus β 1 identifies the overall effect on the control group after the event, β 2 the difference across treated and control groups before the event (i.e. the first difference in DiD) and finally the effect on the treated group after the event, net of the first difference, β 3 . This last parameter identifies the treatment effect on the treated group netting out the pre-treatment difference.

For the DiD to have a causal interpretation, it must be noted that pre-event, the trends of the two groups should be parallel, i.e., the common trend assumption (CTA) must be satisfied. We will show that the CTA holds in the results section.

To specify the DiD model, we need to define a period before and after the event and assign a treatment status or level of exposure to each term.

Before and after.

The pre-treatment period is defined as January 2019 to December 2019. The post-treatment period is defined as the months from January 2020 to December 2020. We argue that the state of biomedical research was similar in those two years, apart from the effect of the pandemic.

Treatment status and exposure.

The treatment is determined by the COVID-19 relatedness index σ i introduced earlier. Specifically, this number indicates the likelihood that COVID-19 will be a listed MeSH term, given that we observe the focal MeSH term i . To show that the effect becomes even stronger the closer related the subject is, and for ease of interpretation, we also discretize the relatedness value into three levels of treatment. Namely, we group MeSH terms with a σ between, 0% to 20%, 20% to 80% and 80% to 100%. The choice of alternative grouping strategies does not significantly affect our results. Results for alternative thresholds of relatedness can be computed using the available source code. We complement the dichotomized analysis by using the treatment intensity (relatedness measure σ ) to show that the result persists.

Panel regression.

In this work, we estimate a random effects panel regression where the units of analysis are 28 318 biomedical research fields (i.e. MeSH terms) observed over time before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The time resolution is at the monthly level, meaning that for each MeSH term, we have 24 observations from January 2019 to December 2020.

effect of covid essay

The outcome variable Y it identifies the outcome at time t (i.e., month), for MeSH term i . As before, P t identifies the period with P t = 0 if the month is before January 2020 and P t = 1 if it is on or after this date. In (3) , the treatment level is measure by the relatedness to COVID-19 ( σ i ), where again the γ 1 identifies pre-trend (constant) differences and δ 1 the overall effect.

effect of covid essay

In total, we estimate six coefficients. As before, the δ l coefficient identifies the DiD effect.

Verifying the Common Trend Assumption (CTA).

effect of covid essay

We show that the CTA holds for this model by comparing the pre-event trends of the control group to the treated groups (COVID-19 related MeSH terms). Namely, we show that the pre-event trends of the control group are the same as the pre-event trends of the treated group.

Co-occurrence analysis

To investigate if the pandemic has caused a reconfiguration of research priorities, we look at the MeSH term co-occurrence network. Precisely, we extract the co-occurrence network of all 28,318 MeSH terms as they appear in the 3.3 million papers. We considered the co-occurrence networks of 2018, 2019 and 2020. Each node represents a MeSH term in these networks, and a link between them indicates that they have been observed at least once together. The weight of the edge between the MeSH terms is given by the number of times those terms have been jointly observed in the same publications.

Medical language is hugely complicated, and this simple representation does not capture the intricacies, subtle nuances and, in fact, meaning of the terms. Therefore, we do not claim that we can identify how the actual usage of MeSH terms has changed from this object, but rather that it has. Nevertheless, the co-occurrence graph captures rudimentary relations between concepts. We argue that absent a shock to the system, their basic usage patterns, change in importance (within the network) would essentially be the same from year to year. However, if we find that the importance of terms changes more than expected in 2020, it stands to reason that there have been some significant changes.

To show that that MeSH usage has been affected, we compute for each term in the years 2018, 2019 and 2020 their PageRank centrality [ 17 ]. The PageRank centrality tells us how likely a random walker traversing a network would be found at a given node if she follows the weights of the empirical edges (i.e., co-usage probability). Specifically, for the case of the MeSH co-occurrence network, this number represents how often an annotator at the National Library of Medicine would assign that MeSH term following the observed general usage patterns. It is a simplistic measure to capture the complexities of biomedical research. Nevertheless, it captures far-reaching interdependence across MeSH terms as the measure uses the whole network to determine the centrality of every MeSH term. A sudden change in the rankings and thus the position of MeSH terms in this network suggests that a given research subject has risen as it is used more often with other important MeSH terms (or vice versa).

effect of covid essay

We then compare the growth for each MeSH i term in g i (2019), i.e. before the the COVID-19 pandemic, with the growth after the event ( g i (2020)).

Publication growth

effect of covid essay

Changes in output and COVID-19 relatedness

Before we show the regression results, we provide descriptive evidence that publications from 2019 to 2020 have drastically increased. By showing that this growth correlates strongly with a MeSH term’s COVID-19 relatedness ( σ ), we demonstrate that (1) σ captures an essential aspect of the growth dynamics and (2) highlight the meteoric rise of highly related terms.

We look at the year over year growth in the number of the impact weighted number of publications per MeSH term from 2018 to 2019 and 2019 to 2020 as defined in the methods section.

Fig 1 shows the yearly growth of the impact weighted number of publications per MeSH term. By comparing the growth of the number of publications from the years 2018, 2019 and 2020, we find that the impact factor weighted number of publications has increased by up to a factor of 100 compared to the previous year for Betacoronavirus, one of the most closely related to COVID-19 MeSH term.

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Each dot represents, a MeSH term. The y axis (growth) is in symmetric log scale. The x axis shows the COVID-19 relatedness, σ . Note that the position of the dots on the x-axis is the same in the two plots. Below: MeSH term importance gain (PageRank) and their COVID-19 relatedness.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263001.g001

Fig 1 , first row, reveals how strongly correlated the growth in the IFWN of publication is to the term’s COVID-19 relatedness. For instance, we see that the term ‘Betacoronavirus’ skyrocketed from 2019 to 2020, which is expected given that SARS-CoV-2 is a species of the genus. Conversely, the term ‘Alphacoronavirus’ has not experienced any growth given that it is twin a genus of the Coronaviridae family, but SARS-CoV-2 is not one of its species. Note also the fast growth in the number of publications dealing with ‘Quarantine’. Moreover, MeSH terms that grew significantly from 2018 to 2019 and were not closely related to COVID-19, like ‘Vaping’, slowed down in 2020. From the graph, the picture emerges that publication growth is correlated with COVID-19 relatedness σ and that the growth for less related terms slowed down.

To show that the usage pattern of MeSH terms has changed following the pandemic, we compute the PageRank centrality using graph-tool [ 18 ] as discussed in the Methods section.

Fig 1 , second row, shows the change in the PageRank centrality of the MeSH terms after the pandemic (2019 to 2020, right plot) and before (2018 to 2019, left plot). If there were no change in the general usage pattern, we would expect the variance in PageRank changes to be narrow across the two periods, see (left plot). However, PageRank scores changed significantly more from 2019 to 2020 than from 2018 to 2019, suggesting that there has been a reconfiguration of the network.

To further support this argument, we carry out a DiD regression analysis.

Common trends assumption

As discussed in the Methods section, we need to show that the CTA assumption holds for the DiD to be defined appropriately. We do this by estimating for each month the number of publications and comparing it across treatment groups. This exercise also serves the purpose of a placebo test. By assuming that each month could have potentially been the event’s timing (i.e., the outbreak), we show that January 2020 is the most likely timing of the event. The regression table, as noted earlier, contains over 70 estimated coefficients, hence for ease of reading, we will only show the predicted outcome per month by group (see Fig 2 ). The full regression table with all coefficients is available in the S1 Table .

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The y axis is in log scale. The dashed vertical line identifies January 2020. The dashed horizontal line shows the publications in January 2019 for the 0–20% group before the event. This line highlights that the drop happens after the event. The bands around the lines indicate the 95% confidence interval of the predicted values. The results are the output of the Stata margins command.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263001.g002

Fig 2 shows the predicted number per outcome variable obtained from the panel regression model. These predictions correspond to the predicted value per relatedness group using the regression parameters estimated via the linear panel regression. The bands around the curves are the 95% confidence intervals.

All outcome measures depict a similar trend per month. Before the event (i.e., January 2020), there is a common trend across all groups. In contrast, after the event, we observe a sudden rise for the outcomes of the COVID-19 related treated groups (green and red lines) and a decline in the outcomes for the unrelated group (blue line). Therefore, we can conclude that the CTA assumption holds.

Regression results

Table 3 shows the DiD regression results (see Eq (3) ) for the selected outcome measures: number of publications (Papers), impact factor weighted number of publications (Impact), open access (OA) publications, clinical trial related publications, and publications with existing grants.

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263001.t003

Table 3 shows results for the discrete treatment level version of the DiD model (see Eq (4) ).

Note that the outcome variable is in natural log scale; hence to get the effect of the independent variable, we need to exponentiate the coefficient. For values close to 0, the effect is well approximated by the percentage change of that magnitude.

In both specifications we see that the least related group, drops in the number of publications between 10% and 13%, respectively (first row of Tables 3 and 4 , exp(−0.102) ≈ 0.87). In line with our expectations, the increase in the number of papers published by MeSH term is positively affected by the relatedness to COVID-19. In the discrete model (row 2), we note that the number of documents with MeSH terms with a COVID-19 relatedness between 20 and 80% grows by 18% and highly related terms by a factor of approximately 6.6 (exp(1.88)). The same general pattern can be observed for the impact weighted publication number, i.e., Model (2). Note, however, that the drop in the impact factor weighted output is more significant, reaching -19% for COVID-19 unrelated publications, and related publications growing by a factor of 8.7. This difference suggests that there might be a bias to publish papers on COVID-19 related subjects in high impact factor journals.

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263001.t004

By looking at the number of open access publications (PMC), we note that the least related group has not been affected negatively by the pandemic. However, the number of COVID-19 related publications has drastically increased for the most COVID-19 related group by a factor of 6.2. Note that the substantial increase in the number of papers available through open access is in large part due to journal and editorial policies to make preferentially COVID research immediately available to the public.

Regarding the number of clinical trial publications, we note that the least related group has been affected negatively, with the number of publications on clinical trials dropping by a staggering 24%. At the same time, publications on clinical trials for COVID-19-related MeSH have increased by a factor of 2.1. Note, however, that the effect on clinical trials is not significant in the continuous regression. The discrepancy across Tables 3 and 4 highlights that, especially for trials, the effect is not linear, where only the publications on clinical trials closely related to COVID-19 experiencing a boost.

It has been reported [ 19 ] that while the number of clinical trials registered to treat or prevent COVID-19 has surged with 179 new registrations in the second week of April 2020 alone. Only a few of these have led to publishable results in the 12 months since [ 20 ]. On the other hand, we find that clinical trial publications, considering related MeSH (but not COVID-19 directly), have had significant growth from the beginning of the pandemic. These results are not contradictory. Indeed counting the number of clinical trial publications listing the exact COVID-19 MeSH term (D000086382), we find 212 publications. While this might seem like a small number, consider that in 2020 only 8,485 publications were classified as clinical trials; thus, targeted trials still made up 2.5% of all clinical trials in 2020 . So while one might doubt the effectiveness of these research efforts, it is still the case that by sheer number, they represent a significant proportion of all publications on clinical trials in 2020. Moreover, COVID-19 specific Clinical trial publications in 2020, being a delayed signal of the actual trials, are a lower bound estimate on the true number of such clinical trials being conducted. This is because COVID-19 studies could only have commenced in 2020, whereas other studies had a head start. Thus our reported estimates are conservative, meaning that the true effect on actual clinical trials is likely larger, not smaller.

Research funding, as proxied by the number of publications with grants, follows a similar pattern, but notably, COVID-19-related MeSH terms list the same proportion of grants established before 2019 as other unrelated MeSH terms, suggesting that grants which were not designated for COVID-19 research have been used to support COVID-19 related research. Overall, the number of publications listing a grant has dropped. Note that this should be because the number of publications overall in the unrelated group has dropped. However, we note that the drop in publications is 10% while the decline in publications with at least one grant is 15%. This difference suggests that publications listing grants, which should have more funding, are disproportionately COVID-19 related papers. To further investigate this aspect, we look at whether the grant was old (pre-2019) or appeared for the first time in or after 2019. It stands to reason that an old grant (pre-2019) would not have been granted for a project dealing with the pandemic. Hence we would expect that COVID-19 related MeSH terms to have a lower proportion of old grants than the unrelated group. In models (6) in Table 4 we show that the number of old grants for the unrelated group drops by 13%. At the same time, the number of papers listing old grants (i.e., pre-2019) among the most related group increased by a factor of 3.1. Overall, these results suggest that COVID-19 related research has been funded largely by pre-existing grants, even though a specific mandate tied to the grants for this use is unlikely.

The scientific community has swiftly reallocated research efforts to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, mobilizing knowledge across disciplines to find innovative solutions in record time. We document this both in terms of changing trends in the biomedical scientific output and the usage of MeSH terms by the scientific community. The flip side of this sudden and energetic prioritization of effort to fight COVID-19 has been a sudden contraction of scientific production in other relevant research areas. All in all, we find strong support to the hypotheses that the COVID-19 crisis has induced a sudden increase of research output in COVID-19 related areas of biomedical research. Conversely, research in areas not related to COVID-19 has experienced a significant drop in overall publishing rates and funding.

Our paper contributes to the literature on the impact of COVID-19 on scientific research: we corroborate previous findings about the surge of COVID-19 related publications [ 1 – 3 ], partially displacing research in COVID-19 unrelated fields of research [ 4 , 14 ], particularly research related to clinical trials [ 5 – 7 ]. The drop in trial research might have severe consequences for patients affected by life-threatening diseases since it will delay access to new and better treatments. We also confirm the impact of COVID-19 on open access publication output [ 1 ]; also, this is milder than traditional outlets. On top of this, we provide more robust evidence on the impact weighted effect of COVID-19 and grant financed research, highlighting the strong displacement effect of COVID-19 on the allocation of financial resources [ 15 ]. We document a substantial change in the usage patterns of MeSH terms, suggesting that there has been a reconfiguration in the way research terms are being combined. MeSH terms highly related to COVID-19 were peripheral in the MeSH usage networks before the pandemic but have become central since 2020. We conclude that the usage patterns have changed, with COVID-19 related MeSH terms occupying a much more prominent role in 2020 than they did in the previous years.

