10 Best Online Websites and Resources for Academic Research
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- Finding credible sources for academic research can be a major challenge for many college students.
- A growing number of online databases and libraries offer millions of potential sources.
- The university library helps students access restricted academic sources.
- Discover new online resources to make your next research project more efficient.
Every college student conducts research at some point. And professors have strong views on what counts as a credible academic resource. Choosing the wrong sources can hurt your grade.
So how can you conduct research efficiently while avoiding sleepless nights in the campus library? Online academic research websites make it easier to find reliable sources quickly.
College students conduct academic research in all kinds of disciplines, including science, history, literature, engineering, and education. And when it comes to college research papers , academic resources are the best sources.
Rather than pulling random facts from the internet — and running into problems with citations — college students need to know how to find credible sources and how to use online academic tools. Keep reading to learn how you can find the best credible sources for your college research needs.
How to Find Credible Sources for Research
How can you find credible sources for research and avoid misinformation? Your instructor likely recommends avoiding general web content or Wikipedia.
Finding the most reliable websites for research starts with evaluating the website itself. Sites run by academic or government organizations rank high in reliability. Databases and specialized search engines can also provide good research sources.
Next, make sure you understand the source of the information and the process used to publish it. Scholarly articles and books that undergo peer review make for the best academic resources.
Finally, when in doubt, check with your instructor or an academic librarian. They can help point you to reliable sources or double-check sources you're unsure about.
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The 10 Best Academic Research Sources
What resources will point you toward reliable sources for your academic research? Rather than scrolling through pages of search results, turn to these academic resources when you need to find sources.
1. Google Scholar
Looking for an academic article, thesis , or abstract? Google Scholar should be your first stop. Google Scholar helps you find related works, locate full documents at your school library , and access scholarly research.
While Google created Google Scholar, it's very different from a general online search. Google Scholar brings together academic articles and ranks them based on the authors, publication location, and citation record. That means the top results generally represent the most reliable scholarship on your topic.
For journal articles, books, images, and even primary sources, JSTOR ranks among the best online resources for academic research. JSTOR's collection spans 75 disciplines, with strengths in the humanities and social sciences . The academic research database includes complete runs of over 2,800 journals.
And if you're looking for images, turn to Artstor , which offers over 2.5 million images related to the arts, sciences, and literature. However, JSTOR is not an open-access database. That means you'll need to log in through your university library, which typically includes off-campus access .
3. Library of Congress
As the largest library in the world, the Library of Congress is an amazing online resource for academic research. Students can search its collections to access digital resources, videos, audio recordings, photographs, and maps.
The library's materials also include notated music, web archives, legislation, and 3D objects. You'll find materials for almost any topic in its extensive collections. You can search historic American newspapers from 1777-1963 with the Chronicling America tool or look up pirate trials in another digital collection.
4. PubMed Central
The National Library of Medicine, part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, runs PubMed Central. Founded in 2000, the database includes academic scholarship dating back to the 18th century. The resource connects college students with life sciences and biomedical academic sources.
And as an open-access database, PubMed Central offers free access to scholarly literature. Today, PubMed Central has over 7 million full-text records, making it a great resource for students in the life sciences or medical fields.
5. Google Books
Whether you're looking for a recent publication or an out-of-print book, there's a good chance you'll find it on Google Books. In 2019, Google announced that Google Books contains over 40 million books .
You can enter any search term to find books that contain matches. And you can download the full text of any book in the public domain — which includes 10 million titles. Make sure to check publisher and author information when using Google Books.
The site also includes reference pages that link to book reviews. Keep in mind that you'll have more limited access to recent books. Still, Google Books is a great first step to find sources that you can later look for at your campus library.
If you're looking for scientific research, Science.gov is a great option. The site provides full-text documents, scientific data, and other resources from federally funded research.
A U.S. government site, Science.gov searches more than 60 databases and 2,200 scientific websites. You'll find over 200 million pages of research and development information, including projects funded by 14 federal agencies. Students in any STEM field can benefit from the resource.
7. Digital Commons Network
University librarians curate the Digital Commons Network, which connects students with peer-reviewed articles. The site's other resources include dissertations, book chapters, conference proceedings, and working papers.
