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21 Legit Research Databases for Free Journal Articles in 2022


Written by  Scribendi

Has this ever happened to you? While looking for websites for research, you come across a research paper site that claims to connect academics to a peer-reviewed article database for free.

Intrigued, you search for keywords related to your topic, only to discover that you must pay a hefty subscription fee to access the service. After the umpteenth time being duped, you begin to wonder if there's even such a thing as free journal articles .

Subscription fees and paywalls are often the bane of students and academics, especially those at small institutions who don't provide access to many free article directories and repositories.

Whether you're working on an undergraduate paper, a PhD dissertation, or a medical research study, we want to help you find tools to locate and access the information you need to produce well-researched, compelling, and innovative work.

Below, we discuss why peer-reviewed articles are superior and list out the best free article databases to use in 2022.

Download Our Free Research Database Roundup PDF

Why peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are more authoritative.

Peer-Reviewed Articles

Determining what sources are reliable can be challenging. Peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are the gold standard in academic research. Reputable academic journals have a rigorous peer-review process.

The peer review process provides accountability to the academic community, as well as to the content of the article. The peer review process involves qualified experts in a specific (often very specific) field performing a review of an article's methods and findings to determine things like quality and credibility.

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in peer-reviewed article databases and research databases, and if you know that a database of journals is reliable, that can offer reassurances about the reliability of a free article. Peer review is often double blind, meaning that the author removes all identifying information and, likewise, does not know the identity of the reviewers. This helps reviewers maintain objectivity and impartiality so as to judge an article based on its merit.

Where to Find Peer-Reviewed Articles

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in a variety of research databases. Below is a list of some of the major databases you can use to find peer-reviewed articles and other sources in disciplines spanning the humanities, sciences, and social sciences.

What Are Open Access Journals?

An open access (OA) journal is a journal whose content can be accessed without payment. This provides scholars, students, and researchers with free journal articles . OA journals use alternate methods of funding to cover publication costs so that articles can be published without having to pass those publication costs on to the reader.

Open Access Journals

Some of these funding models include standard funding methods like advertising, public funding, and author payment models, where the author pays a fee in order to publish in the journal. There are OA journals that have non-peer-reviewed academic content, as well as journals that focus on dissertations, theses, and papers from conferences, but the main focus of OA is peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles.

The internet has certainly made it easier to access research articles and other scholarly publications without needing access to a university library, and OA takes another step in that direction by removing financial barriers to academic content.

Choosing Wisely

Features of legitimate oa journals.

 There are things to look out for when trying to decide if a free publication journal is legitimate:

Mission statement —The mission statement for an OA journal should be available on their website.

Publication history —Is the journal well established? How long has it been available?

Editorial board —Who are the members of the editorial board, and what are their credentials?

Indexing —Can the journal be found in a reliable database?

Peer review —What is the peer review process? Does the journal allow enough time in the process for a reliable assessment of quality?

Impact factor —What is the average number of times the journal is cited over a two-year period?

Features of Illegitimate OA Journals

There are predatory publications that take advantage of the OA format, and they are something to be wary of. Here are some things to look out for:

Contact information —Is contact information provided? Can it be verified?

Turnaround —If the journal makes dubious claims about the amount of time from submission to publication, it is likely unreliable.

Editorial board —Much like determining legitimacy, looking at the editorial board and their credentials can help determine illegitimacy.

Indexing —Can the journal be found in any scholarly databases?

Peer review —Is there a statement about the peer review process? Does it fit what you know about peer review?

How to Find Scholarly Articles

Identify keywords.

Keywords are included in an article by the author. Keywords are an excellent way to find content relevant to your research topic or area of interest. In academic searches, much like you would on a search engine, you can use keywords to navigate through what is available to find exactly what you're looking for.

Authors provide keywords that will help you easily find their article when researching a related topic, often including general terms to accommodate broader searches, as well as some more specific terms for those with a narrower scope. Keywords can be used individually or in combination to refine your scholarly article search.

Narrow Down Results

Sometimes, search results can be overwhelming, and searching for free articles on a journal database is no exception, but there are multiple ways to narrow down your results. A good place to start is discipline.

What category does your topic fall into (psychology, architecture, machine learning, etc.)? You can also narrow down your search with a year range if you're looking for articles that are more recent.

A Boolean search can be incredibly helpful. This entails including terms like AND between two keywords in your search if you need both keywords to be in your results (or, if you are looking to exclude certain keywords, to exclude these words from the results).

Consider Different Avenues

If you're not having luck using keywords in your search for free articles, you may still be able to find what you're looking for by changing your tactics. Casting a wider net sometimes yields positive results, so it may be helpful to try searching by subject if keywords aren't getting you anywhere.

You can search for a specific publisher to see if they have OA publications in the academic journal database. And, if you know more precisely what you're looking for, you can search for the title of the article or the author's name.

The Top 21 Free Online Journal and Research Databases

Navigating OA journals, research article databases, and academic websites trying to find high-quality sources for your research can really make your head spin. What constitutes a reliable database? What is a useful resource for your discipline and research topic? How can you find and access full-text, peer-reviewed articles?

Fortunately, we're here to help. Having covered some of the ins and outs of peer review, OA journals, and how to search for articles, we have compiled a list of the top 21 free online journals and the best research databases. This list of databases is a great resource to help you navigate the wide world of academic research.

These databases provide a variety of free sources, from abstracts and citations to full-text, peer-reviewed OA journals. With databases covering specific areas of research and interdisciplinary databases that provide a variety of material, these are some of our favorite free databases, and they're totally legit!

CORE is a multidisciplinary aggregator of OA research. CORE has the largest collection of OA articles available. It allows users to search more than 219 million OA articles. While most of these link to the full-text article on the original publisher's site, or to a PDF available for download, five million records are hosted directly on CORE.

CORE's mission statement is a simple and straightforward commitment to offering OA articles to anyone, anywhere in the world. They also host communities that are available for researchers to join and an ambassador community to enhance their services globally. In addition to a straightforward keyword search, CORE offers advanced search options to filter results by publication type, year, language, journal, repository, and author.

CORE's user interface is easy to use and navigate. Search results can be sorted based on relevance or recency, and you can search for relevant content directly from the results screen.

Collection: 219,537,133 OA articles

Other Services: Additional services are available from CORE, with extras that are geared toward researchers, repositories, and businesses. There are tools for accessing raw data, including an API that provides direct access to data, datasets that are available for download, and FastSync for syncing data content from the CORE database.

CORE has a recommender plug-in that suggests relevant OA content in the database while conducting a search and a discovery feature that helps you discover OA versions of paywalled articles. Other features include tools for managing content, such as a dashboard for managing repository output and the Repository Edition service to enhance discoverability.

Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles: Yes

Advanced Search Options: Language, author, journal, publisher, repository, DOI, year

2. ScienceOpen

Functioning as a research and publishing network, ScienceOpen offers OA to more than 74 million articles in all areas of science. Although you do need to register to view the full text of articles, registration is free. The advanced search function is highly detailed, allowing you to find exactly the research you're looking for.

The Berlin- and Boston-based company was founded in 2013 to "facilitate open and public communications between academics and to allow ideas to be judged on their merit, regardless of where they come from." Search results can be exported for easy integration with reference management systems.

You can also bookmark articles for later research. There are extensive networking options, including your Science Open profile, a forum for interacting with other researchers, the ability to track your usage and citations, and an interactive bibliography. Users have the ability to review articles and provide their knowledge and insight within the community.

Collection: 74,560,631

Other Services: None

Advanced Search Options:  Content type, source, author, journal, discipline

3. Directory of Open Access Journals

A multidisciplinary, community-curated directory, the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) gives researchers access to high-quality peer-reviewed journals. It has archived more than two million articles from 17,193 journals, allowing you to either browse by subject or search by keyword.

The site was launched in 2003 with the aim of increasing the visibility of OA scholarly journals online. Content on the site covers subjects from science, to law, to fine arts, and everything in between. DOAJ has a commitment to "increase the visibility, accessibility, reputation, usage and impact of quality, peer-reviewed, OA scholarly research journals globally, regardless of discipline, geography or language."

Information about the journal is available with each search result. Abstracts are also available in a collapsible format directly from the search screen. The scholarly article website is somewhat simple, but it is easy to navigate. There are 16 principles of transparency and best practices in scholarly publishing that clearly outline DOAJ policies and standards.

Collection: 6,817,242

Advanced Search Options:  Subject, journal, year

4. Education Resources Information Center

The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) of the Institution of Education Sciences allows you to search by topic for material related to the field of education. Links lead to other sites, where you may have to purchase the information, but you can search for full-text articles only. You can also search only peer-reviewed sources.

The service primarily indexes journals, gray literature (such as technical reports, white papers, and government documents), and books. All sources of material on ERIC go through a formal review process prior to being indexed. ERIC's selection policy is available as a PDF on their website.

The ERIC website has an extensive FAQ section to address user questions. This includes categories like general questions, peer review, and ERIC content. There are also tips for advanced searches, as well as general guidance on the best way to search the database. ERIC is an excellent database for content specific to education.

Collection: 1,292,897

Advanced Search Options: Boolean

5. arXiv e-Print Archive

The arXiv e-Print Archive is run by Cornell University Library and curated by volunteer moderators, and it now offers OA to more than one million e-prints.

There are advisory committees for all eight subjects available on the database. With a stated commitment to an "emphasis on openness, collaboration, and scholarship," the arXiv e-Print Archive is an excellent STEM resource.

The interface is not as user-friendly as some of the other databases available, and the website hosts a blog to provide news and updates, but it is otherwise a straightforward math and science resource. There are simple and advanced search options, and, in addition to conducting searches for specific topics and articles, users can browse content by subject. The arXiv e-Print Archive clearly states that they do not peer review the e-prints in the database.

Collection: 1,983,891

Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles: No

Advanced Search Options:  Subject, date, title, author, abstract, DOI

6. Social Science Research Network

The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a collection of papers from the social sciences community. It is a highly interdisciplinary platform used to search for scholarly articles related to 67 social science topics. SSRN has a variety of research networks for the various topics available through the free scholarly database.

The site offers more than 700,000 abstracts and more than 600,000 full-text papers. There is not yet a specific option to search for only full-text articles, but, because most of the papers on the site are free access, it's not often that you encounter a paywall. There is currently no option to search for only peer-reviewed articles.

You must become a member to use the services, but registration is free and enables you to interact with other scholars around the world. SSRN is "passionately committed to increasing inclusion, diversity and equity in scholarly research," and they encourage and discuss the use of inclusive language in scholarship whenever possible.

Collection: 1,058,739 abstracts; 915,452 articles

Advanced Search Options: Term, author, date, network

7. Public Library of Science

Public Library of Science (PLOS) is a big player in the world of OA science. Publishing 12 OA journals, the nonprofit organization is committed to facilitating openness in academic research. According to the site, "all PLOS content is at the highest possible level of OA, meaning that scientific articles are immediately and freely available to anyone, anywhere."

PLOS outlines four fundamental goals that guide the organization: break boundaries, empower researchers, redefine quality, and open science. All PLOS journals are peer-reviewed, and all 12 journals uphold rigorous ethical standards for research, publication, and scientific reporting.

PLOS does not offer advanced search options. Content is organized by topic into research communities that users can browse through, in addition to options to search for both articles and journals. The PLOS website also has resources for peer reviewers, including guidance on becoming a reviewer and on how to best participate in the peer review process.

Collection: 12 journals

Advanced Search Options: None

8. OpenDOAR

OpenDOAR, or the Directory of Open Access Repositories, is a comprehensive resource for finding free OA journals and articles. Using Google Custom Search, OpenDOAR combs through OA repositories around the world and returns relevant research in all disciplines.

The repositories it searches through are assessed and categorized by OpenDOAR staff to ensure they meet quality standards. Inclusion criteria for the database include requirements for OA content, global access, and categorically appropriate content, in addition to various other quality assurance measures. OpenDOAR has metadata, data, content, preservation, and submission policies for repositories, in addition to two OA policy statements regarding minimum and optimum recommendations.

This database allows users to browse and search repositories, which can then be selected, and articles and data can be accessed from the repository directly. As a repository database, much of the content on the site is geared toward the support of repositories and OA standards.

Collection: 5,768 repositories

Other Services: OpenDOAR offers a variety of additional services. Given the nature of the platform, services are primarily aimed at repositories and institutions, and there is a marked focus on OA in general. Sherpa services are OA archiving tools for authors and institutions.

They also offer various resources for OA support and compliance regarding standards and policies. The publication router matches publications and publishers with appropriate repositories.

There are also services and resources from JISC for repositories for cost management, discoverability, research impact, and interoperability, including ORCID consortium membership information. Additionally, a repository self-assessment tool is available for members.

Advanced Search Options:  Name, organization name, repository type, software name, content type, subject, country, region

9. Bielefeld Academic Search Engine

The Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) is operated by the Bielefeld University Library in Germany, and it offers more than 240 million documents from more than 8,000 sources. Sixty percent of its content is OA, and you can filter your search accordingly.