We also contribute to the literature by estimating the effect of COVID-19 on biomedical research in a natural experiment framework, isolating the specific effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the biomedical scientific landscape. This is crucial to identify areas of public intervention to sustain areas of biomedical research which have been neglected during the COVID-19 crisis. Moreover, the exploratory analysis on the changes in usage patterns of MeSH terms, points to an increase in the importance of covid-related topics in the broader biomedical research landscape.

Our results provide compelling evidence that research related to COVID-19 has indeed displaced scientific production in other biomedical fields of research not related to COVID-19, with a significant drop in (impact weighted) scientific output related to non-COVID-19 and a marked reduction of financial support for publications not related to COVID-19 [ 4 , 5 , 16 ]. The displacement effect is persistent to the end of 2020. As vaccination progresses, we highlight the urgent need for science policy to re-balance support for research activity that was put on pause because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

We find that COVID-19 dramatically impacted clinical research. Reactivation of clinical trials activities that have been postponed or suspended for reasons related to COVID-19 is a priority that should be considered in the national vaccination plans. Moreover, since grants have been diverted and financial incentives have been targeted to sustain COVID-19 research leading to an excessive entry in COVID-19-related clinical trials and the ‘covidisation’ of research, there is a need to reorient incentives to basic research and otherwise neglected or temporally abandoned areas of biomedical research. Without dedicated support in the recovery plans for neglected research of the COVID-19 era, there is a risk that more medical needs will be unmet in the future, possibly exacerbating the shortage of scientific research for orphan and neglected diseases, which do not belong to COVID-19-related research areas.

Limitations

Our empirical approach has some limits. First, we proxy MeSH term usage via search terms using the PubMed EUtilities API. This means that the accuracy of the MeSH term we assign to a given paper is not fully validated. More time is needed for the completion of manually annotated MeSH terms. Second, the timing of publication is not the moment the research has been carried out. There is a lead time between inception, analysis, write-up, review, revision, and final publication. This delay varies across disciplines. Nevertheless, given that the surge in publications happens around the alleged event date, January 2020, we are confident that the publication date is a reasonable yet imperfect estimate of the timing of the research. Third, several journals have publicly declared to fast-track COVID-19 research. This discrepancy in the speed of publication of COVID-19 related research and other research could affect our results. Specifically, a surge or displacement could be overestimated due to a lag in the publication of COVID-19 unrelated research. We alleviate this bias by estimating the effect considering a considerable time after the event (January 2020 to December 2020). Forth, on the one hand, clinical Trials may lead to multiple publications. Therefore we might overestimate the impact of COVID-19 on the number of clinical trials. On the other hand, COVID-19 publications on clinical trials lag behind, so the number of papers related COVID-19 trials is likely underestimated. Therefore, we note that the focus of this paper is scientific publications on clinical trials rather than on actual clinical trials. Fifth, regarding grants, unfortunately, there is no unique centralized repository mapping grant numbers to years, so we have to proxy old grants with grants that appeared in publications from 2010 to 2018. Besides, grant numbers are free-form entries, meaning that PubMed has no validation step to disambiguate or verify that the grant number has been entered correctly. This has the effect of classifying a grant as new even though it has appeared under a different name. We mitigate this problem by using a long period to collect grant numbers and catch many spellings of the same grant, thereby reducing the likelihood of miss-identifying a grant as new when it existed before. Still, unless unique identifiers are widely used, there is no way to verify this.

So far, there is no conclusive evidence on whether entry into COVID-19 has been excessive. However, there is a growing consensus that COVID-19 has displaced, at least temporally, scientific research in COVID-19 unrelated biomedical research areas. Even though it is certainly expected that more attention will be devoted to the emergency during a pandemic, the displacement of biomedical research in other fields is concerning. Future research is needed to investigate the long-run structural consequences of the COVID-19 crisis on biomedical research.

Supporting information

S1 table. common trend assumption (cta) regression table..

Full regression table with all controls and interactions.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263001.s001

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The pandemic has had devastating impacts on learning. What will it take to help students catch up?

Subscribe to the brown center on education policy newsletter, megan kuhfeld , megan kuhfeld senior research scientist - nwea @megankuhfeld jim soland , jim soland assistant professor, school of education and human development - university of virginia, affiliated research fellow - nwea @jsoland karyn lewis , and karyn lewis director, center for school and student progress - nwea @karynlew emily morton emily morton research scientist - nwea @emily_r_morton.

March 3, 2022

As we reach the two-year mark of the initial wave of pandemic-induced school shutdowns, academic normalcy remains out of reach for many students, educators, and parents. In addition to surging COVID-19 cases at the end of 2021, schools have faced severe staff shortages , high rates of absenteeism and quarantines , and rolling school closures . Furthermore, students and educators continue to struggle with mental health challenges , higher rates of violence and misbehavior , and concerns about lost instructional time .

As we outline in our new research study released in January, the cumulative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students’ academic achievement has been large. We tracked changes in math and reading test scores across the first two years of the pandemic using data from 5.4 million U.S. students in grades 3-8. We focused on test scores from immediately before the pandemic (fall 2019), following the initial onset (fall 2020), and more than one year into pandemic disruptions (fall 2021).

Average fall 2021 math test scores in grades 3-8 were 0.20-0.27 standard deviations (SDs) lower relative to same-grade peers in fall 2019, while reading test scores were 0.09-0.18 SDs lower. This is a sizable drop. For context, the math drops are significantly larger than estimated impacts from other large-scale school disruptions, such as after Hurricane Katrina—math scores dropped 0.17 SDs in one year for New Orleans evacuees .

Even more concerning, test-score gaps between students in low-poverty and high-poverty elementary schools grew by approximately 20% in math (corresponding to 0.20 SDs) and 15% in reading (0.13 SDs), primarily during the 2020-21 school year. Further, achievement tended to drop more between fall 2020 and 2021 than between fall 2019 and 2020 (both overall and differentially by school poverty), indicating that disruptions to learning have continued to negatively impact students well past the initial hits following the spring 2020 school closures.

These numbers are alarming and potentially demoralizing, especially given the heroic efforts of students to learn and educators to teach in incredibly trying times. From our perspective, these test-score drops in no way indicate that these students represent a “ lost generation ” or that we should give up hope. Most of us have never lived through a pandemic, and there is so much we don’t know about students’ capacity for resiliency in these circumstances and what a timeline for recovery will look like. Nor are we suggesting that teachers are somehow at fault given the achievement drops that occurred between 2020 and 2021; rather, educators had difficult jobs before the pandemic, and now are contending with huge new challenges, many outside their control.

Clearly, however, there’s work to do. School districts and states are currently making important decisions about which interventions and strategies to implement to mitigate the learning declines during the last two years. Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief (ESSER) investments from the American Rescue Plan provided nearly $200 billion to public schools to spend on COVID-19-related needs. Of that sum, $22 billion is dedicated specifically to addressing learning loss using “evidence-based interventions” focused on the “ disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on underrepresented student subgroups. ” Reviews of district and state spending plans (see Future Ed , EduRecoveryHub , and RAND’s American School District Panel for more details) indicate that districts are spending their ESSER dollars designated for academic recovery on a wide variety of strategies, with summer learning, tutoring, after-school programs, and extended school-day and school-year initiatives rising to the top.

Comparing the negative impacts from learning disruptions to the positive impacts from interventions

To help contextualize the magnitude of the impacts of COVID-19, we situate test-score drops during the pandemic relative to the test-score gains associated with common interventions being employed by districts as part of pandemic recovery efforts. If we assume that such interventions will continue to be as successful in a COVID-19 school environment, can we expect that these strategies will be effective enough to help students catch up? To answer this question, we draw from recent reviews of research on high-dosage tutoring , summer learning programs , reductions in class size , and extending the school day (specifically for literacy instruction) . We report effect sizes for each intervention specific to a grade span and subject wherever possible (e.g., tutoring has been found to have larger effects in elementary math than in reading).

Figure 1 shows the standardized drops in math test scores between students testing in fall 2019 and fall 2021 (separately by elementary and middle school grades) relative to the average effect size of various educational interventions. The average effect size for math tutoring matches or exceeds the average COVID-19 score drop in math. Research on tutoring indicates that it often works best in younger grades, and when provided by a teacher rather than, say, a parent. Further, some of the tutoring programs that produce the biggest effects can be quite intensive (and likely expensive), including having full-time tutors supporting all students (not just those needing remediation) in one-on-one settings during the school day. Meanwhile, the average effect of reducing class size is negative but not significant, with high variability in the impact across different studies. Summer programs in math have been found to be effective (average effect size of .10 SDs), though these programs in isolation likely would not eliminate the COVID-19 test-score drops.

Figure 1: Math COVID-19 test-score drops compared to the effect sizes of various educational interventions

Figure 1 – Math COVID-19 test-score drops compared to the effect sizes of various educational interventions

Source: COVID-19 score drops are pulled from Kuhfeld et al. (2022) Table 5; reduction-in-class-size results are from pg. 10 of Figles et al. (2018) Table 2; summer program results are pulled from Lynch et al (2021) Table 2; and tutoring estimates are pulled from Nictow et al (2020) Table 3B. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals are shown with vertical lines on each bar.

Notes: Kuhfeld et al. and Nictow et al. reported effect sizes separately by grade span; Figles et al. and Lynch et al. report an overall effect size across elementary and middle grades. We were unable to find a rigorous study that reported effect sizes for extending the school day/year on math performance. Nictow et al. and Kraft & Falken (2021) also note large variations in tutoring effects depending on the type of tutor, with larger effects for teacher and paraprofessional tutoring programs than for nonprofessional and parent tutoring. Class-size reductions included in the Figles meta-analysis ranged from a minimum of one to minimum of eight students per class.

Figure 2 displays a similar comparison using effect sizes from reading interventions. The average effect of tutoring programs on reading achievement is larger than the effects found for the other interventions, though summer reading programs and class size reduction both produced average effect sizes in the ballpark of the COVID-19 reading score drops.

Figure 2: Reading COVID-19 test-score drops compared to the effect sizes of various educational interventions

Figure 2 – Reading COVID-19 test-score drops compared to the effect sizes of various educational interventions

Source: COVID-19 score drops are pulled from Kuhfeld et al. (2022) Table 5; extended-school-day results are from Figlio et al. (2018) Table 2; reduction-in-class-size results are from pg. 10 of Figles et al. (2018) ; summer program results are pulled from Kim & Quinn (2013) Table 3; and tutoring estimates are pulled from Nictow et al (2020) Table 3B. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals are shown with vertical lines on each bar.

Notes: While Kuhfeld et al. and Nictow et al. reported effect sizes separately by grade span, Figlio et al. and Kim & Quinn report an overall effect size across elementary and middle grades. Class-size reductions included in the Figles meta-analysis ranged from a minimum of one to minimum of eight students per class.

There are some limitations of drawing on research conducted prior to the pandemic to understand our ability to address the COVID-19 test-score drops. First, these studies were conducted under conditions that are very different from what schools currently face, and it is an open question whether the effectiveness of these interventions during the pandemic will be as consistent as they were before the pandemic. Second, we have little evidence and guidance about the efficacy of these interventions at the unprecedented scale that they are now being considered. For example, many school districts are expanding summer learning programs, but school districts have struggled to find staff interested in teaching summer school to meet the increased demand. Finally, given the widening test-score gaps between low- and high-poverty schools, it’s uncertain whether these interventions can actually combat the range of new challenges educators are facing in order to narrow these gaps. That is, students could catch up overall, yet the pandemic might still have lasting, negative effects on educational equality in this country.

Given that the current initiatives are unlikely to be implemented consistently across (and sometimes within) districts, timely feedback on the effects of initiatives and any needed adjustments will be crucial to districts’ success. The Road to COVID Recovery project and the National Student Support Accelerator are two such large-scale evaluation studies that aim to produce this type of evidence while providing resources for districts to track and evaluate their own programming. Additionally, a growing number of resources have been produced with recommendations on how to best implement recovery programs, including scaling up tutoring , summer learning programs , and expanded learning time .

Ultimately, there is much work to be done, and the challenges for students, educators, and parents are considerable. But this may be a moment when decades of educational reform, intervention, and research pay off. Relying on what we have learned could show the way forward.

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Special Issue: COVID-19

This essay was published as part of a Special Issue on Misinformation and COVID-19, guest-edited by Dr. Meghan McGinty (Director of Emergency Management, NYC Health + Hospitals) and Nat Gyenes (Director, Meedan Digital Health Lab).

Peer Reviewed

The causes and consequences of COVID-19 misperceptions: Understanding the role of news and social media

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We investigate the relationship between media consumption, misinformation, and important attitudes and behaviours during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We find that comparatively more misinformation circulates on Twitter, while news media tends to reinforce public health recommendations like social distancing. We find that exposure to social media is associated with misperceptions regarding basic facts about COVID-19 while the inverse is true for news media. These misperceptions are in turn associated with lower compliance with social distancing measures. We thus draw a clear link from misinformation circulating on social media, notably Twitter, to behaviours and attitudes that potentially magnify the scale and lethality of COVID-19.