The Digital Commons Network includes scholarly work from diverse disciplines like architecture, business, education, law, and the sciences. You can also access humanities, social sciences, and engineering scholarship through the network.
ResearchGate has been described as social networking for research scientists. But ResearchGate is also a great option to find open-access academic sources. Scholars upload their work to ResearchGate, which makes it available to the public for free.
Currently, over 20 million researchers around the world use the site, which contains over 135 million publications. College students looking for scientific research can often find resources on ResearchGate and even connect with scholars.
When you're looking for library resources, WorldCat is one of the best tools. Connected to over 10,000 libraries, WorldCat is a database that allows you to search library collections.
The database lists books and articles available at your local libraries, making it easier to find materials that are not available online. In addition to books, WorldCat contains music, videos, audiobooks, and scholarly articles.
You can also find digital research materials, including photos. When you're logged into WorldCat through your university library, you can also access full-text articles and other resources. Or you can use WorldCat to find sources to request through interlibrary loan.
10. Your University Library
When you're conducting academic research, your university library can be one of your best resources. In addition to online databases, journal articles, and books, your campus library also has academic librarians who can point you to the best sources.
When you don't know where to start, reach out to an academic librarian to learn more about your school's research tools. Or use interlibrary loan to get a scanned copy of an article. Many of the campus library's resources are available online, making them easy to access.
How to Access Academic Resources
Many sites offer open-access resources. That means anyone can access the materials. Other sites restrict what you can read. For example, you might find some blank pages when searching on Google Books because of copyright restrictions. And many academic articles are behind paywalls.
Fortunately, college students benefit from one of the best resources for conducting research: the university library. Your library likely subscribes to multiple academic databases and journals. If you run into a paywall, check whether your library offers access to the resource.
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21 Legit Research Databases for Free Journal Articles in 2022
Written by Scribendi
Has this ever happened to you? While looking for websites for research, you come across a research paper site that claims to connect academics to a peer-reviewed article database for free.
Intrigued, you search for keywords related to your topic, only to discover that you must pay a hefty subscription fee to access the service. After the umpteenth time being duped, you begin to wonder if there's even such a thing as free journal articles .
Subscription fees and paywalls are often the bane of students and academics, especially those at small institutions who don't provide access to many free article directories and repositories.
Whether you're working on an undergraduate paper, a PhD dissertation, or a medical research study, we want to help you find tools to locate and access the information you need to produce well-researched, compelling, and innovative work.
Below, we discuss why peer-reviewed articles are superior and list out the best free article databases to use in 2022.
Download Our Free Research Database Roundup PDF
Why peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are more authoritative.
Determining what sources are reliable can be challenging. Peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are the gold standard in academic research. Reputable academic journals have a rigorous peer-review process.
The peer review process provides accountability to the academic community, as well as to the content of the article. The peer review process involves qualified experts in a specific (often very specific) field performing a review of an article's methods and findings to determine things like quality and credibility.
Peer-reviewed articles can be found in peer-reviewed article databases and research databases, and if you know that a database of journals is reliable, that can offer reassurances about the reliability of a free article. Peer review is often double blind, meaning that the author removes all identifying information and, likewise, does not know the identity of the reviewers. This helps reviewers maintain objectivity and impartiality so as to judge an article based on its merit.
Where to Find Peer-Reviewed Articles
Peer-reviewed articles can be found in a variety of research databases. Below is a list of some of the major databases you can use to find peer-reviewed articles and other sources in disciplines spanning the humanities, sciences, and social sciences.
What Are Open Access Journals?
An open access (OA) journal is a journal whose content can be accessed without payment. This provides scholars, students, and researchers with free journal articles . OA journals use alternate methods of funding to cover publication costs so that articles can be published without having to pass those publication costs on to the reader.
Some of these funding models include standard funding methods like advertising, public funding, and author payment models, where the author pays a fee in order to publish in the journal. There are OA journals that have non-peer-reviewed academic content, as well as journals that focus on dissertations, theses, and papers from conferences, but the main focus of OA is peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles.
The internet has certainly made it easier to access research articles and other scholarly publications without needing access to a university library, and OA takes another step in that direction by removing financial barriers to academic content.
Features of legitimate oa journals.
There are things to look out for when trying to decide if a free publication journal is legitimate:
Mission statement —The mission statement for an OA journal should be available on their website.