BASE has rigorous inclusion requirements for content providers regarding quality and relevance, and they maintain a list of content providers for the sake of transparency, which can be easily found on their website. BASE has a fairly elegant interface. Search results can be organized by author, title, or date.

From the search results, items can be selected and exported, added to favorites, emailed, and searched in Google Scholar. There are basic and advanced search features, with the advanced search offering numerous options for refining search criteria. There is also a feature on the website that saves recent searches without additional steps from the user.

Collection: 276,019,066 documents; 9,286 content providers

Advanced Search Options:  Author, subject, year, content provider, language, document type, access, terms of reuse

Research Databases

10. Digital Library of the Commons Repository

Run by Indiana University, the Digital Library of the Commons (DLC) Repository is a multidisciplinary journal repository that allows users to access thousands of free and OA articles from around the world. You can browse by document type, date, author, title, and more or search for keywords relevant to your topic.

DCL also offers the Comprehensive Bibliography of the Commons, an image database, and a keyword thesaurus for enhanced search parameters. The repository includes books, book chapters, conference papers, journal articles, surveys, theses and dissertations, and working papers. DCL advanced search features drop-down menus of search types with built-in Boolean search options.

Searches can be sorted by relevance, title, date, or submission date in ascending or descending order. Abstracts are included in selected search results, with access to full texts available, and citations can be exported from the same page. Additionally, the image database search includes tips for better search results.

Collection: 10,784

Advanced Search Options:  Author, date, title, subject, sector, region, conference

11. CIA World Factbook

The CIA World Factbook is a little different from the other resources on this list in that it is not an online journal directory or repository. It is, however, a useful free online research database for academics in a variety of disciplines.

All the information is free to access, and it provides facts about every country in the world, which are organized by category and include information about history, geography, transportation, and much more. The World Factbook can be searched by country or region, and there is also information about the world’s oceans.

This site contains resources related to the CIA as an organization rather than being a scientific journal database specifically. The site has a user interface that is easy to navigate. The site also provides a section for updates regarding changes to what information is available and how it is organized, making it easier to interact with the information you are searching for.

Collection: 266 countries

12. Paperity

Paperity boasts its status as the "first multidisciplinary aggregator of OA journals and papers." Their focus is on helping you avoid paywalls while connecting you to authoritative research. In addition to providing readers with easy access to thousands of journals, Paperity seeks to help authors reach their audiences and help journals increase their exposure to boost readership.

Paperity has journal articles for every discipline, and the database offers more than a dozen advanced search options, including the length of the paper and the number of authors. There is even an option to include, exclude, or exclusively search gray papers.

Paperity is available for mobile, with both a mobile site and the Paperity Reader, an app that is available for both Android and Apple users. The database is also available on social media. You can interact with Paperity via Twitter and Facebook, and links to their social media are available on their homepage, including their Twitter feed.

Collection: 8,837,396

Advanced Search Options: Title, abstract, journal title, journal ISSN, publisher, year of publication, number of characters, number of authors, DOI, author, affiliation, language, country, region, continent, gray papers

13. dblp Computer Science Bibliography

The dblp Computer Science Bibliography is an online index of major computer science publications. dblp was founded in 1993, though until 2010 it was a university-specific database at the University of Trier in Germany. It is currently maintained by the Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz Center for Informatics.

Although it provides access to both OA articles and those behind a paywall, you can limit your search to only OA articles. The site indexes more than three million publications, making it an invaluable resource in the world of computer science. dblp entries are color-coded based on the type of item.

dblp has an extensive FAQ section, so questions that might arise about topics like the database itself, navigating the website, or the data on dblp, in addition to several other topics, are likely to be answered. The website also hosts a blog and has a section devoted to website statistics.

Collection: 5,884,702

14. EconBiz

EconBiz is a great resource for economic and business studies. A service of the Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, it offers access to full texts online, with the option of searching for OA material only. Their literature search is performed across multiple international databases.

EconBiz has an incredibly useful research skills section, with resources such as Guided Walk, a service to help students and researchers navigate searches, evaluate sources, and correctly cite references; the Research Guide EconDesk, a help desk to answer specific questions and provide advice to aid in literature searches; and the Academic Career Kit for what they refer to as Early Career Researchers.

Other helpful resources include personal literature lists, a calendar of events for relevant calls for papers, conferences, and workshops, and an economics terminology thesaurus to help in finding keywords for searches. To stay up-to-date with EconBiz, you can sign up for their newsletter.

Collection: 1,075,219

Advanced Search Options:  Title, subject, author, institution, ISBN/ISSN, journal, publisher, language, OA only

15. BioMed Central

BioMed Central provides OA research from more than 300 peer-reviewed journals. While originally focused on resources related to the physical sciences, math, and engineering, BioMed Central has branched out to include journals that cover a broader range of disciplines, with the aim of providing a single platform that provides OA articles for a variety of research needs. You can browse these journals by subject or title, or you can search all articles for your required keyword.

BioMed Central has a commitment to peer-reviewed sources and to the peer review process itself, continually seeking to help and improve the peer review process. They're "committed to maintaining high standards through full and stringent peer review." They publish the journal Research Integrity and Peer Review , which publishes research on the subject.

Additionally, the website includes resources to assist and support editors as part of their commitment to providing high-quality, peer-reviewed OA articles.

Collection: 507,212

Other Services: BMC administers the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry. While initially designed for registering clinical trials, since its creation in 2000, the registry has broadened its scope to include other health studies as well.

The registry is recognized by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), and it meets the requirements established by the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.

The study records included in the registry are all searchable and free to access. The ISRCTN registry "supports transparency in clinical research, helps reduce selective reporting of results and ensures an unbiased and complete evidence base."

Advanced Search Options:  Author, title, journal, list

A multidisciplinary search engine, JURN provides links to various scholarly websites, articles, and journals that are free to access or OA. Covering the fields of the arts, humanities, business, law, nature, science, and medicine, JURN has indexed almost 5,000 repositories to help you find exactly what you're looking for.

Search features are enhanced by Google, but searches are filtered through their index of repositories. JURN seeks to reach a wide audience, with their search engine tailored to researchers from "university lecturers and students seeking a strong search tool for OA content" and "advanced and ambitious students, age 14-18" to "amateur historians and biographers" and "unemployed and retired lecturers."

That being said, JURN is very upfront about its limitations. They admit to not being a good resource for educational studies, social studies, or psychology, and conference archives are generally not included due to frequently unstable URLs.

Collection: 5,064 indexed journals

Other Services: JURN has a browser add-on called UserScript. This add-on allows users to integrate the JURN database directly into Google Search. When performing a search through Google, the add-on creates a link that sends the search directly to JURN CSE. JURN CSE is a search service that is hosted by Google.

Clicking the link from the Google Search bar will run your search through the JURN database from the Google homepage. There is also an interface for a DuckDuckGo search box; while this search engine has an emphasis on user privacy, for smaller sites that may be indexed by JURN, DuckDuckGo may not provide the same depth of results.

Advanced Search Options:  Google search modifiers

Dryad is a digital repository of curated, OA scientific research data. Launched in 2009, it is run by a not-for-profit membership organization, with a community of institutional and publisher members for whom their services have been designed. Members include institutions such as Stanford, UCLA, and Yale, as well as publishers like Oxford University Press and Wiley.

Dryad aims to "promote a world where research data is openly available, integrated with the scholarly literature, and routinely reused to create knowledge." It is free to access for the search and discovery of data. Their user experience is geared toward easy self-depositing, supports Creative Commons licensing, and provides DOIs for all their content.

Note that there is a publishing charge associated if you wish to publish your data in Dryad. When searching datasets, they are accompanied by author information and abstracts for the associated studies, and citation information is provided for easy attribution.

Collection: 44,458

Advanced Search Options: No

Run by the British Library, the E-Theses Online Service (EThOS) allows you to search over 500,000 doctoral theses in a variety of disciplines. All of the doctoral theses available on EThOS have been awarded by higher education institutions in the United Kingdom.

Although some full texts are behind paywalls, you can limit your search to items available for immediate download, either directly through EThOS or through an institution's website. More than half of the records in the database provide access to full-text theses.

EThOS notes that they do not hold all records for all institutions, but they strive to index as many doctoral theses as possible, and the database is constantly expanding, with approximately 3,000 new records added and 2,000 new full-text theses available every month. The availability of full-text theses is dependent on multiple factors, including their availability in the institutional repository and the level of repository development.

Collection: 500,000+

Advanced Search Options:  Abstract, author's first name, author's last name, awarding body, current institution, EThOS ID, year, language, qualifications, research supervisor, sponsor/funder, keyword, title

PubMed is a research platform well-known in the fields of science and medicine. It was created and developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). It has been available since 1996 and offers access to "more than 33 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books."

While PubMed does not provide full-text articles directly, and many full-text articles may be behind paywalls or require subscriptions to access them, when articles are available from free sources, such as through PubMed Central (PMC), those links are provided with the citations and abstracts that PubMed does provide.

PMC, which was established in 2000 by the NLM, is a free full-text archive that includes more than 6,000,000 records. PubMed records link directly to corresponding PMC results. PMC content is provided by publishers and other content owners, digitization projects, and authors directly.

Collection: 33,000,000+

Advanced Search Options: Author's first name, author's last name, identifier, corporation, date completed, date created, date entered, date modified, date published, MeSH, book, conflict of interest statement, EC/RN number, editor, filter, grant number, page number, pharmacological action, volume, publication type, publisher, secondary source ID, text, title, abstract, transliterated title

20. Semantic Scholar

A unique and easy-to-use resource, Semantic Scholar defines itself not just as a research database but also as a "search and discovery tool." Semantic Scholar harnesses the power of artificial intelligence to efficiently sort through millions of science-related papers based on your search terms.

Through this singular application of machine learning, Semantic Scholar expands search results to include topic overviews based on your search terms, with the option to create an alert for or further explore the topic. It also provides links to related topics.

In addition, search results produce "TLDR" summaries in order to provide concise overviews of articles and enhance your research by helping you to navigate quickly and easily through the available literature to find the most relevant information. According to the site, although some articles are behind paywalls, "the data [they] have for those articles is limited," so you can expect to receive mostly full-text results.

Collection: 203,379,033

Other Services: Semantic Scholar supports multiple popular browsers. Content can be accessed through both mobile and desktop versions of Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Google Chrome, Apple Safari, and Opera.

Additionally, Semantic Scholar provides browser extensions for both Chrome and Firefox, so AI-powered scholarly search results are never more than a click away. The mobile interface includes an option for Semantic Swipe, a new way of interacting with your research results.

There are also beta features that can be accessed as part of the Beta Program, which will provide you with features that are being actively developed and require user feedback for further improvement.

Advanced Search Options: Field of study, date range, publication type, author, journal, conference, PDF

Zenodo, powered by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), was launched in 2013. Taking its name from Zenodotus, the first librarian of the ancient library of Alexandria, Zenodo is a tool "built and developed by researchers, to ensure that everyone can join in open science." Zenodo accepts all research from every discipline in any file format.

However, Zenodo also curates uploads and promotes peer-reviewed material that is available through OA. A DOI is assigned to everything that is uploaded to Zenodo, making research easily findable and citable. You can sort by keyword, title, journal, and more and download OA documents directly from the site.

While there are closed access and restricted access items in the database, the vast majority of research is OA material. Search results can be filtered by access type, making it easy to view the free articles available in the database.

Collection: 2,220,000+

Advanced Search Options:  Access, file type, keywords

Check out our roundup of free research databases as a handy one-page PDF.

How to find peer-reviewed articles.

There are a lot of free scholarly articles available from various sources. The internet is a big place. So how do you go about finding peer-reviewed articles when conducting your research? It's important to make sure you are using reputable sources.

The first source of the article is the person or people who wrote it. Checking out the author can give you some initial insight into how much you can trust what you’re reading. Looking into the publication information of your sources can also indicate whether the article is reliable.

Aspects of the article, such as subject and audience, tone, and format, are other things you can look at when evaluating whether the article you're using is valid, reputable, peer-reviewed material. So, let's break that down into various components so you can assess your research to ensure that you're using quality articles and conducting solid research.

Check the Author

Peer-reviewed articles are written by experts or scholars with experience in the field or discipline they're writing about. The research in a peer-reviewed article has to pass a rigorous evaluation process, so it’s a foregone conclusion that the author(s) of a peer-reviewed article should have experience or training related to that research.

When evaluating an article, take a look at the author’s information. What credentials does the author have to indicate that their research has scholarly weight behind it? Finding out what type of degree the author has—and what that degree is in—can provide insight into what kind of authority the author is on the subject.

Something else that might lend credence to the author’s scholarly role is their professional affiliation. A look at what organization or institution they are affiliated with can tell you a lot about their experience or expertise. Where were they trained, and who is verifying their research?

Identify Subject and Audience

The ultimate goal of a study is to answer a question. Scholarly articles are also written for scholarly audiences, especially articles that have gone through the peer review process. This means that the author is trying to reach experts, researchers, academics, and students in the field or topic the research is based on.

Think about the question the author is trying to answer by conducting this research, why, and for whom. What is the subject of the article? What question has it set out to answer? What is the purpose of finding the information? Is the purpose of the article of importance to other scholars? Is it original content?