Department of Political Science, McGill University, Canada

Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy, University of Toronto, Canada

Max Bell School of Public Policy, McGill University, Canada

School of Computer Science, McGill University, Canada

Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures, McGill University, Canada

Computer Science Program, McGill University, Canada

effect of covid essay

Research Questions

  • How prevalent is misinformation surrounding COVID-19 on Twitter, and how does this compare to Canadian news media?
  • Does the type of media one is exposed to influence social distancing behaviours and beliefs about COVID-19?
  • Is there a link between COVID-19 misinformation and perceptions of the pandemic’s severity and compliance with social distancing recommendations?

Essay Summary

  • We evaluate the presence of misinformation and public health recommendations regarding COVID-19 in a massive corpus of tweets as well as all articles published on nineteen Canadian news sites. Using these data, we show that preventative measures are more encouraged and covered on traditional news media, while misinformation appears more frequently on Twitter.
  • To evaluate the impact of this greater level of misinformation, we conducted a nationally representative survey that included questions about common misperceptions regarding COVID-19, risk perceptions, social distancing compliance, and exposure to traditional news and social media. We find that being exposed to news media is associated with fewer misperceptions and more social distancing compliance while conversely, social media exposure is associated with more misperceptions and less social distancing compliance.
  • Misperceptions regarding the virus are in turn associated with less compliance with social distancing measures, even when controlling for a broad range of other attitudes and characteristics.
  • Association between social media exposure and social distancing non-compliance is eliminated when accounting for effect of misperceptions, providing evidence that social media is associated with non-compliance through increasing misperceptions about the virus.

Implications

The COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by a so-called “infodemic”—a global spread of misinformation that poses a serious problem for public health. Infodemics are concerning because the spread of false or misleading information has the capacity to change transmission patterns (Kim et al., 2019) and consequently the scale and lethality of a pandemic. This information can be shared by any media, but there is reason to be particularly concerned about the role that social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, play in incidentally boosting misperceptions. These platforms are increasingly relied upon as primary sources of news (Mitchell et al., 2016) and misinformation has been heavily documented on them (Garrett, 2019; Vicario et al., 2016). Scholars have found medical and health misinformation on the platforms, including that related to vaccines (Radzikowski et al., 2016) and other virus epidemics such as Ebola (Fung et al., 2016) and Zika (Sharma et al., 2017). 

However, misinformation content typically makes up a low percentage of overall discussion of a topic (e.g. Fung et al., 2016) and mere exposure to misinformation does not guarantee belief in that misinformation. More research is thus needed to understand the extent and consequences of misinformation surrounding COVID-19 on social media. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Twitter, Facebook and other platforms have engaged in efforts to combat misinformation but they have continued to receive widespread criticism that misinformation is still appearing on prominent pages and groups (Kouzy et al., 2020; NewsGuard, 2020). The extent to which misinformation continues to circulate on these platforms and influence people’s attitudes and behaviours is still very much an open question.

Here, we draw on three data sets and a sequential mixed method approach to better understand the consequences of online misinformation for important behaviours and attitudes. First, we collected nearly 2.5 million tweets explicitly referring to COVID-19 in the Canadian context. Second, we collected just over 9 thousand articles from nineteen Canadian English-language news sites from the same time period. We coded both of these media sets for misinformation and public health recommendations. Third, we conducted a nationally representative survey that included questions related to media consumption habits, COVID-19 perceptions and misperceptions, and social distancing compliance. As our outcome variables are continuous, we use Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to identify relationships between news and social media exposure, misperceptions, compliance with social distancing measures, and risk perceptions. We use these data to illustrate: 1) the relative prevalence of misinformation on Twitter; and 2) a powerful association between social media usage and misperceptions, on the one hand, and social distancing non-compliance on the other.

Misinformation and compliance with social distancing

We first compare the presence of misinformation on Twitter with that on news media and find, consistent with the other country cases (Chadwick & Vaccari, 2019; Vicario et al., 2016), comparatively higher levels of misinformation circulating on the social media platform. We also found that recommendations for safe practices during the pandemic (e.g. washing hands, social distancing) appeared much more frequently in the Canadian news media. These findings are in line with literature examining fake news which finds a large difference in information quality across media (Al-Rawi, 2019; Guess & Nyhan, 2018).

Spending time in a media environment that contains misinformation is likely to change attitudes and behaviours. Even if users are not nested in networks that propagate misinformation, they are likely to be incidentally exposed to information from a variety of perspectives (Feezell, 2018; Fletcher & Nielsen, 2018; Weeks et al., 2017). Even a highly curated social media feed is thus still likely to contain misinformation. As cumulative exposure to misinformation increases, users are likely to experience a reinforcement effect whereby familiarity leads to stronger belief (Dechêne et al., 2010).

To evaluate this empirically, we conducted a national survey that included questions on information consumption habits and a battery of COVID-19 misperceptions that could be the result of exposure to misinformation. We find that those who self-report exposure to the misinformation-rich social media environment do tend to have more misperceptions regarding COVID-19. These findings are consistent with others that link exposure to misinformation and misperceptions (Garrett et al., 2016; Jamieson & Albarracín, 2020). Social media users also self-report less compliance with social distancing.

Misperceptions are most meaningful when they impact behaviors in dangerous ways. During a pandemic, misperceptions can be fatal. In this case, we find that misperceptions are associated with reduced COVID-19 risk perceptions and with lower compliance with social distancing measures. We continue to find strong effects after controlling for socio-economic characteristics as well as scientific literacy. After accounting for the effect of misperceptions on social distancing non-compliance, social media usage no longer has a significant association with non-compliance, providing evidence that social media may lead to less social distancing compliance through its effect on COVID-19 misperceptions.

While some social media companies have made efforts to suppress misinformation on their platforms, there continues to be a high level of misinformation relative to news media. Highly polarized political environments and media ecosystems can lead to the spread of misinformation, such as in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic (Allcott et al., 2020; Motta et al., 2020). But even in healthy media ecosystems with less partisan news (Owen et al., 2020), social media can continue to facilitate the spread of misinformation. There is a real danger that without concerted efforts to reduce the amount of misinformation shared on social media, the large-scale social efforts required to combat COVID-19 will be undermined. 

We contribute to a growing base of evidence that misinformation circulating on social media poses public health risks and join others in calling for social media companies to put greater focus on flattening the curve of misinformation (Donovan, 2020). These findings also provide governments with stronger evidence that the misinformation circulating on social media can be directly linked to misperceptions and public health risks. Such evidence is essential for them to chart an effective policy course. Finally, the methods and approach developed in this paper can be fruitfully applied to study other waves of misinformation and the research community can build upon the link clearly drawn between misinformation exposure, misperceptions, and downstream attitudes and behaviours.

We found use of social media platforms broadly contributes to misperceptions but were unable to precise the overall level of misinformation circulating on non-Twitter social media. Data access for researchers to platforms such as Facebook, YouTube, and Instagram is limited and virtually non-existent for SnapChat, WhatsApp, and WeChat. Cross-platform content comparisons are an important ingredient for a rich understand of the social media environment and these social media companies must better open their platforms to research in the public interest. 

Finding 1: Misinformation about COVID-19 is circulated more on Twitter as compared to traditional media.

We find large differences between the quality of information shared about COVID-19 on traditional news and Twitter. Figure 1 shows the percentage of COVID-19 related content that contains information linked to a particular theme. The plot reports the prevalence of information on both social and news media for: 1) three specific pieces of misinformation; 2) a general set of content that describes the pandemic itself as a conspiracy or a hoax; and 3) advice about hygiene and social distancing during the pandemic. We differentiate content that shared misinformation (red in the plot) from content that debunked misinformation (green in the plot). 

effect of covid essay

There are large differences between the levels of misinformation on Twitter and news media. Misinformation was comparatively more common on Twitter across all four categories, while debunking was relatively more common in traditional news. Meanwhile, advice on hygiene and social distancing appeared much more frequently in news media. Note that higher percentages are to be expected for longer format news articles since we rely on keyword searches for identification. This makes the misinformation findings even starker – despite much higher average word counts, far fewer news articles propagate misinformation.

Finding 2: There is a strong association between social media exposure and misperceptions about COVID-19. The inverse is true for exposure to traditional news.

Among our survey respondents we find a corresponding strong association between social media exposure and misperceptions about COVID-19. These results are plotted in Figure 2, with controls included for both socioeconomic characteristics and demographics. Moving from no social media exposure to its maximum is expected to increase one’s misperceptions of COVID-19 by 0.22 on the 0-1 scale and decreased self-reported social distancing compliance by 0.12 on that same scale.

This result stands in stark contrast with the observed relationship between traditional news exposure and our outcome measures. Traditional news exposure is  positively  associated with correct perceptions regarding COVID-19. Moving from no news exposure to its highest level is expected to reduce misperceptions by 0.12 on the 0-1 scale and to increase social distancing compliance by 0.28 on that same scale. The effects are plotted in Figure 2. Social media usage appears to be correlated with COVID-19 misperceptions, suggesting these misperceptions are partially a result of misinformation on social media. The same cannot be said of traditional news exposure.

effect of covid essay

Finding 3: Misperceptions about the pandemic are associated with lower levels of risk perceptions and social distancing compliance.

COVID-19 misperceptions are also powerfully associated with  lower  levels of social distancing compliance. Moving from the lowest level of COVID-19 misperceptions to its maximum is associated with a reduction of one’s social distancing by 0.39 on the 0-1 scale. The previously observed relationship between social media exposure and misperceptions disappears, suggestive of a mediated relationship. That is, social media exposure increases misperceptions, which in turn reduces social distancing compliance. Misperceptions is also weakly associated with lower COVID-19 risk perceptions. Estimates from our models using COVID-19 concern as the outcome can be found in the left panel of Figure 3, while social distancing can be found in the right panel.

Finally, we also see that the relationship between misinformation and both social distancing compliance and COVID-19 concern hold when including controls for science literacy and a number of fundamental predispositions that are likely associated with both misperceptions and following the advice of scientific experts, such as anti-intellectualism, pseudoscientific beliefs, and left-right ideology. These estimates can similarly be found in Figure 3.

effect of covid essay

Canadian Twitter and news data were collected from March 26 th  to April 6 th , 2020. We collected all English-language tweets from a set of 620,000 users that have been determined to be likely Canadians. For inclusion, a given user must self-identify as Canadian-based, follow a large number of Canadian political elite accounts, or frequently use Canadian-specific hashtags. News media was collected from nineteen prominent Canadian news sites with active RSS feeds. These tweets and news articles were searched for “covid” or “coronavirus”, leaving a sample of 2.25 million tweets and 8,857 news articles.

Of the COVID-19 related content, we searched for terms associated with four instances of misinformation that circulated during the COVID-19 pandemic: that COVID-19 was no more serious than the flu, that vitamin C or other supplements will prevent contraction of the virus, that the initial animal-to-human transfer of the virus was the direct result of eating bats, or that COVID-19 was a hoax or conspiracy. Given that we used keyword searches to identify content, we manually reviewed a random sample of 500 tweets from each instance of misinformation. Each tweet was coded as one of four categories: propagating misinformation, combatting misinformation, content with the relevant keywords but unrelated to misinformation, or content that refers to the misinformation but does not offer comment. 

We then calculated the overall level of misinformation for that instance on Twitter by multiplying the overall volume of tweets by the proportion of hand-coded content where misinformation was identified. Each news article that included relevant keywords was similarly coded. The volume of the news mentioning these terms was sufficiently low that all news articles were hand coded. To identify health recommendations, we used a similar keyword search for terms associated with particular recommendations: 1) social distancing including staying at home, staying at least 6 feet or 2 meters away and avoiding gatherings; and 2) washing hands and not touching any part of your face. 1 Further details on the media collection strategy and hand-coding schema are available in the supporting materials.

For survey data, we used a sample of nearly 2,500 Canadian citizens 18 years or older drawn from a probability-based online national panel fielded from April 2-6, 2020. Quotas we set on age, gender, region, and language to ensure sample representativeness, and data was further weighted within region by gender and age based on the 2016 Canadian census.

We measure levels of COVID-19 misperceptions by asking respondents to rate the truthfulness of a series of nine false claims, such as the coronavirus being no worse than the seasonal flu or that it can be warded off with Vitamin C. Each was asked on a scale from definitely false (0) to definitely true (5). We use Cronbach’s Alpha as an indicator of scale reliability. Cronbach’s Alpha ranges from 0-1, with scores above 0.8 indicating the reliability is “good.” These items score 0.88, so we can safely construct a 0-1 scale of misperceptions from them. 

We evaluate COVID-19 risk perceptions with a pair of questions asking respondents how serious of a threat they believe the pandemic to be for themselves and for Canadians, respectively. Each question was asked on a scale from not at all (0) to very (4). We construct a continuous index with these items.

We quantify social distancing by asking respondents to indicate which of a series of behaviours they had undertaken in response to the pandemic, such as working from home or avoiding in-person contact with friends, family, and acquaintances. We use principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of dimensions in these data while minimizing information loss. The analysis revealed 2 distinct dimensions in our questions. One dimension includes factors strongly determined by occupation, such as working from home and switching to online meetings. The other dimension contains more inclusive behaviours such as avoiding contact, travel, and crowded places. We generate predictions from the PCA for this latter dimension to use in our analyses. The factor loadings can be found in Table A1 of the supporting materials.

 We gauge news and social media consumption by asking respondents to identify news outlets and social media platforms they have used over the past week for political news. The list of news outlets included 17 organizations such as mainstream sources like CBC and Global, and partisan outlets like Rebel Media and National Observer. The list of social media platforms included 10 options such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram. We sum the total number of outlets/platforms respondents report using and take the log to adjust for extreme values. We measure offline political discussion with an index based on questions asking how often respondents have discussed politics with family, friends, and acquaintances over the past week. Descriptions of our primary variables can be found in Table A2 of the supporting materials. 