Publication history —Is the journal well established? How long has it been available?
Editorial board —Who are the members of the editorial board, and what are their credentials?
Indexing —Can the journal be found in a reliable database?
Peer review —What is the peer review process? Does the journal allow enough time in the process for a reliable assessment of quality?
Impact factor —What is the average number of times the journal is cited over a two-year period?
Features of Illegitimate OA Journals
There are predatory publications that take advantage of the OA format, and they are something to be wary of. Here are some things to look out for:
Contact information —Is contact information provided? Can it be verified?
Turnaround —If the journal makes dubious claims about the amount of time from submission to publication, it is likely unreliable.
Editorial board —Much like determining legitimacy, looking at the editorial board and their credentials can help determine illegitimacy.
Indexing —Can the journal be found in any scholarly databases?
Peer review —Is there a statement about the peer review process? Does it fit what you know about peer review?
How to Find Scholarly Articles
Keywords are included in an article by the author. Keywords are an excellent way to find content relevant to your research topic or area of interest. In academic searches, much like you would on a search engine, you can use keywords to navigate through what is available to find exactly what you're looking for.
Authors provide keywords that will help you easily find their article when researching a related topic, often including general terms to accommodate broader searches, as well as some more specific terms for those with a narrower scope. Keywords can be used individually or in combination to refine your scholarly article search.
Narrow Down Results
Sometimes, search results can be overwhelming, and searching for free articles on a journal database is no exception, but there are multiple ways to narrow down your results. A good place to start is discipline.
What category does your topic fall into (psychology, architecture, machine learning, etc.)? You can also narrow down your search with a year range if you're looking for articles that are more recent.
A Boolean search can be incredibly helpful. This entails including terms like AND between two keywords in your search if you need both keywords to be in your results (or, if you are looking to exclude certain keywords, to exclude these words from the results).
Consider Different Avenues
If you're not having luck using keywords in your search for free articles, you may still be able to find what you're looking for by changing your tactics. Casting a wider net sometimes yields positive results, so it may be helpful to try searching by subject if keywords aren't getting you anywhere.
You can search for a specific publisher to see if they have OA publications in the academic journal database. And, if you know more precisely what you're looking for, you can search for the title of the article or the author's name.
The Top 21 Free Online Journal and Research Databases
Navigating OA journals, research article databases, and academic websites trying to find high-quality sources for your research can really make your head spin. What constitutes a reliable database? What is a useful resource for your discipline and research topic? How can you find and access full-text, peer-reviewed articles?
Fortunately, we're here to help. Having covered some of the ins and outs of peer review, OA journals, and how to search for articles, we have compiled a list of the top 21 free online journals and the best research databases. This list of databases is a great resource to help you navigate the wide world of academic research.
These databases provide a variety of free sources, from abstracts and citations to full-text, peer-reviewed OA journals. With databases covering specific areas of research and interdisciplinary databases that provide a variety of material, these are some of our favorite free databases, and they're totally legit!
CORE is a multidisciplinary aggregator of OA research. CORE has the largest collection of OA articles available. It allows users to search more than 219 million OA articles. While most of these link to the full-text article on the original publisher's site, or to a PDF available for download, five million records are hosted directly on CORE.
CORE's mission statement is a simple and straightforward commitment to offering OA articles to anyone, anywhere in the world. They also host communities that are available for researchers to join and an ambassador community to enhance their services globally. In addition to a straightforward keyword search, CORE offers advanced search options to filter results by publication type, year, language, journal, repository, and author.
CORE's user interface is easy to use and navigate. Search results can be sorted based on relevance or recency, and you can search for relevant content directly from the results screen.
Collection: 219,537,133 OA articles
Other Services: Additional services are available from CORE, with extras that are geared toward researchers, repositories, and businesses. There are tools for accessing raw data, including an API that provides direct access to data, datasets that are available for download, and FastSync for syncing data content from the CORE database.
CORE has a recommender plug-in that suggests relevant OA content in the database while conducting a search and a discovery feature that helps you discover OA versions of paywalled articles. Other features include tools for managing content, such as a dashboard for managing repository output and the Repository Edition service to enhance discoverability.
Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles: Yes
Advanced Search Options: Language, author, journal, publisher, repository, DOI, year
Functioning as a research and publishing network, ScienceOpen offers OA to more than 74 million articles in all areas of science. Although you do need to register to view the full text of articles, registration is free. The advanced search function is highly detailed, allowing you to find exactly the research you're looking for.
The Berlin- and Boston-based company was founded in 2013 to "facilitate open and public communications between academics and to allow ideas to be judged on their merit, regardless of where they come from." Search results can be exported for easy integration with reference management systems.
You can also bookmark articles for later research. There are extensive networking options, including your Science Open profile, a forum for interacting with other researchers, the ability to track your usage and citations, and an interactive bibliography. Users have the ability to review articles and provide their knowledge and insight within the community.
Other Services: None
Advanced Search Options: Content type, source, author, journal, discipline
3. Directory of Open Access Journals
A multidisciplinary, community-curated directory, the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) gives researchers access to high-quality peer-reviewed journals. It has archived more than two million articles from 17,193 journals, allowing you to either browse by subject or search by keyword.
The site was launched in 2003 with the aim of increasing the visibility of OA scholarly journals online. Content on the site covers subjects from science, to law, to fine arts, and everything in between. DOAJ has a commitment to "increase the visibility, accessibility, reputation, usage and impact of quality, peer-reviewed, OA scholarly research journals globally, regardless of discipline, geography or language."
Information about the journal is available with each search result. Abstracts are also available in a collapsible format directly from the search screen. The scholarly article website is somewhat simple, but it is easy to navigate. There are 16 principles of transparency and best practices in scholarly publishing that clearly outline DOAJ policies and standards.
Advanced Search Options: Subject, journal, year
4. Education Resources Information Center
The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) of the Institution of Education Sciences allows you to search by topic for material related to the field of education. Links lead to other sites, where you may have to purchase the information, but you can search for full-text articles only. You can also search only peer-reviewed sources.
The service primarily indexes journals, gray literature (such as technical reports, white papers, and government documents), and books. All sources of material on ERIC go through a formal review process prior to being indexed. ERIC's selection policy is available as a PDF on their website.
The ERIC website has an extensive FAQ section to address user questions. This includes categories like general questions, peer review, and ERIC content. There are also tips for advanced searches, as well as general guidance on the best way to search the database. ERIC is an excellent database for content specific to education.
Advanced Search Options: Boolean
5. arXiv e-Print Archive
The arXiv e-Print Archive is run by Cornell University Library and curated by volunteer moderators, and it now offers OA to more than one million e-prints.
There are advisory committees for all eight subjects available on the database. With a stated commitment to an "emphasis on openness, collaboration, and scholarship," the arXiv e-Print Archive is an excellent STEM resource.
The interface is not as user-friendly as some of the other databases available, and the website hosts a blog to provide news and updates, but it is otherwise a straightforward math and science resource. There are simple and advanced search options, and, in addition to conducting searches for specific topics and articles, users can browse content by subject. The arXiv e-Print Archive clearly states that they do not peer review the e-prints in the database.
Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles: No
Advanced Search Options: Subject, date, title, author, abstract, DOI
6. Social Science Research Network
The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a collection of papers from the social sciences community. It is a highly interdisciplinary platform used to search for scholarly articles related to 67 social science topics. SSRN has a variety of research networks for the various topics available through the free scholarly database.
The site offers more than 700,000 abstracts and more than 600,000 full-text papers. There is not yet a specific option to search for only full-text articles, but, because most of the papers on the site are free access, it's not often that you encounter a paywall. There is currently no option to search for only peer-reviewed articles.
You must become a member to use the services, but registration is free and enables you to interact with other scholars around the world. SSRN is "passionately committed to increasing inclusion, diversity and equity in scholarly research," and they encourage and discuss the use of inclusive language in scholarship whenever possible.
Collection: 1,058,739 abstracts; 915,452 articles
Advanced Search Options: Term, author, date, network
7. Public Library of Science
Public Library of Science (PLOS) is a big player in the world of OA science. Publishing 12 OA journals, the nonprofit organization is committed to facilitating openness in academic research. According to the site, "all PLOS content is at the highest possible level of OA, meaning that scientific articles are immediately and freely available to anyone, anywhere."