Research should also be approached analytically. Is the methodology sound? Is the author using an analytical approach to evaluate the data that they have obtained? Are the conclusions they've reached substantiated by their data and analysis? Answering these questions can reveal a lot about the article’s validity.

Format Matters

Reliable articles from peer-reviewed sources have certain format elements to be aware of. The first is an abstract. An abstract is a short summary or overview of the article. Does the article have an abstract? It's unlikely that you're reading a peer-reviewed article if it doesn’t. Peer-reviewed journals will also have a word count range. If an article seems far too short or incredibly long, that may be reason to doubt it.

Another feature of reliable articles is the sections the information is divided into. Peer-reviewed research articles will have clear, concise sections that appropriately organize the information. This might include a literature review, methodology, and results in the case of research articles and a conclusion.

One of the most important sections is the references or bibliography. This is where the researcher lists all the sources of their information. A peer-reviewed source will have a comprehensive reference section.

An article that has been written to reach an academic community will have an academic tone. The language that is used, and the way this language is used, is important to consider. If the article is riddled with grammatical errors, confusing syntax, and casual language, it almost definitely didn't make it through the peer review process.

Also consider the use of terminology. Every discipline is going to have standard terminology or jargon that can be used and understood by other academics in the discipline. The language in a peer-reviewed article is going to reflect that.

If the author is going out of their way to explain simple terms, or terms that are standard to the field or discipline, it's unlikely that the article has been peer reviewed, as this is something that the author would be asked to address during the review process.


The source of the article will be a very good indicator of the likelihood that it was peer reviewed. Where was the article published? Was it published alongside other academic articles in the same discipline? Is it a legitimate and reputable scholarly publication?

A trade publication or newspaper might be legitimate or reputable, but it is not a scholarly source, and it will not have been subject to the peer review process. Scholarly journals are the best resource for peer-reviewed articles, but it's important to remember that not all scholarly journals are peer reviewed.

It’s helpful to look at a scholarly source’s website, as peer-reviewed journals will have a clear indication of the peer review process. University libraries, institutional repositories, and reliable databases (and you now might have a list of some legit ones) can also help provide insight into whether an article comes from a peer-reviewed journal.

Free Online Journal

Common Research Mistakes to Avoid

Research is a lot of work. Even with high standards and good intentions, it’s easy to make mistakes. Perhaps you searched for access to scientific journals for free and found the perfect peer-reviewed sources, but you forgot to document everything, and your references are a mess. Or, you only searched for free online articles and missed out on a ground-breaking study that was behind a paywall.

Whether your research is for a degree or to get published or to satisfy your own inquisitive nature, or all of the above, you want all that work to produce quality results. You want your research to be thorough and accurate.

To have any hope of contributing to the literature on your research topic, your results need to be high quality. You might not be able to avoid every potential mistake, but here are some that are both common and easy to avoid.

Sticking to One Source

One of the hallmarks of good research is a healthy reference section. Using a variety of sources gives you a better answer to your question. Even if all of the literature is in agreement, looking at various aspects of the topic may provide you with an entirely different picture than you would have if you looked at your research question from only one angle.

Not Documenting Every Fact

As you conduct your research, do yourself a favor and write everything down. Everything you include in your paper or article that you got from another source is going to need to be added to your references and cited.

It's important, especially if your aim is to conduct ethical, high-quality research, that all of your research has proper attribution. If you don't document as you go, you could end up making a lot of work for yourself if the information you don’t write down is something that later, as you write your paper, you really need.

Using Outdated Materials

Academia is an ever-changing landscape. What was true in your academic discipline or area of research ten years ago may have since been disproven. If fifteen studies have come out since the article that you're using was published, it's more than a little likely that you're going to be basing your research on flawed or dated information.

If the information you're basing your research on isn’t as up-to-date as possible, your research won't be of quality or able to stand up to any amount of scrutiny. You don’t want all of your hard work to be for naught.

Relying Solely on Open Access Journals

OA is a great resource for conducting academic research. There are high-quality journal articles available through OA, and that can be very helpful for your research. But, just because you have access to free articles, that doesn't mean that there's nothing to be found behind a paywall.

Just as dismissing high-quality peer-reviewed articles because they are OA would be limiting, not exploring any paid content at all is equally short-sighted. If you're seeking to conduct thorough and comprehensive research, exploring all of your options for quality sources is going to be to your benefit.

Digging Too Deep or Not Deep Enough

Research is an art form, and it involves a delicate balance of information. If you conduct your research using only broad search terms, you won't be able to answer your research question well, or you'll find that your research provides information that is closely related to your topic but, ultimately, your findings are vague and unsubstantiated.

On the other hand, if you delve deeply into your research topic with specific searches and turn up too many sources, you might have a lot of information that is adjacent to your topic but without focus and perhaps not entirely relevant. It's important to answer your research question concisely but thoroughly.

Different Types of Scholarly Articles

Different types of scholarly articles have different purposes. An original research article, also called an empirical article, is the product of a study or an experiment. This type of article seeks to answer a question or fill a gap in the existing literature.

Research articles will have a methodology, results, and a discussion of the findings of the experiment or research and typically a conclusion.

Review articles overview the current literature and research and provide a summary of what the existing research indicates or has concluded. This type of study will have a section for the literature review, as well as a discussion of the findings of that review. Review articles will have a particularly extensive reference or bibliography section.

Theoretical articles draw on existing literature to create new theories or conclusions, or look at current theories from a different perspective, to contribute to the foundational knowledge of the field of study.

10 Tips for Navigating Journal Databases

Use the right academic journal database for your search, be that interdisciplinary or specific to your field. Or both!

If it’s an option, set the search results to return only peer-reviewed sources.

Start by using search terms that are relevant to your topic without being overly specific.

Try synonyms, especially if your keywords aren’t returning the desired results.

Scholarly Journal Articles

Even if you’ve found some good articles, try searching using different terms.

Explore the advanced search features of the database(s).

Learn to use Booleans (AND, OR, NOT) to expand or narrow your results.

Once you’ve gotten some good results from a more general search, try narrowing your search.

Read through abstracts when trying to find articles relevant to your research.

Keep track of your research and use citation tools. It’ll make life easier when it comes time to compile your references.

7 Frequently Asked Questions

1. how do i get articles for free.

Free articles can be found through free online academic journals, OA databases, or other databases that include OA journals and articles. These resources allow you to access free papers online so you can conduct your research without getting stuck behind a paywall.

Academics don’t receive payment for the articles they contribute to journals. There are often, in fact, publication fees that scholars pay in order to publish. This is one of the funding structures that allows OA journals to provide free content so that you don’t have to pay fees or subscription costs to access journal articles.

2. How Do I Find Journal Articles?

Journal articles can be found in databases and institutional repositories that can be accessed at university libraries. However, online research databases that contain OA articles are the best resource for getting free access to journal articles that are available online.

Peer-reviewed journal articles are the best to use for academic research, and there are a number of databases where you can find peer-reviewed OA journal articles. Once you've found a useful article, you can look through the references for the articles the author used to conduct their research, and you can then search online databases for those articles, too.

3. How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles?

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in reputable scholarly peer-reviewed journals. High-quality journals and journal articles can be found online using academic search engines and free research databases. These resources are excellent for finding OA articles, including peer-reviewed articles.

OA articles are articles that can be accessed for free. While some scholarly search engines and databases include articles that aren't peer reviewed, there are also some that provide only peer-reviewed articles, and databases that include non-peer-reviewed articles often have advanced search features that enable you to select “peer review only.” The database will return results that are exclusively peer-reviewed content.

4. What Are Research Databases?

A research database is a list of journals, articles, datasets, and/or abstracts that allows you to easily search for scholarly and academic resources and conduct research online. There are databases that are interdisciplinary and cover a variety of topics.

For example, Paperity might be a great resource for a chemist as well as a linguist, and there are databases that are more specific to a certain field. So, while ERIC might be one of the best educational databases available for OA content, it's not going to be one of the best databases for finding research in the field of microbiology.

5. How Do I Find Scholarly Articles for Specific Fields?

There are interdisciplinary research databases that provide articles in a variety of fields, as well as research databases that provide articles that cater to specific disciplines. Additionally, a journal repository or index can be a helpful resource for finding articles in a specific field.

When searching an interdisciplinary database, there are frequently advanced search features that allow you to narrow the search results down so that they are specific to your field. Selecting “psychology” in the advanced search features will return psychology journal articles in your search results. You can also try databases that are specific to your field.

If you're searching for law journal articles, many law reviews are OA. If you don’t know of any databases specific to history, visiting a journal repository or index and searching “history academic journals” can return a list of journals specific to history and provide you with a place to begin your research.

6. Are Peer-Reviewed Articles Really More Legitimate?

The short answer is yes, peer-reviewed articles are more legitimate resources for academic research. The peer review process provides legitimacy, as it is a rigorous review of the content of an article that is performed by scholars and academics who are experts in their field of study. The review provides an evaluation of the quality and credibility of the article.

Non-peer-reviewed articles are not subject to a review process and do not undergo the same level of scrutiny. This means that non-peer-reviewed articles are unlikely, or at least not as likely, to meet the same standards that peer-reviewed articles do.

7. Are Free Article Directories Legitimate?

Yes! As with anything, some databases are going to be better for certain requirements than others. But, a scholarly article database being free is not a reason in itself to question its legitimacy.

Free scholarly article databases can provide access to abstracts, scholarly article websites, journal repositories, and high-quality peer-reviewed journal articles. The internet has a lot of information, and it's often challenging to figure out what information is reliable. 

Research databases and article directories are great resources to help you conduct your research. Our list of the best research paper websites is sure to provide you with sources that are totally legit.

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The top list of academic research databases

best research databases

2. Web of Science

5. ieee xplore, 6. sciencedirect, 7. directory of open access journals (doaj), frequently asked questions about academic research databases, related articles.

Whether you are writing a thesis , dissertation, or research paper it is a key task to survey prior literature and research findings. More likely than not, you will be looking for trusted resources, most likely peer-reviewed research articles.

Academic research databases make it easy to locate the literature you are looking for. We have compiled the top list of trusted academic resources to help you get started with your research:

Scopus is one of the two big commercial, bibliographic databases that cover scholarly literature from almost any discipline. Beside searching for research articles, Scopus also provides academic journal rankings, author profiles, and an h-index calculator .

  • Coverage: 90.6 million core records
  • References: N/A
  • Discipline: Multidisciplinary
  • Access options: Limited free preview, full access by institutional subscription only
  • Provider: Elsevier

Search interface of Scopus

Web of Science also known as Web of Knowledge is the second big bibliographic database. Usually, academic institutions provide either access to Web of Science or Scopus on their campus network for free.

  • Coverage: approx. 100 million items
  • References: 1.4 billion
  • Access options: institutional subscription only
  • Provider: Clarivate (formerly Thomson Reuters)

Web of Science landing page

PubMed is the number one resource for anyone looking for literature in medicine or biological sciences. PubMed stores abstracts and bibliographic details of more than 30 million papers and provides full text links to the publisher sites or links to the free PDF on PubMed Central (PMC) .

  • Coverage: approx. 35 million items
  • Discipline: Medicine and Biological Sciences
  • Access options: free
  • Provider: NIH

Search interface of PubMed

For education sciences, ERIC is the number one destination. ERIC stands for Education Resources Information Center, and is a database that specifically hosts education-related literature.

  • Coverage: approx. 1.6 million items
  • Discipline: Education
  • Provider: U.S. Department of Education

Search interface of ERIC academic database

IEEE Xplore is the leading academic database in the field of engineering and computer science. It's not only journal articles, but also conference papers, standards and books that can be search for.

  • Coverage: approx. 6 million items
  • Discipline: Engineering
  • Provider: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Search interface of IEEE Xplore

ScienceDirect is the gateway to the millions of academic articles published by Elsevier, 1.4 million of which are open access. Journals and books can be searched via a single interface.

  • Coverage: approx. 19.5 million items

Search interface of ScienceDirect

The DOAJ is an open-access academic database that can be accessed and searched for free.

  • Coverage: over 8 million records
  • Provider: DOAJ

Search interface of DOAJ database

JSTOR is another great resource to find research papers. Any article published before 1924 in the United States is available for free and JSTOR also offers scholarships for independent researchers.

  • Coverage: more than 12 million items
  • Provider: ITHAKA

Search interface of JSTOR

PubMed is the number one resource for anyone looking for literature in medicine or biological sciences. PubMed stores abstracts and bibliographic details of more than 30 million papers and provides full text links to the publisher sites or links to the free PDF on PubMed Central (PMC)

best websites for research papers

Eight Ways (and More) To Find and Access Research Papers

This blog is part of our Research Smarter series. You’ll discover the various search engines, databases and data repositories to help you along the way. Click on any of the following links for in an in-depth look at how to find relevant research papers, journals , and authors for your next project using the Web of Science™. You can  also check out our ultimate guides here , which include tips to speed up the writing process.