We evaluate our hypotheses using a standard design that evaluates the association between our explanatory and outcome variables controlling for other observable factors we measured. In practice, randomly assigning social media exposure is impractical, while randomly assigning misinformation is unethical. This approach allows us to describe these relationships, though we cannot make definite claims to causality.

We hypothesize that social media exposure is associated with misinformation on COVID-19. Figure 2 presents the coefficients of models predicting the effects of news exposure, social media exposure, and political discussion on COVID-19 misinformation, risk perceptions, and social distancing. Socio-economic and demographic control estimates are not displayed. Full estimation results can be found in the Table A3 of the supporting materials. 

We further hypothesize that COVID-19 misinformation is associated with lower COVID-19 risk perceptions and less social distancing compliance. Figure 3 presents the coefficients for models predicting the effects of misinformation, news exposure, and social media exposure on severity perceptions and social distancing. We show models with and without controls for science literacy and other predispositions. Full estimation results can be found in the Table A4 of the supporting materials.

Limitations and robustness

A study such as this comes with clear limitations. First, we have evaluated information coming from only a section of the overall media ecosystem and during a specific time-period. The level of misinformation differs across platforms and online news sites and a more granular investigation into these dynamics would be valuable. Our analysis suggests that similar dynamics exist across social media platforms, however. In the supplementary materials we show that associations between misperceptions and social media usage are even higher for other social media platforms, suggesting that our analysis of Twitter content may underrepresent the prevalence of misinformation on social media writ large. As noted above, existing limitations on data access make such cross-platform research difficult.

Second, our data is drawn from a single country and language case study and other countries may have different media environments and levels of misinformation circulating on social media. We anticipate the underlying dynamics found in this paper to hold across these contexts, however. Those who consume information from platforms where misinformation is more prevalent will have greater misperceptions and that these misperceptions will be linked to lower compliance with social distancing and lower risk perceptions. Third, an ecological problem is present wherein we do not link survey respondents directly to their social media consumption (and evaluation of the misinformation they are exposed to) and lack the ability to randomly assign social media exposure to make a strong causal argument. We cannot and do not make a causal argument here but argue instead that there is strong evidence for a misinformation to misperceptions to lower social distancing compliance link. 

  • / Fake News
  • / Mainstream Media
  • / Public Health
  • / Social Media

Cite this Essay

Bridgman, A., Merkley, E., Loewen, P. J., Owen, T., Ruths, D., Teichmann, L., & Zhilin, O. (2020). The causes and consequences of COVID-19 misperceptions: Understanding the role of news and social media. Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) Misinformation Review . https://doi.org/10.37016/mr-2020-028

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Garrett, R. K., Weeks, B. E., & Neo, R. L. (2016). Driving a Wedge Between Evidence and Beliefs: How Online Ideological News Exposure Promotes Political Misperceptions. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication , 21 (5), 331–348. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12164

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Jamieson, K. H., & Albarracín, D. (2020). The Relation between Media Consumption and Misinformation at the Outset of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic in the US. Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review , 2 . https://doi.org/10.37016/mr-2020-012

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Kouzy, R., Abi Jaoude, J., Kraitem, A., El Alam, M. B., Karam, B., Adib, E., Zarka, J., Traboulsi, C., Akl, E. W., & Baddour, K. (2020). Coronavirus Goes Viral: Quantifying the COVID-19 Misinformation Epidemic on Twitter. Cureus , 12 (3). https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7255

Mitchell, A., Gottfried, J., Barthel, M., & Shearer, E. (2016, July 7). The Modern News Consumer. Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project . https://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/the-modern-news-consumer/

Motta, M., Stecula, D., & Farhart, C. E. (2020). How Right-Leaning Media Coverage of COVID-19 Facilitated the Spread of Misinformation in the Early Stages of the Pandemic [Preprint]. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/a8r3p

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Owen, T., Loewen, P., Ruths, D., Bridgman, A., Gorwa, R., MacLellan, S., Merkley, E., & Zhilin, O. (2020). Lessons in Resilience: Canada’s Digital Media Ecosystem and the 2019 Election . Public Policy Forum. https://ppforum.ca/articles/lessons-in-resilience-canadas-digital-media-ecosystem-and-the-2019-election/

Radzikowski, J., Stefanidis, A., Jacobsen, K. H., Croitoru, A., Crooks, A., & Delamater, P. L. (2016). The Measles Vaccination Narrative in Twitter: A Quantitative Analysis. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance , 2 (1), e1. https://doi.org/10.2196/publichealth.5059

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Shin, J., Jian, L., Driscoll, K., & Bar, F. (2018). The diffusion of misinformation on social media: Temporal pattern, message, and source. Computers in Human Behavior , 83 , 278–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.008

Vicario, M. D., Bessi, A., Zollo, F., Petroni, F., Scala, A., Caldarelli, G., Stanley, H. E., & Quattrociocchi, W. (2016). The spreading of misinformation online. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 113 (3), 554–559. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1517441113

Weeks, B. E., Lane, D. S., Kim, D. H., Lee, S. S., & Kwak, N. (2017). Incidental Exposure, Selective Exposure, and Political Information Sharing: Integrating Online Exposure Patterns and Expression on Social Media. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication , 22 (6), 363–379. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12199

The project was funded through the Department of Canadian Heritage’s Digital Citizens Initiative.

Competing Interests

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

The research protocol was approved by the institutional review board at University of Toronto. Human subjects gave informed consent before participating and were debriefed at the end of the study.

This  is  an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative  Commons  Attribution  License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original author and source are properly credited.

Data Availability

All materials needed to replicate this study are available via the Harvard Dataverse: https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/5QS2XP .

The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic

The year 2019 will forever be engraved in many people’s hearts and minds as the time when a deadly virus known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) invaded almost all the sectors, thereby disrupting daily activities. It is described as a communicable respiratory illness which is triggered by a new strain of coronavirus which leads to various ailments in human beings. There is currently no known cure or vaccine for the virus as scientists worldwide are still trying to learn about the illness to respond appropriately through research (Goodell, 2020). This paper aims at exploring the effects that the pandemic has had on society regarding the economy, social life, education, religion, and family.

The emergence of the pandemic, which began in China-2019, quickly spread to other nations across the world with devastating effects on their economies As a way of containing the disease, many countries instituted strict measures, such as curfews, the mandatory wearing of masks, and social distancing of 1 meter apart (Goodell, 2020). Covid-19 has significantly changed the way these preventive methods relate with each concerning trade matters. The majority of the states affected opted to close their borders as fear among the citizens increased. The implementation of the strict rules interfered with the business operations of many nations. It became difficult for international trade to continue as a result of the closed borders. Most businesses have also had to close due to financial constraints.

When it comes to socialization, people have been forced to use other means to meet their friends and families across the world. Social media platforms have seen an increased usage during this difficult time as people try to find new ways of socializing. It has happened especially in such countries as Australia, where the restrictions were extreme as it enforced a lockdown for close to a hundred days (Goodell, 2020). The use of masks is also quickly becoming the new norm across numerous states. Unlike in developed countries where the governments have offered their citizens some aid mostly in terms of cash transfers, developing countries have struggled to balance between the people’s livelihood and the containment of the Covid-19. As such, most people have turned to social media platforms as a medium of communication and socialization due to lockdowns.

Learning institutions have also not been spared by the Covid-19 pandemic. Most countries affected by the spread of the virus were forced to suspend their educational curriculum calendar to allow children and university students to stay home until the time when the disease is finally neutralized (Goodell, 2020). However, students and parents have been pushing the governments to resume schools with clear protocols which ensure that both the students and the teachers follow the rules, including the mandatory wearing of masks. Religion has also been significantly affected as it has become difficult for people to seek for spiritual nourishment (Goodell, 2020). Many religious leaders have had to devise other ways of reaching out to the congregates. For example, many churches now have to move their services online by using such platforms as YouTube, Facebook, Zoom, among others to convey essential teachings.

Covid-19 has also directly affected many families across the world, as the majority have succumbed to the disease. The United States of America and Italy are some of the pandemic’s worst casualties, where many people were killed by the lethal virus (Goodell, 2020). Some people have in the end lost more than one member of the family because of the disease, and in some worse case scenarios, the illness has claimed a whole family.

In conclusion, this paper has highlighted the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on the economy, social life, education, religion, and family units. Many countries and businesses had underestimated the disease’s impact before they later suffered from the consequences. Therefore, international bodies, such as the World Health Organization, need to help developing countries establish critical management healthcare systems, which can help to deal with the future pandemics.

Goodell, J. W. (2020). COVID-19 and finance: Agendas for future research. Finance Research Letters , 35 , 101512. Web.

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The coronavirus ( COVID ‐19) pandemic's impact on mental health

Bilal javed.

1 Faculty of Sciences, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi Pakistan

2 Roy & Diana Vagelos Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, USA

Abdullah Sarwer

3 Nawaz Sharif Medical College, University of Gujrat, Gujrat Pakistan

4 Department of General Medicine, Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching Hospital, Sialkot Pakistan

Erik B. Soto

5 Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, USA

Zia‐ur‐Rehman Mashwani

Throughout the world, the public is being informed about the physical effects of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and steps to take to prevent exposure to the coronavirus and manage symptoms of COVID‐19 if they appear. However, the effects of this pandemic on one's mental health have not been studied at length and are still not known. As all efforts are focused on understanding the epidemiology, clinical features, transmission patterns, and management of the COVID‐19 outbreak, there has been very little concern expressed over the effects on one's mental health and on strategies to prevent stigmatization. People's behavior may greatly affect the pandemic's dynamic by altering the severity, transmission, disease flow, and repercussions. The present situation requires raising awareness in public, which can be helpful to deal with this calamity. This perspective article provides a detailed overview of the effects of the COVID‐19 outbreak on the mental health of people.

1. INTRODUCTION

A pandemic is not just a medical phenomenon; it affects individuals and society and causes disruption, anxiety, stress, stigma, and xenophobia. The behavior of an individual as a unit of society or a community has marked effects on the dynamics of a pandemic that involves the level of severity, degree of flow, and aftereffects. 1 Rapid human‐to‐human transmission of the SARS‐CoV‐2 resulted in the enforcement of regional lockdowns to stem the further spread of the disease. Isolation, social distancing, and closure of educational institutes, workplaces, and entertainment venues consigned people to stay in their homes to help break the chain of transmission. 2 However, the restrictive measures undoubtedly have affected the social and mental health of individuals from across the board. 3

As more and more people are forced to stay at home in self‐isolation to prevent the further flow of the pathogen at the societal level, governments must take the necessary measures to provide mental health support as prescribed by the experts. Professor Tiago Correia highlighted in his editorial as the health systems worldwide are assembling exclusively to fight the COVID‐19 outbreak, which can drastically affect the management of other diseases including mental health, which usually exacerbates during the pandemic. 4 The psychological state of an individual that contributes toward the community health varies from person‐to‐person and depends on his background and professional and social standings. 5

Quarantine and self‐isolation can most likely cause a negative impact on one's mental health. A review published in The Lancet said that the separation from loved ones, loss of freedom, boredom, and uncertainty can cause a deterioration in an individual's mental health status. 6 To overcome this, measures at the individual and societal levels are required. Under the current global situation, both children and adults are experiencing a mix of emotions. They can be placed in a situation or an environment that may be new and can be potentially damaging to their health. 7

2. CHILDREN AND TEENS AT RISK

Children, away from their school, friends, and colleagues, staying at home can have many questions about the outbreak and they look toward their parents or caregivers to get the answer. Not all children and parents respond to stress in the same way. Kids can experience anxiety, distress, social isolation, and an abusive environment that can have short‐ or long‐term effects on their mental health. Some common changes in children's behavior can be 8 :

  • Excessive crying and annoying behavior
  • Increased sadness, depression, or worry
  • Difficulties with concentration and attention
  • Changes in, or avoiding, activities that they enjoyed in the past
  • Unexpected headaches and pain throughout their bodies
  • Changes in eating habits

To help offset negative behaviors, requires parents to remain calm, deal with the situation wisely, and answer all of the child's questions to the best of their abilities. Parents can take some time to talk to their children about the COVID‐19 outbreak and share some positive facts, figures, and information. Parents can help to reassure them that they are safe at home and encourage them to engage in some healthy activities including indoor sports and some physical and mental exercises. Parents can also develop a home schedule that can help their children to keep up with their studies. Parents should show less stress or anxiety at their home as children perceive and feel negative energy from their parents. The involvement of parents in healthy activities with their children can help to reduce stress and anxiety and bring relief to the overall situation. 9

3. ELDERS AND PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AT RISK

Elderly people are more prone to the COVID‐19 outbreak due to both clinical and social reasons such as having a weaker immune system or other underlying health conditions and distancing from their families and friends due to their busy schedules. According to medical experts, people aged 60 or above are more likely to get the SARS‐CoV‐2 and can develop a serious and life‐threatening condition even if they are in good health. 10

Physical distancing due to the COVID‐19 outbreak can have drastic negative effects on the mental health of the elderly and disabled individuals. Physical isolation at home among family members can put the elderly and disabled person at serious mental health risk. It can cause anxiety, distress, and induce a traumatic situation for them. Elderly people depend on young ones for their daily needs, and self‐isolation can critically damage a family system. The elderly and disabled people living in nursing homes can face extreme mental health issues. However, something as simple as a phone call during the pandemic outbreak can help to console elderly people. COVID‐19 can also result in increased stress, anxiety, and depression among elderly people already dealing with mental health issues.

Family members may witness any of the following changes to the behavior of older relatives 11 ;

  • Irritating and shouting behavior
  • Change in their sleeping and eating habits
  • Emotional outbursts

The World Health Organization suggests that family members should regularly check on older people living within their homes and at nursing facilities. Younger family members should take some time to talk to older members of the family and become involved in some of their daily routines if possible. 12

4. HEALTH WORKERS AT RISK

Doctors, nurses, and paramedics working as a front‐line force to fight the COVID‐19 outbreak may be more susceptible to develop mental health symptoms. Fear of catching a disease, long working hours, unavailability of protective gear and supplies, patient load, unavailability of effective COVID‐19 medication, death of their colleagues after exposure to COVID‐19, social distancing and isolation from their family and friends, and the dire situation of their patients may take a negative toll of the mental health of health workers. The working efficiency of health professionals may decrease gradually as the pandemic prevails. Health workers should take short breaks between their working hours and deal with the situation calmly and in a relaxed manner. 5

5. STIGMATIZATION

Generally, people recently released from quarantine can experience stigmatization and develop a mix of emotions. Everyone may feel differently and have a different welcome by society when they come out of quarantine. People who recently recovered may have to exercise social distancing from their family members, friends, and relatives to ensure their family's safety because of unprecedented viral nature. Different age groups respond to this social behavior differently, which can have both short‐ and long‐term effects. 1

Health workers trying to save lives and protect society may also experience social distancing, changes in the behavior of family members, and stigmatization for being suspected of carrying COVID‐19. 6 Previously infected individuals and health professionals (dealing pandemic) may develop sadness, anger, or frustration because friends or loved ones may have unfounded fears of contracting the disease from contact with them, even though they have been determined not to be contagious. 5

However, the current situation requires a clear understanding of the effects of the recent outbreak on the mental health of people of different age groups to prevent and avoid the COVID‐19 pandemic.

6. TAKE HOME MESSAGE

  • Understanding the effects of the COVID‐19 outbreak on the mental health of various populations are as important as understanding its clinical features, transmission patterns, and management.
  • Spending time with family members including children and elderly people, involvement in different healthy exercises and sports activities, following a schedule/routine, and taking a break from traditional and social media can all help to overcome mental health issues.
  • Public awareness campaigns focusing on the maintenance of mental health in the prevailing situation are urgently needed.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no potential conflict of interest.

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

B.J. and A.S. devised the study. B.J. collected and analyzed the data and wrote the first draft. E.B.S. edited and revised the manuscript. A.S. and Z.M. provided useful information. All the authors contributed to the subsequent drafts. The authors reviewed and endorsed the final submission.

Javed B, Sarwer A, Soto EB, Mashwani Z‐R. The coronavirus (COVID‐19) pandemic's impact on mental health . Int J Health Plann Mgmt . 2020; 35 :993–996. 10.1002/hpm.3008 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]

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Covid 19 Essay in English

Essay on Covid -19: In a very short amount of time, coronavirus has spread globally. It has had an enormous impact on people's lives, economy, and societies all around the world, affecting every country. Governments have had to take severe measures to try and contain the pandemic. The virus has altered our way of life in many ways, including its effects on our health and our economy. Here are a few sample essays on ‘CoronaVirus’.

100 Words Essay on Covid 19

200 words essay on covid 19, 500 words essay on covid 19.

Covid 19 Essay in English

COVID-19 or Corona Virus is a novel coronavirus that was first identified in 2019. It is similar to other coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but it is more contagious and has caused more severe respiratory illness in people who have been infected. The novel coronavirus became a global pandemic in a very short period of time. It has affected lives, economies and societies across the world, leaving no country untouched. The virus has caused governments to take drastic measures to try and contain it. From health implications to economic and social ramifications, COVID-19 impacted every part of our lives. It has been more than 2 years since the pandemic hit and the world is still recovering from its effects.

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the world has been impacted in a number of ways. For one, the global economy has taken a hit as businesses have been forced to close their doors. This has led to widespread job losses and an increase in poverty levels around the world. Additionally, countries have had to impose strict travel restrictions in an attempt to contain the virus, which has resulted in a decrease in tourism and international trade. Furthermore, the pandemic has put immense pressure on healthcare systems globally, as hospitals have been overwhelmed with patients suffering from the virus. Lastly, the outbreak has led to a general feeling of anxiety and uncertainty, as people are fearful of contracting the disease.

My Experience of COVID-19

I still remember how abruptly colleges and schools shut down in March 2020. I was a college student at that time and I was under the impression that everything would go back to normal in a few weeks. I could not have been more wrong. The situation only got worse every week and the government had to impose a lockdown. There were so many restrictions in place. For example, we had to wear face masks whenever we left the house, and we could only go out for essential errands. Restaurants and shops were only allowed to operate at take-out capacity, and many businesses were shut down.

In the current scenario, coronavirus is dominating all aspects of our lives. The coronavirus pandemic has wreaked havoc upon people’s lives, altering the way we live and work in a very short amount of time. It has revolutionised how we think about health care, education, and even social interaction. This virus has had long-term implications on our society, including its impact on mental health, economic stability, and global politics. But we as individuals can help to mitigate these effects by taking personal responsibility to protect themselves and those around them from infection.

Effects of CoronaVirus on Education

The outbreak of coronavirus has had a significant impact on education systems around the world. In China, where the virus originated, all schools and universities were closed for several weeks in an effort to contain the spread of the disease. Many other countries have followed suit, either closing schools altogether or suspending classes for a period of time.

This has resulted in a major disruption to the education of millions of students. Some have been able to continue their studies online, but many have not had access to the internet or have not been able to afford the costs associated with it. This has led to a widening of the digital divide between those who can afford to continue their education online and those who cannot.

The closure of schools has also had a negative impact on the mental health of many students. With no face-to-face contact with friends and teachers, some students have felt isolated and anxious. This has been compounded by the worry and uncertainty surrounding the virus itself.

The situation with coronavirus has improved and schools have been reopened but students are still catching up with the gap of 2 years that the pandemic created. In the meantime, governments and educational institutions are working together to find ways to support students and ensure that they are able to continue their education despite these difficult circumstances.

Effects of CoronaVirus on Economy

The outbreak of the coronavirus has had a significant impact on the global economy. The virus, which originated in China, has spread to over two hundred countries, resulting in widespread panic and a decrease in global trade. As a result of the outbreak, many businesses have been forced to close their doors, leading to a rise in unemployment. In addition, the stock market has taken a severe hit.

Effects of CoronaVirus on Health

The effects that coronavirus has on one's health are still being studied and researched as the virus continues to spread throughout the world. However, some of the potential effects on health that have been observed thus far include respiratory problems, fever, and coughing. In severe cases, pneumonia, kidney failure, and death can occur. It is important for people who think they may have been exposed to the virus to seek medical attention immediately so that they can be treated properly and avoid any serious complications. There is no specific cure or treatment for coronavirus at this time, but there are ways to help ease symptoms and prevent the virus from spreading.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

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Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

Cartographer

How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam . This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as  Bank Probationary Officer (PO),  what is probationary officer  or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts. 

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Bank Branch Manager

Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

Landscape Architect

Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as  M.Des , M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Urban Planner

Urban Planning careers revolve around the idea of developing a plan to use the land optimally, without affecting the environment. Urban planning jobs are offered to those candidates who are skilled in making the right use of land to distribute the growing population, to create various communities. 

Urban planning careers come with the opportunity to make changes to the existing cities and towns. They identify various community needs and make short and long-term plans accordingly.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood.  Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.

An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.

Pathologist

A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Gynaecologist

Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

Speech Therapist

Are you searching for a speech therapist job description? Individuals who opt for a career as a speech therapist are professionals who provide support to individuals having speech and language problems that directly affect the continuity or fluency of sharing verbal information while speaking. In career as speech therapist, individuals treat people having speech disorders. 

A career as a doctor is a clinical professional that involves providing services in healthcare facilities. Individuals in the doctor's career path are responsible for diagnosing, examining, and identifying diseases, disorders, and illnesses of patients. Individuals in the doctor career in India provide surgical, medicinal, and therapeutic care to patients in hospital, healthcare, and clinical lab settings.

Health Officer

Health Officers award hygiene grades to companies that influence the effectiveness of sanitation associated with the internal control environment of the designated area. They guarantee that public facilities require action to reduce their environmental hazards. Health Officers jobs are to consult multiple food facilities, and health care nuisances to investigate the standard safety measures regulated by the state government authority.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

Choreographer

The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.

Videographer

Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Advertising Manager

Advertising managers consult with the financial department to plan a marketing strategy schedule and cost estimates. We often see advertisements that attract us a lot, not every advertisement is just to promote a business but some of them provide a social message as well. There was an advertisement for a washing machine brand that implies a story that even a man can do household activities. And of course, how could we even forget those jingles which we often sing while working?

Photographer

Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager

Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

Quality Systems Manager

A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party. 

Merchandiser

A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

Procurement Manager

The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 

Production Planner

Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

ITSM Manager

ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

IT Consultant

An IT Consultant is a professional who is also known as a technology consultant. He or she is required to provide consultation to industrial and commercial clients to resolve business and IT problems and acquire optimum growth. An IT consultant can find work by signing up with an IT consultancy firm, or he or she can work on their own as independent contractors and select the projects he or she wants to work on.

Data Architect

A Data Architect role involves formulating the organisational data strategy. It involves data quality, flow of data within the organisation and security of data. The vision of Data Architect provides support to convert business requirements into technical requirements. 

Security Engineer

The Security Engineer is responsible for overseeing and controlling the various aspects of a company's computer security. Individuals in the security engineer jobs include developing and implementing policies and procedures to protect the data and information of the organisation. In this article, we will discuss the security engineer job description, security engineer skills, security engineer course, and security engineer career path.

UX Architect

A UX Architect is someone who influences the design processes and its outcomes. He or she possesses a solid understanding of user research, information architecture, interaction design and content strategy. 

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Essay on COVID-19 Pandemic

As a result of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) outbreak, daily life has been negatively affected, impacting the worldwide economy. Thousands of individuals have been sickened or died as a result of the outbreak of this disease. When you have the flu or a viral infection, the most common symptoms include fever, cold, coughing up bone fragments, and difficulty breathing, which may progress to pneumonia. It’s important to take major steps like keeping a strict cleaning routine, keeping social distance, and wearing masks, among other things. This virus’s geographic spread is accelerating (Daniel Pg 93). Governments restricted public meetings during the start of the pandemic to prevent the disease from spreading and breaking the exponential distribution curve. In order to avoid the damage caused by this extremely contagious disease, several countries quarantined their citizens. However, this scenario had drastically altered with the discovery of the vaccinations. The research aims to investigate the effect of the Covid-19 epidemic and its impact on the population’s well-being.

There is growing interest in the relationship between social determinants of health and health outcomes. Still, many health care providers and academics have been hesitant to recognize racism as a contributing factor to racial health disparities. Only a few research have examined the health effects of institutional racism, with the majority focusing on interpersonal racial and ethnic prejudice Ciotti et al., Pg 370. The latter comprises historically and culturally connected institutions that are interconnected. Prejudice is being practiced in a variety of contexts as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak. In some ways, the outbreak has exposed pre-existing bias and inequity.

Thousands of businesses are in danger of failure. Around 2.3 billion of the world’s 3.3 billion employees are out of work. These workers are especially susceptible since they lack access to social security and adequate health care, and they’ve also given up ownership of productive assets, which makes them highly vulnerable. Many individuals lose their employment as a result of lockdowns, leaving them unable to support their families. People strapped for cash are often forced to reduce their caloric intake while also eating less nutritiously (Fraser et al, Pg 3). The epidemic has had an impact on the whole food chain, revealing vulnerabilities that were previously hidden. Border closures, trade restrictions, and confinement measures have limited farmer access to markets, while agricultural workers have not gathered crops. As a result, the local and global food supply chain has been disrupted, and people now have less access to healthy foods. As a consequence of the epidemic, many individuals have lost their employment, and millions more are now in danger. When breadwinners lose their jobs, become sick, or die, the food and nutrition of millions of people are endangered. Particularly severely hit are the world’s poorest small farmers and indigenous peoples.

Infectious illness outbreaks and epidemics have become worldwide threats due to globalization, urbanization, and environmental change. In developed countries like Europe and North America, surveillance and health systems monitor and manage the spread of infectious illnesses in real-time. Both low- and high-income countries need to improve their public health capacities (Omer et al., Pg 1767). These improvements should be financed using a mix of national and foreign donor money. In order to speed up research and reaction for new illnesses with pandemic potential, a global collaborative effort including governments and commercial companies has been proposed. When working on a vaccine-like COVID-19, cooperation is critical.

The epidemic has had an impact on the whole food chain, revealing vulnerabilities that were previously hidden. Border closures, trade restrictions, and confinement measures have limited farmer access to markets, while agricultural workers have been unable to gather crops. As a result, the local and global food supply chain has been disrupted, and people now have less access to healthy foods (Daniel et al.,Pg 95) . As a consequence of the epidemic, many individuals have lost their employment, and millions more are now in danger. When breadwinners lose their jobs, the food and nutrition of millions of people are endangered. Particularly severely hit are the world’s poorest small farmers and indigenous peoples.

While helping to feed the world’s population, millions of paid and unpaid agricultural laborers suffer from high levels of poverty, hunger, and bad health, as well as a lack of safety and labor safeguards, as well as other kinds of abuse at work. Poor people, who have no recourse to social assistance, must work longer and harder, sometimes in hazardous occupations, endangering their families in the process (Daniel Pg 96). When faced with a lack of income, people may turn to hazardous financial activities, including asset liquidation, predatory lending, or child labor, to make ends meet. Because of the dangers they encounter while traveling, working, and living abroad; migrant agricultural laborers are especially vulnerable. They also have a difficult time taking advantage of government assistance programs.