If you’re in the early stages of your research career, you’re likely struggling to learn all you can about your chosen field and evaluate your options. You also need an easy and convenient way to find the right research papers upon which to build your own work and keep you on the proper path toward your goals.

Fortunately, most institutions have access to thousands of journals, so your first step should be to be to check with library staff  and find out what is available via your institutional subscriptions.

For those who may be unfamiliar with other means of access, this blog post – the first in a series devoted to helping you “research smarter” – will provide a sampling of established data sources for scientific research. These include search engines, databases, and data repositories.

Search Engines and Databases

You may have already discovered that the process of searching for research papers offers many choices and scenarios. Some search engines, for example, can be accessed free of charge. Others require a subscription. The latter group generally includes services that index the contents of thousands of published journals, allowing for detailed searches on data fields such as author name, institution, title or keyword, and even funding sources. Because many journals operate on a subscription model too, the process of obtaining full-text versions of papers can be complicated.

On the other hand, a growing number of publishers follow the practice of Open Access (OA) , making their journal content freely available. Similarly, some authors publish their results in the form of preprints, posting them to preprint servers for immediate and free access. These repositories, like indexing services, differ in that some concentrate in a given discipline or broad subject area, while others cover the full range of research.

Search Engines

Following is a brief selection of reputable search engines by which to locate articles relevant to your research.

Google Scholar is a free search engine that provides access to research in multiple disciplines. The sources include academic publishers, universities, online repositories, books, and even judicial opinions from court cases. Based on its indexing, Google Scholar provides citation counts to allow authors and others to track the impact of their work.  

The Directory of Open Access Journals ( DOAJ ) allows users to search and retrieve the article contents of nearly 10,000 OA journals in science, technology, medicine, social sciences, and humanities. All journals must adhere to quality-control standards, including peer review.

PubMed , maintained by the US National Library of Medicine, is a free search engine covering the biomedical and life sciences. Its coverage derives primarily from the MEDLINE database, covering materials as far back as 1951.

JSTOR affords access to more than 12 million journal articles in upwards of 75 disciplines, providing full-text searches of more than 2,000 journals, and access to more than 5,000 OA books.

Selected Databases

The following selection samples a range of resources, including databases which, as discussed above, index the contents of journals either in a given specialty area or the full spectrum of research. Others listed below offer consolidated coverage of multiple databases. Your institution is likely subscribed to a range of research databases, speak to your librarian to see which databases you have access to, and how to go about your search.

Web of Science includes The Web of Science Core Collection, which covers more than 20,000 carefully selected journals, along with books, conference proceedings, and other sources. The indexing also captures citation data, permitting users to follow the thread of an idea or development over time, as well as to track a wide range of research-performance metrics. The Web of Science also features EndNote™ Click , a free browser plugin that offers one-click access to the best available legal and legitimate full-text versions of papers. See here for our ultimate guide to finding relevant research papers on the Web of Science . covers the vast territory of United States federal science, including more than 60 databases and 2,200-plus websites. The many allied agencies whose research is reflected include NASA, the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Environmental Protection Agency.

CiteSeerx is devoted primarily to information and computer science. The database includes a feature called Autonomous Citation Indexing, designed to extract citations and create a citation index for literature searching and evaluation.

Preprint and Data Repositories

An early form of OA literature involved authors, as noted above,  making electronic, preprint versions of their papers freely available. This practice has expanded widely today. You can find archives devoted to a single main specialty area, as well as general repositories connected with universities and other institutions.

The specialty archive is perhaps best exemplified by arXiv (conveniently pronounced “archive,” and one of the earliest examples of a preprint repository). Begun in 1991 as a physics repository, ArXiv has expanded to embrace mathematics, astronomy, statistics, economics, and other disciplines. The success of ArXiv spurred the development of, for example, bioArXiv devoted to an array of topics within biology, and for chemistry, ChemRxiv .

Meanwhile, thousands of institutional repositories hold a variety of useful materials. In addition to research papers, these archives store raw datasets, graphics, notes, and other by-products of investigation. Currently, the Registry of Open Access Repositories lists more than 4,700 entries.

Reach Out Yourself?

If the resources above don’t happen to result in a free and full-text copy of the research you seek, you can also try reaching out to the authors yourself.

To find who authored a paper, you can search indexing platforms like the Web of Science , or research profiling systems like Publons™ , or ResearchGate , then look to reach out to the authors directly.

So, although the sheer volume of research can pose a challenge to identifying and securing needed papers, plenty of options are available.

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The Best Research and Reference Websites

Where to look when you need information

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Research websites come in handy in all kinds of situations, whether you're looking for the average rainfall in the Amazon rainforest, researching Roman history, or just having fun learning to find information.

This list of the best research websites will help greatly, and most of them are updated daily with new information.

I like to pair these sites with free research organizational tools to keep track of everything I gather online.

Best Research Websites

  • Library of Congress : lets you not only ask a librarian for help , but also search catalogs of libraries from all over the world. This is truly a huge resource that should be on your Top 10 best research sites list. Anything from Academia Sinica in Taiwan to Yale University in the U.S. is here and ready to be searched.
  • : Dubbed "The Internet's Best Reference Source," this extremely useful web directory provides everything from business and finance information to federal government resources, scholarship details, links to newspapers and calendars, search engines, and more.
  • Ask the Space Expert: NASA's source for space and science research help. Use the video links to listen to questions answered by experts. These are from 2013 through 2015.
  • : This is where you should start when looking for specific U.S. government information. Learn about the country in general or education, housing, disability services, jobs, taxes, laws, and more.
  • : Extremely simple to use with a basic layout, this reference website lets you browse by category or search by keywords to research everything from food and health to history, beauty, education, technology, vehicles, art, and more.
  • : Billing itself as the internet's fact-checker, this site includes in-depth research links to breaking news, editorials, Today in History, Word of the Day, and other references.
  • : The #1 online encyclopedia that lets you search over 200 reference books and encyclopedias at once. The Picks of the week is a neat section to examine each week.
  • Encyclopedia Britannica : One of the world's oldest encyclopedias online; has featured posts and category listings. The company launched in the 18th century and has been publishing exclusively online since 2011.
  • Purdue University Quick Reference : This site has tons of information that includes resources specific to Purdue University and surrounding areas in Indiana. It also includes an Ask a Librarian service.
  • Prescriber's Digital Reference : A wonderful research tool when gathering detailed medical information. The drug name browser includes summaries (dosage, description, and more) for hundreds of drugs.
  • : Serves as a gateway for reference and research links. It uses other websites for its searches, like YouTube and Google.
  • ResearchGate : Scientific knowledge from over 160 million publication pages; browse topics in categories like engineering, biology, climate change, medicine, math, and more.
  • : Here's everything you ever wanted to know about baseball.
  • FOLDOC : Free Online Dictionary of Computing is a detailed computing dictionary for researching the meaning behind computer-related tools, standards, jargon, languages, and more. The "random" button is a fun way to learn new concepts.

Depending on the type of research you're doing or how you need to reference the information, you may need quick access to books. There are lots of places to find free book downloads , textbooks , and educational movies .

Other Ways to Do Research

Search engines like Google are a great way to perform online research. You can locate books, articles, interviews, and lots more. Learn how to search better to get the most out of your research.

Another top source of expert information is your local librarian— search for libraries near you at WorldCat . Librarians are trained to find answers to obscure questions, they're friendly, and best of all, you can talk with them face to face. They often ask you questions you might not have considered, leading to even better results. You can get help from librarians online, too, through some of the sources above.

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How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide

A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.

Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate.

This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.

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Table of contents

Understand the assignment, choose a research paper topic, conduct preliminary research, develop a thesis statement, create a research paper outline, write a first draft of the research paper, write the introduction, write a compelling body of text, write the conclusion, the second draft, the revision process, research paper checklist, free lecture slides.

Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you. Before you start, make sure you thoroughly understanding the assignment task sheet:

  • Read it carefully, looking for anything confusing you might need to clarify with your professor.
  • Identify the assignment goal, deadline, length specifications, formatting, and submission method.
  • Make a bulleted list of the key points, then go back and cross completed items off as you’re writing.

Carefully consider your timeframe and word limit: be realistic, and plan enough time to research, write, and edit.

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There are many ways to generate an idea for a research paper, from brainstorming with pen and paper to talking it through with a fellow student or professor.

You can try free writing, which involves taking a broad topic and writing continuously for two or three minutes to identify absolutely anything relevant that could be interesting.

You can also gain inspiration from other research. The discussion or recommendations sections of research papers often include ideas for other specific topics that require further examination.

Once you have a broad subject area, narrow it down to choose a topic that interests you, m eets the criteria of your assignment, and i s possible to research. Aim for ideas that are both original and specific:

  • A paper following the chronology of World War II would not be original or specific enough.
  • A paper on the experience of Danish citizens living close to the German border during World War II would be specific and could be original enough.

Note any discussions that seem important to the topic, and try to find an issue that you can focus your paper around. Use a variety of sources , including journals, books, and reliable websites, to ensure you do not miss anything glaring.

Do not only verify the ideas you have in mind, but look for sources that contradict your point of view.

  • Is there anything people seem to overlook in the sources you research?
  • Are there any heated debates you can address?
  • Do you have a unique take on your topic?
  • Have there been some recent developments that build on the extant research?

In this stage, you might find it helpful to formulate some research questions to help guide you. To write research questions, try to finish the following sentence: “I want to know how/what/why…”

A thesis statement is a statement of your central argument — it establishes the purpose and position of your paper. If you started with a research question, the thesis statement should answer it. It should also show what evidence and reasoning you’ll use to support that answer.

The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.

You will probably revise and refine the thesis statement as you do more research, but it can serve as a guide throughout the writing process. Every paragraph should aim to support and develop this central claim.

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A research paper outline is essentially a list of the key topics, arguments, and evidence you want to include, divided into sections with headings so that you know roughly what the paper will look like before you start writing.

A structure outline can help make the writing process much more efficient, so it’s worth dedicating some time to create one.

Your first draft won’t be perfect — you can polish later on. Your priorities at this stage are as follows:

  • Maintaining forward momentum — write now, perfect later.
  • Paying attention to clear organization and logical ordering of paragraphs and sentences, which will help when you come to the second draft.
  • Expressing your ideas as clearly as possible, so you know what you were trying to say when you come back to the text.

You do not need to start by writing the introduction. Begin where it feels most natural for you — some prefer to finish the most difficult sections first, while others choose to start with the easiest part. If you created an outline, use it as a map while you work.

Do not delete large sections of text. If you begin to dislike something you have written or find it doesn’t quite fit, move it to a different document, but don’t lose it completely — you never know if it might come in useful later.

Paragraph structure

Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of research papers. Each one should focus on a single claim or idea that helps to establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.

Example paragraph

George Orwell’s 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language” has had an enduring impact on thought about the relationship between politics and language. This impact is particularly obvious in light of the various critical review articles that have recently referenced the essay. For example, consider Mark Falcoff’s 2009 article in The National Review Online, “The Perversion of Language; or, Orwell Revisited,” in which he analyzes several common words (“activist,” “civil-rights leader,” “diversity,” and more). Falcoff’s close analysis of the ambiguity built into political language intentionally mirrors Orwell’s own point-by-point analysis of the political language of his day. Even 63 years after its publication, Orwell’s essay is emulated by contemporary thinkers.

Citing sources

It’s also important to keep track of citations at this stage to avoid accidental plagiarism . Each time you use a source, make sure to take note of where the information came from.

You can use our free citation generators to automatically create citations and save your reference list as you go.

APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator

The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you’ll build your arguments.

What? Be specific about the topic of the paper, introduce the background, and define key terms or concepts.

Why? This is the most important, but also the most difficult, part of the introduction. Try to provide brief answers to the following questions: What new material or insight are you offering? What important issues does your essay help define or answer?

How? To let the reader know what to expect from the rest of the paper, the introduction should include a “map” of what will be discussed, briefly presenting the key elements of the paper in chronological order.

The major struggle faced by most writers is how to organize the information presented in the paper, which is one reason an outline is so useful. However, remember that the outline is only a guide and, when writing, you can be flexible with the order in which the information and arguments are presented.

One way to stay on track is to use your thesis statement and topic sentences . Check:

  • topic sentences against the thesis statement;
  • topic sentences against each other, for similarities and logical ordering;
  • and each sentence against the topic sentence of that paragraph.

Be aware of paragraphs that seem to cover the same things. If two paragraphs discuss something similar, they must approach that topic in different ways. Aim to create smooth transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections.

The research paper conclusion is designed to help your reader out of the paper’s argument, giving them a sense of finality.

Trace the course of the paper, emphasizing how it all comes together to prove your thesis statement. Give the paper a sense of finality by making sure the reader understands how you’ve settled the issues raised in the introduction.

You might also discuss the more general consequences of the argument, outline what the paper offers to future students of the topic, and suggest any questions the paper’s argument raises but cannot or does not try to answer.

You should not :

  • Offer new arguments or essential information
  • Take up any more space than necessary
  • Begin with stock phrases that signal you are ending the paper (e.g. “In conclusion”)

There are four main considerations when it comes to the second draft.