The pandemic also has a significant impact on education. Although many educational institutions across the globe have already made the switch to online learning, the extent to which technology is utilized to improve the quality of distance or online learning varies. This level is dependent on several variables, including the different parties engaged in the execution of this learning format and the incorporation of technology into educational institutions before the time of school closure caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. For many years, researchers from all around the globe have worked to determine what variables contribute to effective technology integration in the classroom Ciotti et al., Pg 371. The amount of technology usage and the quality of learning when moving from a classroom to a distant or online format are presumed to be influenced by the same set of variables. Findings from previous research, which sought to determine what affects educational systems ability to integrate technology into teaching, suggest understanding how teachers, students, and technology interact positively in order to achieve positive results in the integration of teaching technology (Honey et al., 2000). Teachers’ views on teaching may affect the chances of successfully incorporating technology into the classroom and making it a part of the learning process.

In conclusion, indeed, Covid 19 pandemic have affected the well being of the people in a significant manner. The economy operation across the globe have been destabilized as most of the people have been rendered jobless while the job operation has been stopped. As most of the people have been rendered jobless the living conditions of the people have also been significantly affected. Besides, the education sector has also been affected as most of the learning institutions prefer the use of online learning which is not effective as compared to the traditional method. With the invention of the vaccines, most of the developed countries have been noted to stabilize slowly, while the developing countries have not been able to vaccinate most of its citizens. However, despite the challenge caused by the pandemic, organizations have been able to adapt the new mode of online trading to be promoted.

Ciotti, Marco, et al. “The COVID-19 pandemic.”  Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences  57.6 (2020): 365-388.

Daniel, John. “Education and the COVID-19 pandemic.”  Prospects  49.1 (2020): 91-96.

Fraser, Nicholas, et al. “Preprinting the COVID-19 pandemic.”  BioRxiv  (2021): 2020-05.

Omer, Saad B., Preeti Malani, and Carlos Del Rio. “The COVID-19 pandemic in the US: a clinical update.”  Jama  323.18 (2020): 1767-1768.

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Persuasive Essay Guide

Persuasive Essay About Covid19

Caleb S.

How to Write a Persuasive Essay About Covid19 | Examples & Tips

11 min read

Published on: Feb 22, 2023

Last updated on: Nov 22, 2023

Persuasive Essay About Covid19

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Are you looking to write a persuasive essay about the Covid-19 pandemic?

Writing a compelling and informative essay about this global crisis can be challenging. It requires researching the latest information, understanding the facts, and presenting your argument persuasively.

But don’t worry! with some guidance from experts, you’ll be able to write an effective and persuasive essay about Covid-19.

In this blog post, we’ll outline the basics of writing a persuasive essay . We’ll provide clear examples, helpful tips, and essential information for crafting your own persuasive piece on Covid-19.

Read on to get started on your essay.

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Steps to Write a Persuasive Essay About Covid-19

Here are the steps to help you write a persuasive essay on this topic, along with an example essay:

Step 1: Choose a Specific Thesis Statement

Your thesis statement should clearly state your position on a specific aspect of COVID-19. It should be debatable and clear. For example:

Step 2: Research and Gather Information

Collect reliable and up-to-date information from reputable sources to support your thesis statement. This may include statistics, expert opinions, and scientific studies. For instance:

  • COVID-19 vaccination effectiveness data
  • Information on vaccine mandates in different countries
  • Expert statements from health organizations like the WHO or CDC

Step 3: Outline Your Essay

Create a clear and organized outline to structure your essay. A persuasive essay typically follows this structure:

  • Background Information
  • Body Paragraphs (with supporting evidence)
  • Counterarguments (addressing opposing views)

Step 4: Write the Introduction

In the introduction, grab your reader's attention and present your thesis statement. For example:

Step 5: Provide Background Information

Offer context and background information to help your readers understand the issue better. For instance:

Step 6: Develop Body Paragraphs

Each body paragraph should present a single point or piece of evidence that supports your thesis statement. Use clear topic sentences, evidence, and analysis. Here's an example:

Step 7: Address Counterarguments

Acknowledge opposing viewpoints and refute them with strong counterarguments. This demonstrates that you've considered different perspectives. For example:

Step 8: Write the Conclusion

Summarize your main points and restate your thesis statement in the conclusion. End with a strong call to action or thought-provoking statement. For instance:

Step 9: Revise and Proofread

Edit your essay for clarity, coherence, grammar, and spelling errors. Ensure that your argument flows logically.

Step 10: Cite Your Sources

Include proper citations and a bibliography page to give credit to your sources.

Remember to adjust your approach and arguments based on your target audience and the specific angle you want to take in your persuasive essay about COVID-19.

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Examples of Persuasive Essay About Covid19

When writing a persuasive essay about the Covid-19 pandemic, it’s important to consider how you want to present your argument. To help you get started, here are some example essays for you to read:

Check out some more PDF examples below:

Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 Pandemic

Sample Of Persuasive Essay About Covid-19

Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 In The Philippines - Example

If you're in search of a compelling persuasive essay on business, don't miss out on our “ persuasive essay about business ” blog!

Examples of Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 Vaccine

Covid19 vaccines are one of the ways to prevent the spread of Covid-19, but they have been a source of controversy. Different sides argue about the benefits or dangers of the new vaccines. Whatever your point of view is, writing a persuasive essay about it is a good way of organizing your thoughts and persuading others.

A persuasive essay about the Covid-19 vaccine could consider the benefits of getting vaccinated as well as the potential side effects.

Below are some examples of persuasive essays on getting vaccinated for Covid-19.

Covid19 Vaccine Persuasive Essay

Persuasive Essay on Covid Vaccines

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Examples of Persuasive Essay About Covid-19 Integration

Covid19 has drastically changed the way people interact in schools, markets, and workplaces. In short, it has affected all aspects of life. However, people have started to learn to live with Covid19.

Writing a persuasive essay about it shouldn't be stressful. Read the sample essay below to get idea for your own essay about Covid19 integration.

Persuasive Essay About Working From Home During Covid19

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Examples of Argumentative Essay About Covid 19

Covid-19 has been an ever-evolving issue, with new developments and discoveries being made on a daily basis.

Writing an argumentative essay about such an issue is both interesting and challenging. It allows you to evaluate different aspects of the pandemic, as well as consider potential solutions.

Here are some examples of argumentative essays on Covid19.

Argumentative Essay About Covid19 Sample

Argumentative Essay About Covid19 With Introduction Body and Conclusion

Looking for a persuasive take on the topic of smoking? You'll find it all related arguments in out Persuasive Essay About Smoking blog!

Examples of Persuasive Speeches About Covid-19

Do you need to prepare a speech about Covid19 and need examples? We have them for you!

Persuasive speeches about Covid-19 can provide the audience with valuable insights on how to best handle the pandemic. They can be used to advocate for specific changes in policies or simply raise awareness about the virus.

Check out some examples of persuasive speeches on Covid-19:

Persuasive Speech About Covid-19 Example

Persuasive Speech About Vaccine For Covid-19

You can also read persuasive essay examples on other topics to master your persuasive techniques!

Tips to Write a Persuasive Essay About Covid-19

Writing a persuasive essay about COVID-19 requires a thoughtful approach to present your arguments effectively. 

Here are some tips to help you craft a compelling persuasive essay on this topic:

Choose a Specific Angle

Start by narrowing down your focus. COVID-19 is a broad topic, so selecting a specific aspect or issue related to it will make your essay more persuasive and manageable. For example, you could focus on vaccination, public health measures, the economic impact, or misinformation.

Provide Credible Sources 

Support your arguments with credible sources such as scientific studies, government reports, and reputable news outlets. Reliable sources enhance the credibility of your essay.

Use Persuasive Language

Employ persuasive techniques, such as ethos (establishing credibility), pathos (appealing to emotions), and logos (using logic and evidence). Use vivid examples and anecdotes to make your points relatable.

Organize Your Essay

Structure your essay involves creating a persuasive essay outline and establishing a logical flow from one point to the next. Each paragraph should focus on a single point, and transitions between paragraphs should be smooth and logical.

Emphasize Benefits

Highlight the benefits of your proposed actions or viewpoints. Explain how your suggestions can improve public health, safety, or well-being. Make it clear why your audience should support your position.

Use Visuals -H3

Incorporate graphs, charts, and statistics when applicable. Visual aids can reinforce your arguments and make complex data more accessible to your readers.

Call to Action

End your essay with a strong call to action. Encourage your readers to take a specific step or consider your viewpoint. Make it clear what you want them to do or think after reading your essay.

Revise and Edit

Proofread your essay for grammar, spelling, and clarity. Make sure your arguments are well-structured and that your writing flows smoothly.

Seek Feedback 

Have someone else read your essay to get feedback. They may offer valuable insights and help you identify areas where your persuasive techniques can be improved.

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Common Topics for a Persuasive Essay on COVID-19 

Here are some persuasive essay topics on COVID-19:

  • The Importance of Vaccination Mandates for COVID-19 Control
  • Balancing Public Health and Personal Freedom During a Pandemic
  • The Economic Impact of Lockdowns vs. Public Health Benefits
  • The Role of Misinformation in Fueling Vaccine Hesitancy
  • Remote Learning vs. In-Person Education: What's Best for Students?
  • The Ethics of Vaccine Distribution: Prioritizing Vulnerable Populations
  • The Mental Health Crisis Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic
  • The Long-Term Effects of COVID-19 on Healthcare Systems
  • Global Cooperation vs. Vaccine Nationalism in Fighting the Pandemic
  • The Future of Telemedicine: Expanding Healthcare Access Post-COVID-19

In search of more inspiring topics for your next persuasive essay? Our persuasive essay topics blog has plenty of ideas!

To sum it up,

You have read good sample essays and got some helpful tips. You now have the tools you needed to write a persuasive essay about Covid-19. So don't let the doubts stop you, start writing!

If you need professional writing help, don't worry! We've got that for you as well.

MyPerfectWords.com is a professional essay writing service that can help you craft an excellent persuasive essay on Covid-19. Our experienced essay writer will create a well-structured, insightful paper in no time!

So don't hesitate and get in touch with our persuasive essay writing service today!

Frequently Asked Questions

Are there any ethical considerations when writing a persuasive essay about covid-19.

Yes, there are ethical considerations when writing a persuasive essay about COVID-19. It's essential to ensure the information is accurate, not contribute to misinformation, and be sensitive to the pandemic's impact on individuals and communities. Additionally, respecting diverse viewpoints and emphasizing public health benefits can promote ethical communication.

What impact does COVID-19 have on society?

The impact of COVID-19 on society is far-reaching. It has led to job and economic losses, an increase in stress and mental health disorders, and changes in education systems. It has also had a negative effect on social interactions, as people have been asked to limit their contact with others.

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Caleb S. has been providing writing services for over five years and has a Masters degree from Oxford University. He is an expert in his craft and takes great pride in helping students achieve their academic goals. Caleb is a dedicated professional who always puts his clients first.

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By Giorgia Lupi

Ms. Lupi is an information designer who has been experiencing symptoms of long Covid for over three years.

Every morning, I wake up in my Brooklyn apartment, and for two seconds, I can remember the old me. The me without pain, the me with energy, the me who could do whatever she wanted.

Then I’m shoved back into my new reality. As I fully come into consciousness, I feel dizzy, faint and nauseated. Pain pulses throughout my body, and my limbs feel simultaneously as heavy as concrete and weak as jelly. It feels as if a machine were squeezing my skull, and extreme exhaustion overtakes me.

These sensations have been a daily occurrence, with few exceptions, for the past three years and nine months. In the morning my boyfriend will be the one making coffee for us. He will run all of our errands. He will cook and clean. He now does all the things I used to do, the things I can’t do anymore.

I live with what’s known as long Covid, an illness that has reshaped my life.

I’ve come to realize that “long Covid” is a deceptive term for a condition that can trigger a diverse swarm of debilitating symptoms with no end in sight. What I’ve experienced is in no way just a lingering cough or a few weeks of fatigue after an acute Covid infection.

I first got Covid in March 2020, just as New York City was going into lockdown. My case was mild. I was not hospitalized. Like many who got sick in those early days, I experienced what felt like a bad flu.

effect of covid essay

My doctors were confused when I wanted them to be alarmed. After many tests returned inconclusive results, they told me that I was probably just stressed and should take a break from work. Or I should try to push through and exercise. Or maybe I should start anti-anxiety meds.

effect of covid essay

A selection of medical documents Ms. Lupi has accumulated since she became sick in March 2020.

effect of covid essay

Despite getting my Covid boosters on schedule, being careful about potential exposure and wearing a mask in crowded spaces like the subway, in November 2022, I got Covid a third time. My symptoms became even worse, even more intense and entirely debilitating. Unrelenting chest tightness and tachycardia, dizziness while being upright, frequent nausea and headaches, systemic reactions to most foods, tinnitus, severe insomnia, a persistent feeling of being poisoned, blurry and double vision and exhaustion that would land me in bed with the lights off for days at a time.

Since “long Covid” is an umbrella term, definitions of which include people as debilitated as I am and people who have lingering fatigue or cough, it’s unclear how many people continue to be as sick as I have been. Recent research suggests that long Covid isn’t just one medical phenomenon but a condition with multiple subsets and over 200 recorded symptoms , including some that could be causing damage to multiple parts of the body at once.

Over 200 symptoms related to long Covid have been recorded in patients. Ms. Lupi has experienced 21, with many recurring daily.

I’m not a medical expert, but I’ve had to become one to make sense of my new reality. At work, I’m a graphic designer who creates data visualizations. I live and breathe data; it’s the filter I have to understand the world around me. My approach to data centers on its human qualities, reconnecting numbers to what they stand for: our imperfect and messy lives.

Images from some of Ms. Lupi’s recent work.

Images from some of Ms. Lupi’s recent work.

Data is a tool that helps me cope with life when I am scared and confused and looking for answers.