  • Check how your vision of the paper lines up with the first draft and, more importantly, that your paper still answers the assignment.
  • Identify any assumptions that might require (more substantial) justification, keeping your reader’s perspective foremost in mind. Remove these points if you cannot substantiate them further.
  • Be open to rearranging your ideas. Check whether any sections feel out of place and whether your ideas could be better organized.
  • If you find that old ideas do not fit as well as you anticipated, you should cut them out or condense them. You might also find that new and well-suited ideas occurred to you during the writing of the first draft — now is the time to make them part of the paper.

The goal during the revision and proofreading process is to ensure you have completed all the necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible. You can speed up the proofreading process by using the AI proofreader .

Global concerns

  • Confirm that your paper completes every task specified in your assignment sheet.
  • Check for logical organization and flow of paragraphs.
  • Check paragraphs against the introduction and thesis statement.

Fine-grained details

Check the content of each paragraph, making sure that:

  • each sentence helps support the topic sentence.
  • no unnecessary or irrelevant information is present.
  • all technical terms your audience might not know are identified.

Next, think about sentence structure , grammatical errors, and formatting . Check that you have correctly used transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas. Look for typos, cut unnecessary words, and check for consistency in aspects such as heading formatting and spellings .

Finally, you need to make sure your paper is correctly formatted according to the rules of the citation style you are using. For example, you might need to include an MLA heading  or create an APA title page .

Scribbr’s professional editors can help with the revision process with our award-winning proofreading services.

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Checklist: Research paper

I have followed all instructions in the assignment sheet.

My introduction presents my topic in an engaging way and provides necessary background information.

My introduction presents a clear, focused research problem and/or thesis statement .

My paper is logically organized using paragraphs and (if relevant) section headings .

Each paragraph is clearly focused on one central idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .

Each paragraph is relevant to my research problem or thesis statement.

I have used appropriate transitions  to clarify the connections between sections, paragraphs, and sentences.

My conclusion provides a concise answer to the research question or emphasizes how the thesis has been supported.

My conclusion shows how my research has contributed to knowledge or understanding of my topic.

My conclusion does not present any new points or information essential to my argument.

I have provided an in-text citation every time I refer to ideas or information from a source.

I have included a reference list at the end of my paper, consistently formatted according to a specific citation style .

I have thoroughly revised my paper and addressed any feedback from my professor or supervisor.

I have followed all formatting guidelines (page numbers, headers, spacing, etc.).

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Resources for Academic Research: 12 Best Websites & Tools

Learn about the best 12 websites, tools, and resources for academic research to streamline and improve your research. Find out more now!

It is best to use scholarly or professional resources that are reliable, accurate, and valid for academic coursework and resources for academic research project assignments.

These are typically books and articles that have been reviewed before publication, but they can also be media and websites from reputable organizations and institutions.

When you do a research project, write a paper, or start a blog, you would then read articles to see what other people have done and then build on their work.

What are Resources for Academic Research?

Resources for academic research are the tools, materials, and information sources that scholars, students, and researchers use to conduct thorough and accurate research on a given topic.

Academic journals, books, online databases, primary and secondary sources, and research tools such as citation generators, reference managers, and statistical analysis software are examples of these resources .

Access to reliable and diverse resources is essential for producing high-quality academic work that is credible, informative, and current.

12 Best Websites, Tools & Resources for Academic Research

What sources will lead you to trustworthy resources for academic research? When you need to find sources, use these academic resources instead of scrolling through pages of search results.

  • Google Scholar

Google Scholar offers a wide range of scholarly literature, including articles, theses, books, and conference papers, making it a great resource for academic study.

Google Scholar allows researchers to search for information on a topic, find relevant material for their literature review, track citations of their work, remain up-to-date on new research in their field, and evaluate their work using metrics like the h-index and i10-index.

It’s a comprehensive, user-friendly academic research resource with powerful search capabilities, email alerts, and Google integration. This important website helps researchers find, access, and manage research data.


  • Keyword, author, or title search box for scholarly literature.
  • Tracking your work’s citations.
  • Advanced search filters by publication date, author, or journal.
  • Full-text articles and papers for convenient reference.
  • Email alerts for keywords or topics to remain current on research in your profession.
  • Work impact metrics like the h-index and i10-index.
  • Google Books and Google Drive integration for saving and organizing research resources.

JSTOR is an online library with academic journals, books, and primary sources from many fields. It was started in 1995 as a non-profit organization by JSTOR Inc. and a number of academic institutions.

More than 12 million academic articles and books from more than 2,000 publishers are in JSTOR’s online library. Content on JSTOR comes from many different fields, such as the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.

Individuals and institutions can subscribe to JSTOR’s digital library, and researchers, students, and scholars worldwide use it as a reliable and complete resource for academic research.

  • JSTOR offers scholarly journals, books, and primary materials.
  • JSTOR material spans humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.
  • JSTOR’s stored content, including historical records, gives academics a broad perspective.
  • Users can search the platform’s huge database for keywords, authors, titles, and more.
  • PDFs of JSTOR articles can be downloaded.
  • Sharing, citation, and exporting options help scholars collaborate on the platform.
  • JSTOR’s pricing makes it’s content affordable for all sizes and budgets.

ProQuest is a global information content and technology company that gives access to research databases, electronic books, and digital archives. Eugene B. Power started it in 1938 as University Microfilms to store and distribute dissertations and theses on microfilm.

Today, ProQuest gives you access to a wide range of content, such as academic journals, newspapers, dissertations, and primary sources. The databases on ProQuest cover a wide range of subjects, including the social sciences, the humanities, and the natural sciences.

Researchers, students, and scholars worldwide use ProQuest because it is a reliable, all-inclusive resource for academic research.

Features : 

  • Offers access to research databases, e-books, and digital archives in a wide range of fields.
  • There are a lot of academic journals, newspapers, dissertations, and primary sources in this collection.
  • Included are the social sciences, the humanities, and the natural sciences.
  • Users can search by author, title, keyword, subject, and other criteria.
  • Many of its databases let you read articles and other materials in full text.
  • Includes tools for saving research, organizing it, and sharing it with others.
  • Offers different pricing options so that people and organizations of all sizes and budgets can use it.
  • Offers easy access to ProQuest’s services through mobile apps and the web so that they can be used from anywhere.
  • Users can get a lot of help with customer service and training.
  • ResearchGate

ResearchGate is a social networking site for academics and researchers to cooperate. In 2008, a group of scientists founded it to allow researchers to share their work, communicate, and network.

One of the largest research communities online, ResearchGate has over 17 million users. The platform lets scholars create profiles, share publications, ask and answer questions, and network with like-minded researchers.

A citation tracker and reputation score help scholars manage their research activity on ResearchGate.

  • A social network for scientists and researchers.
  • Enables scholars to create profiles, share work, and network.
  • Researcher cooperation and discussion platform.
  • A citation tracker, online reputation score , and analytics assist scholars in managing their research.
  • Job board and career resource for researchers.
  • Allows field researchers to ask and answer questions.
  • Offers a news feed on cutting-edge research.
  • Provides scholars with peer assessment and feedback.
  • Allows researchers to advertise their work and gain academic recognition.
  • Provides free and premium memberships.

Zotero, a free, open-source reference manager, helps scholars organize and credit their sources. The George Mason University Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media was founded in 2006.

Zotero lets users organize and search papers, books, web pages, and other study materials. It connects with various online browsers to gather and save research sources when surfing.

Researchers may easily format their citations and bibliographies in their discipline’s style with Zotero’s several citation formats. As a handy and effective tool for managing research resources, researchers, students, and scholars worldwide use it.

  • A free, open-source reference manager.
  • Organizes, stores, and cites research sources.
  • Organizes and stores research items in a searchable database.
  • It connects with various online browsers to gather and save research sources when surfing.
  • Offers a variety of citation styles for producing citations and bibliographies.
  • Enables people to share their research.
  • Provides note-taking, labeling, and research source highlighting features.
  • Automatically refreshes and syncs devices for easy research access.
  • Provides many plugins and add-ons to increase functionality.
  • Includes excellent documentation and a helpful user community.

Mendeley, a free reference management and academic, social network, lets researchers organize and share their articles and resources. It was started in 2008 by academicians and software developers and acquired by Elsevier in 2013.

Mendeley lets users create a searchable database of research papers, books, and other resources, including citation management, collaboration, and discovery capabilities. It offers groups, profiles, and suggestions to assist the researcher’s network.

Mendeley is a convenient and effective research management tool used by academics, students, and intellectuals worldwide.

  • Free academic networking and reference management.
  • Helps scholars organize and share papers and resources.
  • Provides a searchable database of research papers, books, etc.
  • Citation, collaboration, and discovery tools.
  • Helps researchers network with groups, profiles, and recommendations.
  • Annotates, highlights, and organizes research.
  • Formats citations and bibliographies in several fields.
  • Plugins and add-ons for major word processing and research applications.
  • Automatic updates and device syncing make research materials accessible anywhere.
  • Has a strong user community and substantial documentation.

Grammarly is a real-time writing tool that checks spelling, punctuation, and style. It was created in 2009 by linguists and software engineers and is now one of the most popular writing tools.

Grammarly is available as a browser extension, a desktop program for Windows and macOS, and a web app. It comes in free and premium versions, with the premium version adding genre-specific writing style advice, plagiarism detection, and readability scoring.

Grammarly improves writing for millions of writers, students, and professionals worldwide.

  • Real-time grammar and spelling checker for writers.
  • Helps writers improve style and tone.
  • Software engineers and linguists created it.
  • Use a web app, browser extension, or desktop software.
  • Free and paid versions are available.
  • The premium edition includes genre-specific writing style suggestions, plagiarism detection, and a readability score.
  • Helps writers improve their writing quality and clarity.
  • Available in English and others.
  • Compatible with Google Documents, Microsoft Word, and others.
  • Provides thorough grammar and writing instructions in an easy-to-use interface.
  • Helps non-native English speakers improve their writing.
  • Microsoft Academic

Microsoft Research created the free public search engine Microsoft Academic. It offers scientific, technological, engineering, mathematical, social science, and humanities research papers, journals, conference proceedings, and other scholarly publications.

Microsoft Academic leverages advanced natural language processing and machine learning to recognize author, publication, and research domain relationships, making it easier for scholars to find relevant material and track field changes. Citation analysis, research network visualization, and author profile management are also available.

  • A free public search engine built by Microsoft Research.
  • Accesses academic journals, conference proceedings, research papers, and other scholarly publications.
  • Understands authors, publications, and research fields using advanced natural language processing and machine learning.
  • Helps researchers find relevant literature and follow industry trends.
  • Citation analysis, visualization of research networks, and author profile creation and management are available.
  • Has powerful filters and semantic search in a user-friendly interface.
  • Citation counts, trends, and co-authorship networks are provided.
  • Enables users to set personalized research alerts.
  • APIs enable developers to access data and functionality.
  • Zotero and Mendeley integration supported.

Evernote lets users capture, organize, and share notes and information across devices. It helps users recall everything from personal notes and to-do lists to business documents and research notes.

Evernote lets users make and save notes in text, photos, audio, and site clippings. Tagging, search, and device synchronization make it easy for users to find and retrieve their notes anytime, anywhere.

The premium edition of Evernote includes PDF annotation, presentation mode, and team collaboration.

  • Note-taking app for multiple platforms.
  • Enables users to take, organize, and share notes across devices.
  • Helps users recall anything from personal notes and to-do lists to research and business paperwork.
  • Enables users to make and save notes in numerous formats, including text, photos, audio, and site clippings.
  • Allows users to find and retrieve their notes anytime, anywhere, with labeling, search, and device syncing.
  • Has configurable notebooks and notes and a simple interface.
  • Offers note formatting, annotation, and editing features.
  • Supports Google Drive, Slack, and other productivity apps.
  • Provides a free version with limited functionality and a paid version with PDF annotation, presentation mode, and team collaboration.
  • Search notes, journals, and tags with a sophisticated search function.
  • To keep organized, lets users set reminders and make to-do lists.

The US National Library of Medicine (NLM) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) maintains PubMed, a free biomedical literature and research article database (NIH). It comprises over 32 million citations and abstracts of papers from more than 8,000 biomedical journals and books, dissertations, and other health and medicine-related resources.

PubMed covers a wide range of medical issues, including clinical research, genetics, nursing, and pharmacology. Medical researchers, students, and professionals can use it to find the newest medical research.

  • Free biomedical research article database.
  • Managed by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the NIH (NIH)
  • 32 million citations and abstracts from over 8,000 biomedical journals.
  • Clinical research, genetics, nursing, pharmacology, and more.
  • Obtains full-text articles from PubMed Central (PMC)
  • Includes Boolean operators, search fields, and filters.
  • Accesses MeSH, a fully controlled vocabulary for indexing articles.
  • Saves and exports search results and send email alerts for new publications matching search criteria.
  • Has a simple interface and search tools.
  • Links to important publications, citations, and other resources.
  • PubMed has a smartphone app.
  • QuestionPro Insight Hub

QuestionPro Insight Hub connects businesses and organizations to millions of consumers and expert panelists globally for market research. The platform allows users to build surveys, run polls, conduct focus groups, and collect data from social media, email, mobile devices, and websites. Advanced analytics and reporting options enable users to evaluate data and understand customer behavior, preferences, and opinions.