At the beginning of my illness, I started logging all of my symptoms. I tracked everything in a huge spreadsheet: my symptoms’ intensity, whether they came on suddenly or gradually, when new symptoms appeared, the medications and supplements I was taking, the treatments I was trying, what I did that day, if I felt stressed, what I ate and drank and scores of biometrics from my newly bought smartwatch.

The spreadsheet that Ms. Lupi has been using to track her long Covid symptoms, medications, diet, potential triggers and more. Some personal details have been redacted.

I thought that if I collected enough data, I would eventually figure out what was going wrong. But no matter how much data I collected or how many correlations I tried to draw, answers eluded me. Still, I couldn’t stop tracking. My spreadsheet was the only thing I could control in a life I no longer recognized.

Long Covid is a physical affliction, but chronic illness, stretching over months and years, has a way of picking apart your mind and breaking your heart. It is a constant deluge of pain that slowly strips you of everything you used to be by taking away everything you used to do — daily exercise, going out more nights than not, seeing friends, attending concerts, traveling the world and, eventually, laughter, smiles and the ability to imagine a future without harsh physical limits.

Even if my body, from the outside, resembles the old me, long Covid has rewritten my core personhood on a cellular level. I have been able to push myself to work at my desk most days (my job often feels like the only piece left of my old self), but I am never symptom-free, and I can see how this confuses people. This paradox is part of what makes treating this invisible illness, as researchers are starting to understand , so complex.

“The reason that patients are being minimized for so long is because it’s very, very clear that complex chronic illness doesn’t fit in this neat package of ‘Here’s an X-ray. You got a broken tibia,’” said David Putrino, the director of Mount Sinai’s center for complex chronic illness, who has been working with patients with long Covid since early in the pandemic.“What we are finally proving, though, is that categorically, stuff is going wrong in the bodies of these people.” As he has gained more experience with the condition, he’s stopped believing in the possibility of finding a single medical mechanism that would explain the full range of long Covid symptoms. “It doesn’t make sense to look for a single biomarker, given what these infection-triggered illnesses are doing to the body,” he said.

In the past three years, I have:

Experienced and tracked more than 21 symptoms , consolidated here into 13 colored categories

Seen 46 doctors at 233 doctor appointments ,

Had my blood drawn 59 times

Done 12 X-rays, 15 M.R.I.s, four CT scans, one PET scan (some of them admittedly very beautiful to look at), a tilt table test, an electromyogram, a skin biopsy, a carotid ultrasound, microclot and neuroinflammation tests and more

Been to the emergency room six times

Participated in four research studies and one clinical trial

Had 81 procedures done (injections, infusions, nerve ablations, immunotherapy) to try to reduce my symptoms

Tried 63 medications and 95 types of supplements (some of which have been harmful)

Tried several diets (no gluten, no carbs, low histamine, paleo-autoimmune, low glycemic index)

Tried weekly physical therapy and acupuncture, osteopathic and chiropractic treatments, cranial sacral therapy, pain reprocessing psychotherapy and brain retraining, health coaching, cardiac rehab, lymphatic massages and more

And spent tens of thousands of dollars on medical bills

Every day is filled to the brim with appointments, meds, needles, bills and pain. The brushstrokes of my illness are suffocating.

effect of covid essay

Even at my lowest moments, I remind myself that I am incredibly fortunate. I have a job that allows me to work from home. I am privileged to be under the care of excellent doctors. And I have good health insurance (even though I’ve spent tens of thousands of dollars out of pocket on various diagnostics, treatments and medical appointments).

But not one day goes by — not one half-hour — that I do not feel sick. Always in the back of my mind is the fear that I will never again experience the uncomplicated, illness-free joy of the life I used to have.

This is a chronology of every day Ms. Lupi has been sick with long Covid, starting on March 10, 2020. Brushstrokes represent her symptoms. Symbols stand for doctor appointments, medical procedures, Covid reinfections and more.

Long Covid runs the show now. I know from experience that if I overdo it in any way, which can mean taking actions as small as sitting up for too long or trying to make the bed, I could make myself feel far worse, shrinking the tiny life I have left into something even smaller. At times, it feels as though this illness is punishing me for trying to live at all.

Every day, I try to accept that this is what my life is right now, that I should learn to live with the pain and my limitations and that I should rest more and more.

I am scared of not getting better. I am scared of getting worse.

I’m afraid to lose even more of myself than I already have. I am scared of losing my partner, who now lives a life dominated by my illness. Underneath it all, I’m afraid of not knowing.

Source: N.I.H.

Without proven medical solutions to treat these conditions, a formidable grass-roots community of long Covid patients has forged virtual friendships, sharing advice, stories and words of support in lively online groups. The only people I feel I can build relationships with nowadays are people with long Covid or other chronic conditions.

Along with patient-led initiatives , doctors and scientists across the globe are investigating possible root causes of long Covid. I have been lucky enough to participate in a few research studies, one of which is testing the blood of long Covid patients for anomalies like microclots and immune system activation, which are potential causes of some of my symptoms.

Research has shown that the blood of healthy patients, when dyed with these fluorescent stains that target activated blood cells, ought to appear as a much quieter, mostly black screen.

But the images that Dr. Michael VanElzakker and his team at Harvard Medical School captured of my blood show, in vivid color, activated platelets (blood cells that clot to stanch bleeding) and neutrophils (the most abundant type of white blood cells) when they should be dormant.

“The blue in the images shows that the neutrophils are fighting instead of just floating around,” explained Dr. VanElzakker.

“The green and red show that the platelets are activated and ready to form clots — again, instead of just floating around like they do in all of us without an injury.”

“All normal blood would show neutrophils and platelets, but what we are showing is that they are activated more than healthy controls would be expected to be.”

Magnified images of Ms. Lupi’s blood, captured by Brittany P. Boribong at Massachusetts General Hospital.

As patients, we can do only so much to accelerate the pace of this important research. “What is needed now are more high-risk, high-reward funding mechanisms,” said Dr. Amy Proal, a microbiologist and the president of the PolyBio Research Foundation, which studies long Covid, “to move things more quickly, because government grants can take up to two years to get, and that’s not going to work.”

We don’t have time. The longer a person’s body is in a state of chronic illness, the harder it can be to recover fully.

For many, the pandemic seems over. But the threat is not over. Although vaccination and prior Covid exposure lessen the risk, people can still get long Covid, even a severe, debilitating version like mine.

As for me, my symptoms — my brushstrokes — are more intense than ever before.

The recent days on my data canvas are thick with color. Much of the slight progress I made this summer is gone, and many of my fears have intensified. I do not know what is going to happen next.

But I can hope.

I hope one day I will be able to take walks again, snowboard, sit with my friends and eat at a restaurant, travel to my home country, be pain-free and simply enjoy a day in the sun without symptoms or fear. I hope one day I will get back to the person I used to be.

Ms. Lupi asked members of her long Covid community to share their hopes, given the prompt: “I hope I will be able to _____ again.” Hundreds of people responded.

We are living with our long Covid brushstrokes in our own ways.

But we dream of living life as a blank canvas once again.

More on long Covid

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Covering long Covid solidified my view that science is not the objective, neutral force that it is often said to be.

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Can’t Think, Can’t Remember: More Americans Say They’re in a Cognitive Fog

Adults in their 20s, 30s and 40s are driving the trend. Researchers point to long Covid as a major cause.

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If You’re Suffering After Being Sick With Covid, It’s Not Just in Your Head

A major new approach is needed to solve many postviral conditions.

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What Long Covid Shows Us About the Limits of Medicine

Contested illnesses reveal the limits of conventional medicine.

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Teens, social media and technology 2023, youtube, tiktok, snapchat and instagram remain the most widely used online platforms among u.s. teens.

An image of teenagers using their smartphones together

Pew Research Center conducted this study to better understand teens’ use of digital devices, social media and other online platforms.

The Center conducted an online survey of 1,453 U.S. teens from Sept. 26 to Oct. 23, 2023, through Ipsos. Ipsos recruited the teens via their parents, who were part of its KnowledgePanel . The KnowledgePanel is a probability-based web panel recruited primarily through national, random sampling of residential addresses. The survey was weighted to be representative of U.S. teens ages 13 to 17 who live with their parents by age, gender, race and ethnicity, household income, and other categories.

This research was reviewed and approved by an external institutional review board (IRB), Advarra, an independent committee of experts specializing in helping to protect the rights of research participants.

Here are  the questions used for this analysis , along with responses, and  its methodology ­­­. A note on terminology : Our September-October 2023 survey asked about “Twitter (recently renamed to ‘X’).” The terms Twitter and X are both used in this report to refer to the same platform.

Despite negative headlines and growing concerns about social media’s impact on youth, teens continue to use these platforms at high rates – with some describing their social media use as “almost constant,” according to a new Pew Research Center survey of U.S. teens.

The survey – conducted Sept. 26-Oct. 23, 2023, among 1,453 13- to 17-year-olds – covered social media, internet use and device ownership among teens.

Here’s a look at the key findings related to online platforms:

A line chart showing that YouTube continues to be top platform among teens, followed by TikTok, Snapchat and Instagram

YouTube continues to dominate. Roughly nine-in-ten teens say they use YouTube, making it the most widely used platform measured in our survey.

TikTok, Snapchat and Instagram remain popular among teens: Majorities of teens ages 13 to 17 say they use TikTok (63%), Snapchat (60%) and Instagram (59%). For older teens ages 15 to 17, these shares are about seven-in-ten.

Teens are less likely to be using Facebook and Twitter (recently renamed X) than they were a decade ago: Facebook once dominated the social media landscape among America’s youth, but the share of teens who use the site has dropped from 71% in 2014-2015 to 33% today. Twitter, which was renamed X in July 2023, has also seen its teen user base shrink during the past decade – albeit at a less steep decline than Facebook.

Teens’ site and app usage has changed little in the past year. The share of teens using these platforms has remained relatively stable since spring 2022, when the Center last surveyed on these topics. For example, the percentage of teens who use TikTok is statistically unchanged since last year.

And for the first time, we asked teens about using BeReal: 13% report using this app.

  • Teens and adults weigh in on social media policies aimed at youth
  • Where teens and adults stand on banning TikTok

How often do teens visit online platforms?

In addition to asking teens about the types of platforms they use, we also asked them how often they use five specific platforms: YouTube, TikTok, Snapchat, Instagram and Facebook. 

Circular area charts showing that Nearly 1 in 5 teens say they’re on YouTube, TikTok ‘almost constantly’

YouTube, the most widely used platform measured in the survey, is also frequently visited by its users. About seven-in-ten teens say they visit the video-sharing platform daily, including 16% who report being on the site almost constantly.

A bar chart showing A majority of teens visit YouTube, TikTok daily

At the same time, 58% of teens are daily users of TikTok. This includes 17% who describe their TikTok use as almost constant.

About half of teens use Snapchat and Instagram daily. A somewhat larger share reports using Snapchat almost constantly compared with Instagram (14% vs. 8%).

Far fewer teens say they use Facebook on a daily basis (19%), with only 3% saying they are on the site almost constantly.  

Taken together, a third of teens use at least one of these five sites almost constantly – which is similar to what we found last year .   

A dot plot showing that Teen girls far more likely than boys to say they use TikTok almost constantly

Teen girls are more likely than boys to say they almost constantly use TikTok (22% vs. 12%) and Snapchat (17% vs. 12%).

But there are little to no differences in the shares of boys and girls who report almost constantly using YouTube, Instagram and Facebook.

By race and ethnicity

We also see differences by race and ethnicity in how much time teens report spending on these platforms.

Larger shares of Black and Hispanic teens report being on YouTube, Instagram and TikTok almost constantly, compared with a smaller share of White teens who say the same. 1

Hispanic teens stand out in TikTok and Snapchat use. For instance, 32% of Hispanic teens say they are on TikTok almost constantly, compared with 20% of Black teens and 10% of White teens.

A bar chart showing that About 1 in 3 Hispanic teens say they’re almost constantly on TikTok

How use of online platforms differs across demographic groups

While some sites are commonly used among all teens, there are some differences by gender, race and ethnicity, age, and household income.

A chart showing that Teen girls more likely than boys to use several sites, including Instagram, Snapchat

Teen girls are more likely than teen boys to say they use Instagram (66% vs. 53%). BeReal, TikTok, Snapchat and Facebook also are more commonly used by teen girls.

On the other hand, teen boys are more likely than teen girls to use Discord (34% vs. 22%) and Twitch (22% vs. 11%). Similarly, a larger share of boys than girls use Reddit and YouTube.

Eight-in-ten Black teens report using TikTok, compared with 70% of Hispanic teens and 57% of White teens. Racial and ethnic gaps are also present in use of Twitter: Black teens are more likely than Hispanic or White teens to be Twitter users.

When it comes to WhatsApp, Hispanic teens are more likely than Black or White teens to say they use the messaging platform.

BeReal is the only platform asked about that White teens are more likely to use than Black or Hispanic teens.

Older teens are more likely than younger teens to use many of the platforms asked about, including Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, TikTok and Reddit. For example, while 68% of teens ages 15 to 17 say they use Instagram, this share drops to 45% among teens ages 13 and 14.

By household income

While fewer teens overall are using Facebook, our surveys consistently show that usage remains higher among teens in lower-income households . For example, 45% of teens in households earning less than $30,000 a year say they use Facebook, compared with 27% of those whose annual household income is $75,000 or more.

Income gaps are also present in TikTok use: Larger shares of teens in lower-income households are users compared with those in the highest-income households (71% vs. 61%).

In comparison, BeReal is more commonly used among teens in households earning $75,000 or more a year. Some 16% of teens in this category say they use this app, compared with about one-in-ten whose annual household income falls below $75,000.

How much time are teens spending online?

A bar chart showing that The share of teens who say they are online ‘almost constantly’ has roughly doubled since 2014-2015

In addition to asking teens about their social media use, we also examined the amount of time they report spending online.