Businesses may use QuestionPro Insight Hub to acquire real-time feedback from their target audience, optimize their products and services, and make informed business decisions based on consumer insights. The platform is appropriate for startups to enterprise-level enterprises in fields including healthcare, education, finance, and more.

  • Access to millions of professional and consumer panelists all over the world
  • Customizable surveys with different types of questions, themes, and templates
  • Advanced logic and branching options for surveys
  • Integration with many data collection sources, like social media, email, mobile devices, and websites
  • Text analytics and sentiment analysis are built in for free-form responses.
  • Real-time reporting and analytics with dashboards and charts that the user can change
  • Collaboration tools that let team members share surveys, results, and insights
  • Survey participants can get invitations and reminders by email that they can customize.
  • Tools for running moderated and unmoderated discussions in online focus groups
  • Polling tools to get quick feedback from customers and stakeholders and to get them involved
  • Targeting options that make it easier to reach specific groups and demographics
  • Compliance with GDPR and CCPA for privacy and security of data
  • API and the ability to connect to other business platforms and applications.
  • QuestionPro Live polls

QuestionPro Live Polls lets presenters communicate with their audience by running live polls during presentations, meetings, webinars, and other events that require real-time input. Presenters can modify QuestionPro Live Polls and obtain rapid audience reactions.

QuestionPro Live Polls include:

  • Different question kinds.
  • Configurable designs.
  • Real-time live polling results.
  • Multiple distribution choices.
  • Audience engagement tools.
  • Analytics and reporting.
  • Integration with other platforms.

The solution lets presenters generate multiple-choice, rating scales, and open-ended polls.

SMS, email, QR codes, and social media to distribute QuestionPro Live Polls. Presenters and guests can instantly see real-time polling results on the screen. Presenters can quickly poll their audience regardless of location or device.

QuestionPro Live Polls encourages audience participation with countdown timers, animations, and gamification. Presenters can learn about audience opinions, preferences, and habits using poll analytics and reporting.

QuestionPro Live Polls is great for audience engagement, real-time feedback, and interactive presentations and events.


  • Multiple question types, including multiple-choice, rating scales, and open-ended questions
  • Poll designs that can be changed to fit the theme of the presentation or event
  • The results of the poll were shown on the screen right away.
  • Several ways to spread the word, like SMS, email, QR codes, and social media
  • Tools for getting people to pay attention, such as countdown timers, animations, and gamification elements
  • Analytics and reporting tools can help you determine what your audience thinks, likes, and does.
  • Integration with other platforms, like PowerPoint, Zoom, and other video conferencing tools
  • You can target your audience based on different demographic and psychographic factors to get more accurate feedback and insights.

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In conclusion, the 12 best websites, tools, and resources for academic research offer students, scholars, and researchers a wealth of information and tools to help them in their quest for knowledge. Databases, search engines, citation generators, and collaboration tools are just a few of the features these resources offer.

Using these resources, researchers can improve their research and produce high-quality academic work. Researchers should keep up with the latest tools and technologies, as these can greatly improve their research and help their field advance.

QuestionPro’s Insight Hub and Livepolls are powerful data collection tools. These tools have various features, such as doing surveys, visualizing data, and polling in real-time, which can greatly improve the research process.

With the ability to collect data from a wide range of sources, researchers can gain valuable insights and come to conclusions that are based on facts. Combining these two tools can help researchers do high-quality research and make important contributions to their field. So get more help for your academic research with the help of QuestionPro.


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Best Research Paper Writing Services: TOP 5 Cheap Custom Writing Help Websites Reviews

T he workload in colleges and universities is so enormous that students only have time for some of their responsibilities or extracurricular activities. Aside from the day-long lectures and seminars, each course comes with assignments, especially in the form of research work or paper writing. 

To cut down on this vast workload, students employ professional research assistants and writers to complete these tasks for them. However, advancements in technology have even made this service more easily accessible. With research paper writing websites, students can generate their assignments in a few days. Hence, five of the best research paper writing services online have been highlighted and discussed in detail below. Here is a list with the TOP 5 research paper writing websites:

  • PaperHelp - the best research paper writing service overall.
  • SpeedyPaper - #1 research paper writing website in the U.S.
  • GradeMiners - custom paper writers to hire online for help with homework.
  • PaperWriter - the cheapest research paper writing company in the world.
  • PaperCoach - the fastest research paper & proposal writing provider.

Research assignments are highly valuable to students. It is an avenue for them to learn something new that may not be discussed during the lecture. It could even be a good opportunity for students to improve their critical thinking and problem-solving skills, depending on the technicality of the research topic. Students can likewise deep dive into career experts or work closely with a mentor within or outside the educational system. However, students still do not take an interest in paper writing assignments. This attitude persists among them, even knowing that research and paper writing contribute anywhere between 20% and 80% of a course's grade.

A lot of reasons can be associated with students' poor interest in this aspect of their schooling. As mentioned in the introduction, the workload of colleges and universities forces students to give low consideration to such projects. In close relation to envy workloads, many students do not have the time, mental resources, or skillset for carrying out research or paper writing. According to Marco Learning, 40% of students could not write at a college level. Nevertheless, no student will settle for a low grade, even with terrible research and writing skills. Hence, the quest for a high grade will propel them to either contract the task to a physical professional or employ an online service. Some of the top-notch online services have been thoroughly dissected below.

5 Best Research Paper Writing Services Reviews

Each of the research paper writing services has its strengths. However, PaperHelp is the overall best research paper writing service. And that is why it is number one on this special list. A reviewer by the name of Betty showed her excitement about using this service by saying, "Very great support; they followed me through the whole process for a great essay! Thank you! Very excellent writer! The essay is very clear, and he finished before the deadline! For sure, I will release more orders."  PaperHelp is a writing platform for students with intuitive, customizable features. This platform was created to help students ease the burden of being overworked.

It is an easy-to-use service with only four phases of order placement. Firstly, clients have to choose the type of paper they want in the order form. The options available are academic writing, editing and proofreading, and calculations. Users will find essay writing services like rewriting, custom writing, programming homework help, etc. Students can also request term paper help, paper rating or grading, and several other services. Secondly, users are expected to provide details of their project, like the number of pages, line spacing, other text format, and deadline.

Extra files can also be uploaded where available. Then, they can proceed to input a valid email to generate secure login information. Finally, the process is completed by paying with a credit card or alternative payment system. Once the order has been set, users can follow their order in multiple ways. They can get updates through email, login to their control panel on a web or mobile app, or contact the support team. The support team can be reached via email, Facebook Messenger, phone, or in-app chat. If customers would like to get updates via SMS constantly, they can add the VIP Customer Service extra when they want to order.

The platform owners pride themselves on offering professional service, keeping interactions friendly, and ensuring customers are happy. The platform has a privacy policy for end users. They adhere strictly to Personal Data Protection law and only employ users’ data for legal reasons. Hence, they have a safe and secure service. Clients on PaperHelp can freely withdraw or give their consent to the use of their personal data. When users have complaints about how personal data is collected and processed, they can file a complaint under the PDP law. The platform updates and tests its platform security consistently to make personal data theftproof.

Such an important research paper writing service would not be appealing to students if they did not find the price pocket-friendly. Their pricing is based on school levels. For instance, a high school paper costs $9 per page, an undergraduate essay costs $12 per page, a bachelor's writing costs $17 per page, and a professional essay costs $20 per page. In addition to this, users can select helpful extra services like VIP customer support, plagiarism reports, sources used, etc., all at prices below $15. Not only does PaperHelp have affordable prices, but it also gives users incentives that make it very appealing, especially for multiple orders. There are bonuses, referral discount codes, a 7% feedback discount, and increased discounts on increased orders.


Making it to number two on this list is the leading research paper writing website in the U.S. SpeedyPaper has second-to-none ratings on rating sites like Sitejabber,, and ScamFighter with 5/5, 4.9/5, and 4.9/5 on each site, respectively. This online writing assistant helps students scale through projects ranging from college admission essays to postgraduate or doctoral theses. Even if they have written the research paper and need it edited or proofread, SpeedyPaper is their reliable solution. Other solutions available for them include getting correct answers to multi-choice questions and receiving explanations on school or business projects.

This platform is everyone's go-to service provider for transforming old papers into new ones with paraphrasing or rewriting. In addition, SpeedyPaper can be used as a source of inspiration for writing a research paper. They have over 20,000 free paper samples that you can go through. These free samples cut across all topics, including catalogs on education, law, finance, books, history, etc. Aside from connecting students with writing professionals, it has features that cater to student growth. For instance, this paper writing service comes with an impressive blog that gives students insight into being better writers and overall students.

Using SpeedyPaper is quite easy. End-users begin by filling out the order form with paper details and uploading additional files when available. Some of the details end users can set include paper types like research papers, reports, essays, dissertations, application letters, theses, and much more. Other key details about the paper types you can set are subject, title, reference type, and requirements. Then, they proceed to set the price they want to pay by adjusting the number of pages, academic level, and deadline of the research paper. Additionally, this ordering stage will allow users to set page formats, like line spacing.

To complete the ordering process, the customer chooses the kind of writer they want and additional features, like summary, abstract, plagiarism, Grammarly report, etc. This stage is when users enter their discount code if they have one. For new users, they have to proceed to create an account by entering their email, phone contact, and preferred password. They can opt to create an account directly with their Facebook, Google, or Apple account. However, return users only need to log in to their account with their email and password. Afterward, they submit their payment details to complete the ordering phase.

When the assigned writer is done, the customer will get an email to preview their submission. At this junction, the customer can either approve the submission or request a revision. These revisions are free, but you can make your research paper writing payment using credit card options such as MasterCard, Visa, American Express, or Discover. You can also pay using Bitcoin. The cost of ordering ranges from a 20-day deadline to a 6-hour deadline. For instance, high school prices range from $9 to $26. Similarly, undergraduate would cost between $11 and $32, while Masters varies from $14 to $39. PhD articles are available for prices between $19 and $52. Lastly, you can get admission orders for $34 and $99. These prices are limited to requests for just a page and writing the research paper from scratch.


"Another great product! I received extra points on this assignment along with all the others. Thanks for helping me pass my class with an A+." These were the words of a satisfied HRM client of GradeMiners. The reviews speak for themselves: this platform offers professional custom paper writers to hire online for help with homework. Our number-three research paper writing service is quite unique for its broad paper-type options, such as lab reports, movie reviews, PowerPoint presentations, etc. But this platform is even more special because of its team of writers, proofreaders, editors, and managers.

A breakdown of this team shows that there is a surplus of 3,600 writers and 250 editors. Each of these experts has an MA or PhD qualification and over three years of experience. This statistic means this platform allows users to pick from a large pool of proven and excellent professionals. Furthermore, it has some impressive features, such as over 50 writing and editing services and more than 40 disciplines covered. Over the years, an excess of 45,000 papers have been completed by the professionals on this platform. Yet, GradeMiners have retained their 100% plagiarism-free status. Likewise, every customer request gets a swift response because of the 24/7 service available on the platform.

The process of ordering a research paper is similar to the previous platforms already considered. Customers are to pick the type of work they want to order. As mentioned already, GradeMiners has a very impressive list that is not common to many other platforms. After picking a type of paper, users can set the subject they want the paper to be written on. Setting the academic level to undergraduate, master's, or PhD is the next step. After which, page number, line spacing, deadline, and type of writer are customized to the client's taste. To complete this stage, the user has to include their email and phone number, enable or disable status updates via SMS, and agree to the Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

As part of its commitment to the agreed-upon T&C and Privacy Policy, GradeMiners process clients' payments using a secure system. They do not have access to users' credit card data. This data, along with other clients' data, remains confidential. By extension, using their service will not be known to anyone, especially third-party individuals or institutions. However, they would issue a refund to clients if something dissatisfying happened. For instance, if the customer has convincing evidence against the delivery, especially when a writer has not followed the given requirement, the client's money will be refunded. To avoid unnecessary cancellations, users can request unlimited revisions for up to two weeks after receiving their order.

The price on this platform starts at $11.64. This price is considered steep compared to those of previously considered platforms. Also, it comes with a longer deadline of 30 days. However, if customers want their research paper in 3 hours, they need to pay about $32.62. To soothe customer's experiences on the platform, every first-time user gets a generous 15% discount. On subsequent orders, return buyers will keep getting discounts of 5%. Aside from the research paper writing service on GradeMiners, it has a grammar online checker. With this feature, students can put together error-free writeups and upgrade their assignment language.


Do you have a write my research paper request, but you do not want to pay too much? Then, this is an exceptional option for you. PaperWriter is the cheapest research paper-writing company in the world. The service owners crafted the platform to help students with affordable, qualitative, and trustworthy solutions. This concise research writing service is highly rated by its users and reviewers. It has high ratings on Sitejabber (4.8), Reviews (4.8), and ResellerRatings (4.9). Importantly, its services cut across writing from scratch, editing finished paper to ensure it is flawless and rewriting paper to fit a unique style or voice tone.

PaperWriter places high value on their customers’ time, experience, and data. Writers are very punctual on this platform, given the sensitivity of deadlines to their customers’ grades. Even in the shortest amount of time, writers on this platform are always on hand to help customers with their writing requests. The app interface is seamless, and users will have a good time navigating it. It is easy on the eyes and visually excellent. To show how valuable customer's personal data is, they do not share it with ad agencies or any other third parties. In addition, all payments are made through tested and trusted online commercial service stores.

To order on PaperWriter is very intuitive. Customers can start by filling out the requirements of the research paper in the order form. They will then be required to input assignment type, education level, deadline, page number, word count, and line spacing, among other details. Their paper requirement will be used to suggest the available writers. These writers have ratings and reviews clients can check before hiring them. To ensure that there is no miscommunication in the order requirement, customers are welcome to chat with writers before hiring them. Complete the process by depositing money first in the balance and only release it after receiving the order.

Students can get a college-level paper for as low as $10. Alongside the ridiculously low price on this platform, customers will get several premium services for free. Some of these services are originality reports, generated title pages, formatting, outline, and reference pages. As if these incentives are not enough, they have a mouthwatering discount structure. Their discount allows end-users to get bigger discounts as they place more orders. At the end of each order, customers are notified via email and SMS. Overall, students can trust writers on PaperWriter to submit a faultless order.

If you are trying to salvage a last-minute research assignment, use PaperCoach. It is the fastest research paper & proposal writing service provider. This research paper writing service is committed to providing high quality. They are aware of customer's demand for plagiarism-free papers, and they are determined to achieve that. Ensuring that the quality remains 100% in the nick of time is hard to achieve. However, that is what PaperCoach excels at. They apply a multi-level approach that includes monitoring the progress of writers to avoid any kind of lateness.

The experienced teams in PaperCoach have helped it maintain an unbroken result of quality and timeliness. Some of these teams are the quality assurance department, dispute department, writer department, customer service department, etc. With division of labor, the company can scale effectively and meet their customers’ needs. That is why Customers can select a good range of research papers, essay and dissertation writing services. They also keep non-disclosure of all users' personal data. After receiving an order, clients are entitled to three free revisions. If they are still not satisfied, they can change the writer by contacting the support department.

Follow these steps to order on PaperCoach. Fill out the order form and click on the "Order Now" icon. This form-filling stage also allows you to add comments to your paper requirement. You can include other information, including a description file, if one is available for the assignment. Proceed to place your order. Now, set the number of pages, academic level, and when you want the deadline to adjust the order price to fit your financial means. After that, you can patiently wait for your order to be delivered.

To use PaperCoach, you can set your school level to high school, undergraduate, master's, PhD, and admissions. High school prices range from $7.99 to $23, and undergraduates cost $10 to $29. For master's students, they can pay between $14 and $36, while PhDs will pay in the range of $19 and $49. Lastly, users can pay from $20 to $66. Each of these above-listed prices is for one page of research paper that will be written from scratch. PaperCoach offers some extra services such as plagiarism reports, progressive delivery, summary, etc.

What Is a Research Paper?

A research paper is an academic writing that allows students to offer their interpretation of an argument. It is also called an academic paper, defined as an informative piece of essay for sharing personal discovery about a subject. To arrive at a conclusion, the student subjects their argument to in-depth analysis and evaluation. Through this thorough evaluation and analysis, there may be new results or inventions. After which, the evaluator, in most cases a lecturer or examiner, questions the research paper to judge the student’s understanding of the subject. After being examined, this paper is published in academic journals.

Is Writing a Research Paper Easy?

There is no straight answer to this question. While some students are comfortable with researching a theory and documenting it, it is not so for many other students. However, a research paper is not so complicated that any student cannot learn to write it. Given that it is a task that takes critical thinking, time, and dedication, several students avoid it. Hence, in the eyes of an average student, this is a hard task or project. To get past the difficulty encountered in writing a research paper, the students need to pay attention to the instructions given by the lecturer and apply them one after the other.

Can I Write a Research Paper in a Day?

Yes, you can write a research paper in a day. While it might not be a mean feat, you can get it done by simply following instructions. Since libraries, encyclopaedias, and even labs are all available on your mobile phone, you have all the research material you need. Hence, collect data online regarding the topic you want to write a research paper on. Use the resources you have gathered to write an introduction, abstract, and conclusion. You have to also be careful of the popular formats of research paper writing you are working with. That way, you can insert the appropriate citation without having to waste more time on it.

How Much Does Research Paper Writing Cost?

Research paper writing costs about $9 to $15 per page for basic writing. The more experience the writer has, the higher the price they will charge for it. Research paper writing is highly priced compared to other writing because of the meticulousness and skill needed to get the project done. For instance, writing research papers requires sourcing materials, interpretation of data, citations, etc. If other requirements are included in the request to write a research paper, the price may go up significantly.  Hence, you could pay as much as $99 for a page of research paper.

What Are Some Popular Formats of Research Paper Writing?

Writing formats are very important for research papers. Below are pinpoint explanations of the most popular format types, especially for you to distinguish them.

  • # APA (American Psychological Association): APA is mostly used for science papers in fields such as physics, psychology, chemistry, etc. It requires a title page at the start and a citation page titled "References." Its in-text citation should include the author's name, publication date, and page number introduced by “p.”
  • # MLA (Modern Language Association): This is the most popular format among the humanities. This format does not need a footnote. It uses only in-text citations. Thereafter, references are listed in alphabetic order at the closing of the paper under the title "Works Cited."
  • # CMS/CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style): This format is common among publishers and academic paper writers in arts, history, philosophy, and religion. Chicago style uses a superscript number and footnote to indicate cited resources.
  • # Harvard: It is a simple research paper format and has a close similarity to the APA format. However, the Harvard format does not use commas to separate the author's name and year of publication. In addition, its citation page is tagged "Reference List."

Can I Really Hire Someone to Write My Research Paper Online?

Yes, you can pay someone to write your research paper for you online. The best way to do it is to pick the most reliable research writing service. In this article, five of those top-notch services have been discussed. They vary slightly in feature, interface, and application. However, they will get the job done for you without having to task yourself with the responsibility of writing the research paper yourself. Our top pick is PaperHelp. However, you can consider other alternatives, such as SpeedyPaper, GradeMiners, PaperWriter, and PaperCoach.

What Research Paper Writing Service Today is the Best?

The overall best research paper writing service today is PaperHelp. Not only is it highly ranked on popular rating sites, but it is also well appreciated by first-hand users. Talking about its features, PaperHelp is the trailblazer platform for students to customize their research paper writing service intuitively. This user-friendly interface of the app makes it easy for users to order. Furthermore, the platform offers customers the chance to get research paper writing services at affordable prices. To further sweeten the offers, there are discounts and bonuses up for grabs.

What Is the Cheapest Research Paper Writing Service Overall?

The most pocket-friendly research paper writing service available is PaperWriter. PaperWriter is a very concise solution for students who want to spend less and still maintain good grades. The platform has a cozy effect on the user and makes it worth more than it costs. In addition, $10 is a ridiculous price for all the extra benefits that its users have access to on the platform. Counterpart service providers offer the same extra bonuses or services for heftier prices than the base price customers will pay on PaperWriter. In addition, there are discounts for new and loyal customers.

Do Paper Writing Services Really Work?

Yes, paper writing services really work. They have helped me write research and essays on short notice. When a student does not possess the inquisitive, critical thinking, or writing skills to write their paper, paper writing services have been helpful. They have helped proofread and edit near-perfect projects. And for research paper writing projects that are far from required, these solutions have helped rewrite them. Additionally, more students can ease the burden of the education system and free up some time with paper writing services.

Can I Be Caught Using Essay Writing Services?

Yes, you can get caught using essay writing services. While it is not illegal to use essay writing services, you do not want to get caught by your examiner, supervisor, or lecturer. One of the ways to ensure you make your essay writing service detection proof is by studying the submitted document. Since your examiner will be quizzing you to know how well you understand the subject, you can also get familiar with what is written inside. Another possible way to get caught is by using a service without a privacy policy or security terms. Such a service is likely to share your personal data with ad agencies and third parties.

Can You Trust Essay Writing Services?

Yes, you can trust essay writing services. The tons of reviews and feedback from customers show they can be trusted. That is why you have to examine the ratings and reviews well before you start using an essay writing service. Likewise, it is essential to be cautious before choosing a writing service. For instance, you want to choose one of the options discussed above before considering other options. Even if you do not pick any of these options, ensure the essay writing service you choose has a privacy and security policy agreement.

Ordering your research paper from any of the services discussed above is highly advantageous. Firstly, these platforms offer the best paper writing services. Hence, their premium service is a guarantee that you will be able to impress your lecturer or supervisor and get the best grade in the course. Even though good grades are the most important reason students would want to contact a professional writer, one cannot rule out exceptional students who would like to free up some time. Free time can be spent in several ways, which include but are not limited to extracurricular activities, recreation, makeup class or reading, religious activity, or an extra job/internship.

When a student is not freeing up some time, they may be trying to improve their writing. Hence, these services offer rewriting, editing, and proofreading. That way, they can still get a good grade without good enough writing skills. Furthermore, many of the best research paper writing services discussed help students become better all-round. In other words, students can be more studious, better writers, and improve their research and critical thinking skills with the aid of these tools. Lastly, the low rate of these services also means that students can get the most results for the least amount of money.

The workload in colleges and universities is so enormous that students only have time for some of their responsibilitie

Our next-generation model: Gemini 1.5

Feb 15, 2024

The model delivers dramatically enhanced performance, with a breakthrough in long-context understanding across modalities.


A note from Google and Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai:

Last week, we rolled out our most capable model, Gemini 1.0 Ultra, and took a significant step forward in making Google products more helpful, starting with Gemini Advanced . Today, developers and Cloud customers can begin building with 1.0 Ultra too — with our Gemini API in AI Studio and in Vertex AI .

Our teams continue pushing the frontiers of our latest models with safety at the core. They are making rapid progress. In fact, we’re ready to introduce the next generation: Gemini 1.5. It shows dramatic improvements across a number of dimensions and 1.5 Pro achieves comparable quality to 1.0 Ultra, while using less compute.

This new generation also delivers a breakthrough in long-context understanding. We’ve been able to significantly increase the amount of information our models can process — running up to 1 million tokens consistently, achieving the longest context window of any large-scale foundation model yet.

Longer context windows show us the promise of what is possible. They will enable entirely new capabilities and help developers build much more useful models and applications. We’re excited to offer a limited preview of this experimental feature to developers and enterprise customers. Demis shares more on capabilities, safety and availability below.

Introducing Gemini 1.5

By Demis Hassabis, CEO of Google DeepMind, on behalf of the Gemini team

This is an exciting time for AI. New advances in the field have the potential to make AI more helpful for billions of people over the coming years. Since introducing Gemini 1.0 , we’ve been testing, refining and enhancing its capabilities.

Today, we’re announcing our next-generation model: Gemini 1.5.

Gemini 1.5 delivers dramatically enhanced performance. It represents a step change in our approach, building upon research and engineering innovations across nearly every part of our foundation model development and infrastructure. This includes making Gemini 1.5 more efficient to train and serve, with a new Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) architecture.

The first Gemini 1.5 model we’re releasing for early testing is Gemini 1.5 Pro. It’s a mid-size multimodal model, optimized for scaling across a wide-range of tasks, and performs at a similar level to 1.0 Ultra , our largest model to date. It also introduces a breakthrough experimental feature in long-context understanding.

Gemini 1.5 Pro comes with a standard 128,000 token context window. But starting today, a limited group of developers and enterprise customers can try it with a context window of up to 1 million tokens via AI Studio and Vertex AI in private preview.

As we roll out the full 1 million token context window, we’re actively working on optimizations to improve latency, reduce computational requirements and enhance the user experience. We’re excited for people to try this breakthrough capability, and we share more details on future availability below.

These continued advances in our next-generation models will open up new possibilities for people, developers and enterprises to create, discover and build using AI.

Context lengths of leading foundation models

Highly efficient architecture

Gemini 1.5 is built upon our leading research on Transformer and MoE architecture. While a traditional Transformer functions as one large neural network, MoE models are divided into smaller "expert” neural networks.

Depending on the type of input given, MoE models learn to selectively activate only the most relevant expert pathways in its neural network. This specialization massively enhances the model’s efficiency. Google has been an early adopter and pioneer of the MoE technique for deep learning through research such as Sparsely-Gated MoE , GShard-Transformer , Switch-Transformer, M4 and more.

Our latest innovations in model architecture allow Gemini 1.5 to learn complex tasks more quickly and maintain quality, while being more efficient to train and serve. These efficiencies are helping our teams iterate, train and deliver more advanced versions of Gemini faster than ever before, and we’re working on further optimizations.

Greater context, more helpful capabilities

An AI model’s “context window” is made up of tokens, which are the building blocks used for processing information. Tokens can be entire parts or subsections of words, images, videos, audio or code. The bigger a model’s context window, the more information it can take in and process in a given prompt — making its output more consistent, relevant and useful.