Nearly half of teens say they use the internet “almost constantly.” This is on par with what we found last year, but roughly double the 24% who said this in the 2014-2015 survey.

Overall, more than nine-in-ten say they use the internet at least daily.

A bar chart saying that Black, Hispanic teens more likely than White teens to say they are online almost constantly

As was true in previous Center surveys , the amount of time teens report spending online varies by race and ethnicity.

While 55% of Hispanic and 54% of Black teens report being on the internet almost constantly, the share drops to 38% among White teens.

Older teens ages 15 to 17 are somewhat more likely than younger teens to be near-constant internet users (50% vs. 40%).

Device usage: Smartphones, computers, gaming consoles and tablets

A bar chart showing that Nearly all teens in the U.S. have access to a smartphone

Today’s teens have several ways to go online, connect with others and find information.

Our survey finds that most teens have or have access to a smartphone (95%), a desktop or laptop computer (90%), or a gaming console (83%). A smaller share – though still a 65% majority – say the same for tablets. 

Smartphone ownership is nearly universal among teens of different genders, ages, races and ethnicities, and economic backgrounds. But having access to a home computer remains less common for those in lower-income households.

Roughly seven-in-ten teens living in households earning less than $30,000 a year (72%) say they have access to a home computer. That share rises among those whose annual household income is $30,000 to $74,999 (87%) or $75,000 and above (94%).

Tablet ownership is also less common among teens in lower-income households: 57% say they have access to a tablet at home, compared with 67% of those living in the highest-income households.

Most teen boys and girls report having access to a game console at home, but more boys say this than girls (91% vs. 75%).

  • There were not enough Asian teens in the sample to be broken out into a separate analysis. As always, their responses are incorporated into the general population figures throughout the report. ↩

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Table of contents, a declining share of adults, and few teens, support a u.s. tiktok ban, 81% of u.s. adults – versus 46% of teens – favor parental consent for minors to use social media, more so than adults, u.s. teens value people feeling safe online over being able to speak freely, u.s. teens are more likely than adults to support the black lives matter movement, how teens navigate school during covid-19, most popular.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .

Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability

Global carbon emissions from fossil fuels reached record high in 2023

Declining coal use helped shrink U.S. emissions 3%, according to new estimates from the Global Carbon Project, even as global emissions keep the world on a path to exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius of warming before 2030 and 1.7 degrees soon after.

Global carbon emissions from fossil fuels have risen again in 2023 – reaching record levels, according to research published Dec. 5 by the Global Carbon Project, an international consortium of scientists from more than 90 institutions. 

The researchers estimate that the world’s emissions of carbon dioxide will exceed 40 billion tons in 2023, including nearly 37 billion tons from fossil fuels. Overall emissions are up 1.1% compared to 2022 levels and 1.5% compared to pre-pandemic levels, continuing a 10-year plateau.

Carbon budget 2023

The United States, the planet’s second largest emitter after China, saw emissions decline 3% in 2023 compared to 2022, primarily due to a long-term decline in coal use driven by both economic and environmental factors, said Earth system scientist Rob Jackson of Stanford University, who has chaired the Global Carbon Project for nearly a decade.

“Cleaning up our energy system saves lives today, not just at some future point. Thousands of people are still alive because we have substantially cut coal use,” said Jackson, the Miche lle and Kevin Douglas Provostial Professor in the Stanford Doerr School of Sustainability .

Cleaning up our energy system saves lives today, not just at some future point. Thousands of people are still alive because we have substantially cut coal use. ” Rob Jackson Michelle and Kevin Douglas Provostial Professor

Bigger changes are urgently needed, however. “There’s a common narrative, especially in Congress, that the U.S. has cut emissions more than any other country. But that’s only true because our emissions were so high to start with,” Jackson said. On a per capita basis, U.S. emissions remain twice those of Europe and China, and eight times those of India. 

Annual fossil CO2 emissions in USA

Transportation is the largest source of emissions in the United States, and one of the most difficult to predict. “Three years after COVID first hit, we don’t know yet what the long-term effects on mass transit will be,” Jackson said. “Electric vehicles are starting to slow oil use a bit in the United States, but we remain far from net zero in the U.S. and globally.” 

Although small compared to the emissions impact from fossil fuels and transportation, wildfires had an unusually large carbon footprint this year, with analysis of satellite records showing Canada’s emissions reached six to eight times the nation’s 20-year average due to an extreme wildfire season. Globally, fires contributed about 6 million tons of carbon dioxide during the first nine months of the year, 7-9% more than average.

Warming beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius appears ‘inevitable’

The Global Carbon Project’s new estimates arrive in the middle of the climate summit known as COP28, where countries that signed the 2015 Paris Agreement are discussing efforts to achieve the accord’s goal of keeping global warming well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and preferably below 1.5 degrees Celsius.

“The impacts of climate change are evident all around us, but action to reduce carbon emissions from fossil fuels remains painfully slow,” said lead study author Pierre Friedlingstein of the Global Systems Institute at the University of Exeter in the UK. “It now looks inevitable we will overshoot the 1.5 C target of the Paris Agreement, and leaders meeting at COP28 will have to agree rapid cuts in fossil fuel emissions even to keep the 2 C target alive.”

Annual fossil CO2 emissions in USA

The latest CO 2 data demonstrate that current efforts are insufficient to put global emissions on a downward trajectory towards “net zero,” said Corinne Le Quéré , a professor of climate change science at University of East Anglia’s School of Environmental Sciences. 

“Net zero” refers to the goal of cutting emissions to the point where any greenhouse gases still produced by human activities can be removed using technology. “But some trends in emissions are beginning to budge, showing climate policies can be effective," Le Quéré said. Emissions from fossil fuels declined in 27 countries during the decade ending in 2022 while their economies grew – up from 22 countries decreasing their emissions in the decade ending in 2012.

If current carbon dioxide emissions levels persist, the remaining carbon budget for a 50% chance to limit warming to 1.5 C could be exceeded in seven years, and in 15 years for 1.7 C. Returning global temperatures below these thresholds after they have been crossed would require a massive scale-up of carbon dioxide removal after global net zero emissions has been reached.

Currently, about half of all CO 2 emitted is absorbed by land and ocean sinks, the Global Carbon Project reports, with the rest remaining in the atmosphere where it causes climate change. Technology-based carbon dioxide removal pulled only about 10,000 tons of the gas from the atmosphere in 2023. Over a million times more carbon dioxide entered the atmosphere this year because of fossil fuels. 

This story was adapted from materials provided by the University of Exeter.

Rob Jackson is also a senior fellow at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment and Precourt Institute for Energy .

Media Contacts

University of exeter press office, rob jackson, josie garthwaite, explore more.

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The COVID-19 outbreak has posed an unprecedented challenge to humanity and science. On the one side, public and private incentives have been put in place to promptly allocate resources toward research areas strictly related to the COVID-19 emergency. However, research in many fields not directly related to the pandemic has been displaced. In this paper, we assess the impact of COVID-19 on ...

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This large variation in the treatment effects of COVID-19 is apparent in several of the other outcomes, such as study hours, where the average treatment effect of COVID-19 on weekly study hours is −0.9 (that is, students spend 0.9 less hours studying per week due to COVID-19). The interquartile range of the across-subject treatment effect ...

This paper aims at exploring the effects that the pandemic has had on society regarding the economy, social life, education, religion, and family. Our experts can deliver a The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic essay. tailored to your instructions. for only 13.00 11.05/page. 308 qualified specialists online.

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  5. PDF ASSIGNMENT OF RESIDENTIAL LEASE (WITH LANDLORD CONSENT) & GUIDE

    1. Overview Occasionally, tenants want to leave a rental property before the end of their lease. Individuals may take new jobs in new cities, and companies may go out of business or sell their enterprise to a third party. Whatever the reason, tenants can transfer their lease interests to new parties by completing an assignment of the lease.

  6. RTA Fact Sheet: Sublet and Assignment

    The Residential Tenancies Act establishes specific rights and responsibilities for landlords and tenants when a tenant requests an assignment. Sublet When a tenant sublets their rental unit, the tenant gives another person the right to occupy the rental unit for a specific period of time.

  7. Shelter Legal England

    In most cases, the tenancy agreement will only allow assignment if the landlord gives their consent (a qualified prohibition). If the tenancy agreement states that assignment is not allowed (an absolute prohibition), the tenant can still assign but they will be in breach of the tenancy. Qualified prohibition

  8. Free Rental & Lease Agreement Templates

    A lease agreement (or rental agreement) is a document that explains the terms under which a tenant rents a residential or commercial property from a landlord. Lease agreements are legally binding contracts that explain the obligations and rights of the tenant and landlord.

  9. Residential Tenancy Agreement Builder

    It sets out how subletting and assignment of a tenancy may occur during the tenancy. To make sure you choose the right type of agreement for your situation, see More Information . Subletting and assignment

  10. FREE Residential Lease Agreement Template [PDF + Printable]

    A standard residential lease agreement (or "rental agreement") is a contract for a tenant to use a landlord's residential property in exchange for paying rent. A rental agreement must include specific details such as the periodic rent and the responsibilities of each party. Residential Lease Agreements by State

  11. PDF Residential Tenancy Agreement

    Residential Tenancy Agreement #RTB-1 The Residential Tenancy Branch (RTB) is of the opinion that this Residential Tenancy Agreement accurately reflects the Residential Tenancy Act (RTA) and accompanying regulations. The RTB makes no representations or warranties regarding the use of this Agreement.

  12. Residential Lease Assignment Agreement

    The Residential Lease Assignment Agreement is a document through which a tenant transfers their rights in a residential lease to another who becomes the new tenant. A residential lease is a rental property designated for people to live.

  13. Subletting and Assignment

    Assignment is where a tenant transfers his or her entire interest in a tenancy to a third party. The original tenant then ceases to have any interest or involvement in the tenancy and the assignee becomes the tenant who now deals directly with the Landlord.

  14. LANDLORD AND TENANT LEASE AGREEMENT TEMPLATE

    According to the terms of this Agreement, Tenant agrees to rent the Rental Property from the Landlord for residential use, together with the following furnishings and/or appliances listed herein. Rental of the premises also includes the following ancillary use (list other use (s) and access areas available to Tenant). 3.

  15. PDF Residential Tenancy Agreement (RTO

    The Residential Tenancy Branch (RTB) is of the opinion that this Residential Tenancy Agreement accurately reflects the Residential Tenancy Act (RTA) and accompanying regulations. The RTB makes no representations or warranties regarding the use of this Agreement. A landlord and tenant may wish to obtain independent advice regarding whether this ...

  16. Free Assignment of Residential Lease Template

    This residential lease assignment is between , an individual (the " Original Tenant ") and an individual (the " New Tenant "). On or about , the Original Tenant and (the " Landlord ") entered into a lease agreement (the " Lease "). The Lease covers the property located at , , , and more particularly described as follows: (the " Premises ").

  17. Assign to a new tenant

    Assigning means that the new tenant replaces you and takes over your rental agreement. The amount of rent and all other details of the agreement stay the same. You are not responsible if the new tenant causes damage or owes rent. But when you assign, you do not have the right to move back in later.

  18. Assignment of a Residential Tenancy

    Assignment is when an existing and ongoing tenancy is transferred from one tenant to another. The person who transfers the tenancy is the 'assignor' and the person who the tenancy is transferred to is the 'assignee' .The outgoing tenant transfers his rights and obligations under the tenancy to the incoming tenant through a legal process which involves a Licence to Assign Note 1 below ...

  19. Landlord's guide to right to rent checks: 8 February 2024 (accessible

    The Right to Rent Scheme applies only to residential tenancy agreements first entered into on or after 1 December 2014 in Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Sandwell and Walsall, and on or after 1 ...

  20. Residential Tenancies Regulation 2019

    4 Standard form of residential tenancy agreements—s 15 of Act (1) The standard form of residential tenancy agreement is the form set out in Schedule 1. (2) The standard form of residential tenancy agreement set out in Schedule 1, when used for a residential tenancy agreement having a fixed term of more than 3 years, must be

  21. Residential Tenancy Agreement Template

    This template is suitable for new residential tenancies created on or after 11 June 2022, with the exception of tenancies provided by Approved Housing Bodies (including Cost Rental tenancies) and Student Specific Accommodation. The RTB reminds member do the public to be aware of potentially fraudulent rental advertisements and tenancy agreements.

  22. Residential Tenancies Act 2010 No 42

    residential tenancy agreement if it is satisfied that a termination notice was given by another co-tenant in accordance with this section. 102 Termination of agreement or co-tenancies by Tribunal (1) The Tribunal may, on application by a co-tenant, make any of the following orders— ...

  23. STELS, OOO

    Find company research, competitor information, contact details & financial data for STELS, OOO of Elektrostal, Moscow region. Get the latest business insights from Dun & Bradstreet.

  24. YIT starts up residential construction in Lytkarino, Moscow region

    The first phase will see the construction of 263 residential units with a total floor area of approximately 14,100 m 2, due for completion in early 2014. The town of Lytkarino is located close to major traffic routes and has good public transport connections, which will be improved further during the construction project. YIT's 7.6-hectare ...

  25. lawdepot lease assignment

    LawDepot Reviews, Pricing, and FAQs. Learn about LawDepot's legal document services for small businesses. Includes info on LawDepot, free trials, pricing, customer reviews and FAQ

  26. Rosatom diversifies into energy storage with newly incorporated Renera

    November 19, 2020. 873. In yet another diversification of its clean energy business, Russian state atomic energy corporation, Rosatom, has opened an energy storage business unit based around lithium-ion batteries. The company, which is also Russia's biggest electricity provider, has announced that it has completed the incorporation of its ...