Through a series of machine learning innovations, we’ve increased 1.5 Pro’s context window capacity far beyond the original 32,000 tokens for Gemini 1.0. We can now run up to 1 million tokens in production.

This means 1.5 Pro can process vast amounts of information in one go — including 1 hour of video, 11 hours of audio, codebases with over 30,000 lines of code or over 700,000 words. In our research, we’ve also successfully tested up to 10 million tokens.

Complex reasoning about vast amounts of information

1.5 Pro can seamlessly analyze, classify and summarize large amounts of content within a given prompt. For example, when given the 402-page transcripts from Apollo 11’s mission to the moon, it can reason about conversations, events and details found across the document.

Reasoning across a 402-page transcript: Gemini 1.5 Pro Demo

Gemini 1.5 Pro can understand, reason about and identify curious details in the 402-page transcripts from Apollo 11’s mission to the moon.

Better understanding and reasoning across modalities

1.5 Pro can perform highly-sophisticated understanding and reasoning tasks for different modalities, including video. For instance, when given a 44-minute silent Buster Keaton movie , the model can accurately analyze various plot points and events, and even reason about small details in the movie that could easily be missed.

Multimodal prompting with a 44-minute movie: Gemini 1.5 Pro Demo

Gemini 1.5 Pro can identify a scene in a 44-minute silent Buster Keaton movie when given a simple line drawing as reference material for a real-life object.

Relevant problem-solving with longer blocks of code

1.5 Pro can perform more relevant problem-solving tasks across longer blocks of code. When given a prompt with more than 100,000 lines of code, it can better reason across examples, suggest helpful modifications and give explanations about how different parts of the code works.

Problem solving across 100,633 lines of code | Gemini 1.5 Pro Demo

Gemini 1.5 Pro can reason across 100,000 lines of code giving helpful solutions, modifications and explanations.

Enhanced performance

When tested on a comprehensive panel of text, code, image, audio and video evaluations, 1.5 Pro outperforms 1.0 Pro on 87% of the benchmarks used for developing our large language models (LLMs). And when compared to 1.0 Ultra on the same benchmarks, it performs at a broadly similar level.

Gemini 1.5 Pro maintains high levels of performance even as its context window increases. In the Needle In A Haystack (NIAH) evaluation, where a small piece of text containing a particular fact or statement is purposely placed within a long block of text, 1.5 Pro found the embedded text 99% of the time, in blocks of data as long as 1 million tokens.

Gemini 1.5 Pro also shows impressive “in-context learning” skills, meaning that it can learn a new skill from information given in a long prompt, without needing additional fine-tuning. We tested this skill on the Machine Translation from One Book (MTOB) benchmark, which shows how well the model learns from information it’s never seen before. When given a grammar manual for Kalamang , a language with fewer than 200 speakers worldwide, the model learns to translate English to Kalamang at a similar level to a person learning from the same content.

As 1.5 Pro’s long context window is the first of its kind among large-scale models, we’re continuously developing new evaluations and benchmarks for testing its novel capabilities.

For more details, see our Gemini 1.5 Pro technical report .

Extensive ethics and safety testing

In line with our AI Principles and robust safety policies, we’re ensuring our models undergo extensive ethics and safety tests. We then integrate these research learnings into our governance processes and model development and evaluations to continuously improve our AI systems.

Since introducing 1.0 Ultra in December, our teams have continued refining the model, making it safer for a wider release. We’ve also conducted novel research on safety risks and developed red-teaming techniques to test for a range of potential harms.

In advance of releasing 1.5 Pro, we've taken the same approach to responsible deployment as we did for our Gemini 1.0 models, conducting extensive evaluations across areas including content safety and representational harms, and will continue to expand this testing. Beyond this, we’re developing further tests that account for the novel long-context capabilities of 1.5 Pro.

Build and experiment with Gemini models

We’re committed to bringing each new generation of Gemini models to billions of people, developers and enterprises around the world responsibly.

Starting today, we’re offering a limited preview of 1.5 Pro to developers and enterprise customers via AI Studio and Vertex AI . Read more about this on our Google for Developers blog and Google Cloud blog .

We’ll introduce 1.5 Pro with a standard 128,000 token context window when the model is ready for a wider release. Coming soon, we plan to introduce pricing tiers that start at the standard 128,000 context window and scale up to 1 million tokens, as we improve the model.

Early testers can try the 1 million token context window at no cost during the testing period, though they should expect longer latency times with this experimental feature. Significant improvements in speed are also on the horizon.

Developers interested in testing 1.5 Pro can sign up now in AI Studio, while enterprise customers can reach out to their Vertex AI account team.

Learn more about Gemini’s capabilities and see how it works .

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Collection  10 March 2022

Journal Top 100

This collection highlights our most downloaded* research papers published in 2021. Featuring authors from around the world, these papers highlight valuable research from an international community.

*Data obtained from SN Insights which is based on Digital Science’s Dimensions.

image of abstract blue network

A well-trained artificial neural network for predicting the rheological behavior of MWCNT–Al 2 O 3 (30–70%)/oil SAE40 hybrid nanofluid

  • Mohammad Hemmat Esfe
  • S. Ali Eftekhari
  • Davood Toghraie

best websites for research papers

More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Sandra Lopez-Leon
  • Talia Wegman-Ostrosky
  • Sonia Villapol

best websites for research papers

Adults who microdose psychedelics report health related motivations and lower levels of anxiety and depression compared to non-microdosers

  • Joseph M. Rootman
  • Pamela Kryskow

best websites for research papers

Detection of persistent SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in oral mucosal fluid and upper respiratory tract specimens following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination

  • Aubree Mades
  • Prithivi Chellamathu
  • Albina Ibrayeva

Causes of death and comorbidities in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

  • Sefer Elezkurtaj
  • Selina Greuel
  • David Horst

best websites for research papers

5G as a wireless power grid

  • Jimmy G. D. Hester
  • Manos M. Tentzeris

best websites for research papers

Saliva is more sensitive than nasopharyngeal or nasal swabs for diagnosis of asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 infection

  • Alvin Kuo Jing Teo
  • Yukti Choudhury
  • Li Yang Hsu

best websites for research papers

Mathematical modelling of SARS-CoV-2 variant outbreaks reveals their probability of extinction

  • Henrik Schiøler
  • Torben Knudsen
  • Martin Bøgsted

best websites for research papers

Mapping the NFT revolution: market trends, trade networks, and visual features

  • Matthieu Nadini
  • Laura Alessandretti
  • Andrea Baronchelli

best websites for research papers

Overcooling of offices reveals gender inequity in thermal comfort

  • Thomas Parkinson
  • Stefano Schiavon
  • Gail Brager

best websites for research papers

Clinical course of COVID-19 patients needing supplemental oxygen outside the intensive care unit

  • Ayham Daher
  • Paul Balfanz
  • Christian G. Cornelissen

best websites for research papers

Positive effects of COVID-19 lockdown on air quality of industrial cities (Ankleshwar and Vapi) of Western India

  • Ritwik Nigam
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  • I-JEPA: The first AI model based on Yann LeCun’s vision for more human-like AI
  • Celebrating 10 years of FAIR: A decade of advancing the state-of-the-art through open research
  • Turing Award presented to Yann LeCun, Geoffrey Hinton, and Yoshua Bengio
  • Today, we’re publicly releasing the Video Joint Embedding Predictive Architecture (V-JEPA) model, a crucial step in advancing machine intelligence with a more grounded understanding of the world.
  • This early example of a physical world model excels at detecting and understanding highly detailed interactions between objects.
  • In the spirit of responsible open science, we’re releasing this model under a Creative Commons NonCommercial license for researchers to further explore.

As humans, much of what we learn about the world around us—particularly in our early stages of life—is gleaned through observation. Take Newton’s third law of motion: Even an infant (or a cat) can intuit, after knocking several items off a table and observing the results, that what goes up must come down. You don’t need hours of instruction or to read thousands of books to arrive at that result. Your internal world model—a contextual understanding based on a mental model of the world—predicts these consequences for you, and it’s highly efficient.

“V-JEPA is a step toward a more grounded understanding of the world so machines can achieve more generalized reasoning and planning,” says Meta’s VP & Chief AI Scientist Yann LeCun, who proposed the original Joint Embedding Predictive Architectures (JEPA) in 2022. “Our goal is to build advanced machine intelligence that can learn more like humans do, forming internal models of the world around them to learn, adapt, and forge plans efficiently in the service of completing complex tasks.”

Video JEPA in focus

V-JEPA is a non-generative model that learns by predicting missing or masked parts of a video in an abstract representation space. This is similar to how our Image Joint Embedding Predictive Architecture (I-JEPA) compares abstract representations of images (rather than comparing the pixels themselves). Unlike generative approaches that try to fill in every missing pixel, V-JEPA has the flexibility to discard unpredictable information, which leads to improved training and sample efficiency by a factor between 1.5x and 6x.

Because it takes a self-supervised learning approach, V-JEPA is pre-trained entirely with unlabeled data. Labels are only used to adapt the model to a particular task after pre-training. This type of architecture proves more efficient than previous models, both in terms of the number of labeled examples needed and the total amount of effort put into learning even the unlabeled data. With V-JEPA, we’ve seen efficiency boosts on both of these fronts.

With V-JEPA, we mask out a large portion of a video so the model is only shown a little bit of the context. We then ask the predictor to fill in the blanks of what’s missing—not in terms of the actual pixels, but rather as a more abstract description in this representation space.

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Masking methodology

V-JEPA wasn’t trained to understand one specific type of action. Instead it used self-supervised training on a range of videos and learned a number of things about how the world works. The team also carefully considered the masking strategy—if you don’t block out large regions of the video and instead randomly sample patches here and there, it makes the task too easy and your model doesn’t learn anything particularly complicated about the world.

It’s also important to note that, in most videos, things evolve somewhat slowly over time. If you mask a portion of the video but only for a specific instant in time and the model can see what came immediately before and/or immediately after, it also makes things too easy and the model almost certainly won’t learn anything interesting. As such, the team used an approach where it masked portions of the video in both space and time, which forces the model to learn and develop an understanding of the scene.

Efficient predictions

Making these predictions in the abstract representation space is important because it allows the model to focus on the higher-level conceptual information of what the video contains without worrying about the kind of details that are most often unimportant for downstream tasks. After all, if a video shows a tree, you’re likely not concerned about the minute movements of each individual leaf.

One of the reasons why we’re excited about this direction is that V-JEPA is the first model for video that’s good at “frozen evaluations,” which means we do all of our self-supervised pre-training on the encoder and the predictor, and then we don’t touch those parts of the model anymore. When we want to adapt them to learn a new skill, we just train a small lightweight specialized layer or a small network on top of that, which is very efficient and quick.

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Previous work had to do full fine-tuning, which means that after pre-training your model, when you want the model to get really good at fine-grained action recognition while you’re adapting your model to take on that task, you have to update the parameters or the weights in all of your model. And then that model overall becomes specialized at doing that one task and it’s not going to be good for anything else anymore. If you want to teach the model a different task, you have to use different data, and you have to specialize the entire model for this other task. With V-JEPA, as we’ve demonstrated in this work, we can pre-train the model once without any labeled data, fix that, and then reuse those same parts of the model for several different tasks, like action classification, recognition of fine-grained object interactions, and activity localization.

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Avenues for future research...

While the “V” in V-JEPA stands for “video,” it only accounts for the visual content of videos thus far. A more multimodal approach is an obvious next step, so we’re thinking carefully about incorporating audio along with the visuals.

As a proof of concept, the current V-JEPA model excels at fine-grained object interactions and distinguishing detailed object-to-object interactions that happen over time. For example, if the model needs to be able to distinguish between someone putting down a pen, picking up a pen, and pretending to put down a pen but not actually doing it, V-JEPA is quite good compared to previous methods for that high-grade action recognition task. However, those things work on relatively short time scales. If you show V-JEPA a video clip of a few seconds, maybe up to 10 seconds, it’s great for that. So another important step for us is thinking about planning and the model’s ability to make predictions over a longer time horizon.

...and the path toward AMI

To date, our work with V-JEPA has been primarily about perception—understanding the contents of various video streams in order to obtain some context about the world immediately surrounding us. The predictor in this Joint Embedding Predictive Architecture serves as an early physical world model: You don’t have to see everything that’s happening in the frame, and it can tell you conceptually what’s happening there. As a next step, we want to show how we can use this kind of a predictor or world model for planning or sequential decision-making.

We know that it’s possible to train JEPA models on video data without requiring strong supervision and that they can watch videos in the way an infant might—just observing the world passively, learning a lot of interesting things about how to understand the context of those videos in such a way that, with a small amount of labeled data, you can quickly acquire a new task and ability to recognize different actions.

V-JEPA is a research model, and we’re exploring a number of future applications. For example, we expect that the context V-JEPA provides could be useful for our embodied AI work as well as our work to build a contextual AI assistant for future AR glasses. We firmly believe in the value of responsible open science, and that’s why we’re releasing the V-JEPA model under the CC BY-NC license so other researchers can extend this work.

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