PLOS outlines four fundamental goals that guide the organization: break boundaries, empower researchers, redefine quality, and open science. All PLOS journals are peer-reviewed, and all 12 journals uphold rigorous ethical standards for research, publication, and scientific reporting.
PLOS does not offer advanced search options. Content is organized by topic into research communities that users can browse through, in addition to options to search for both articles and journals. The PLOS website also has resources for peer reviewers, including guidance on becoming a reviewer and on how to best participate in the peer review process.
Collection: 12 journals
Advanced Search Options: None
OpenDOAR, or the Directory of Open Access Repositories, is a comprehensive resource for finding free OA journals and articles. Using Google Custom Search, OpenDOAR combs through OA repositories around the world and returns relevant research in all disciplines.
The repositories it searches through are assessed and categorized by OpenDOAR staff to ensure they meet quality standards. Inclusion criteria for the database include requirements for OA content, global access, and categorically appropriate content, in addition to various other quality assurance measures. OpenDOAR has metadata, data, content, preservation, and submission policies for repositories, in addition to two OA policy statements regarding minimum and optimum recommendations.
This database allows users to browse and search repositories, which can then be selected, and articles and data can be accessed from the repository directly. As a repository database, much of the content on the site is geared toward the support of repositories and OA standards.
Collection: 5,768 repositories
Other Services: OpenDOAR offers a variety of additional services. Given the nature of the platform, services are primarily aimed at repositories and institutions, and there is a marked focus on OA in general. Sherpa services are OA archiving tools for authors and institutions.
They also offer various resources for OA support and compliance regarding standards and policies. The publication router matches publications and publishers with appropriate repositories.
There are also services and resources from JISC for repositories for cost management, discoverability, research impact, and interoperability, including ORCID consortium membership information. Additionally, a repository self-assessment tool is available for members.
Advanced Search Options: Name, organization name, repository type, software name, content type, subject, country, region
9. Bielefeld Academic Search Engine
The Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) is operated by the Bielefeld University Library in Germany, and it offers more than 240 million documents from more than 8,000 sources. Sixty percent of its content is OA, and you can filter your search accordingly.
BASE has rigorous inclusion requirements for content providers regarding quality and relevance, and they maintain a list of content providers for the sake of transparency, which can be easily found on their website. BASE has a fairly elegant interface. Search results can be organized by author, title, or date.
From the search results, items can be selected and exported, added to favorites, emailed, and searched in Google Scholar. There are basic and advanced search features, with the advanced search offering numerous options for refining search criteria. There is also a feature on the website that saves recent searches without additional steps from the user.
Collection: 276,019,066 documents; 9,286 content providers
Advanced Search Options: Author, subject, year, content provider, language, document type, access, terms of reuse
10. Digital Library of the Commons Repository
Run by Indiana University, the Digital Library of the Commons (DLC) Repository is a multidisciplinary journal repository that allows users to access thousands of free and OA articles from around the world. You can browse by document type, date, author, title, and more or search for keywords relevant to your topic.
DCL also offers the Comprehensive Bibliography of the Commons, an image database, and a keyword thesaurus for enhanced search parameters. The repository includes books, book chapters, conference papers, journal articles, surveys, theses and dissertations, and working papers. DCL advanced search features drop-down menus of search types with built-in Boolean search options.
Searches can be sorted by relevance, title, date, or submission date in ascending or descending order. Abstracts are included in selected search results, with access to full texts available, and citations can be exported from the same page. Additionally, the image database search includes tips for better search results.
Advanced Search Options: Author, date, title, subject, sector, region, conference
11. CIA World Factbook
The CIA World Factbook is a little different from the other resources on this list in that it is not an online journal directory or repository. It is, however, a useful free online research database for academics in a variety of disciplines.
All the information is free to access, and it provides facts about every country in the world, which are organized by category and include information about history, geography, transportation, and much more. The World Factbook can be searched by country or region, and there is also information about the world’s oceans.
This site contains resources related to the CIA as an organization rather than being a scientific journal database specifically. The site has a user interface that is easy to navigate. The site also provides a section for updates regarding changes to what information is available and how it is organized, making it easier to interact with the information you are searching for.
Collection: 266 countries
Paperity boasts its status as the "first multidisciplinary aggregator of OA journals and papers." Their focus is on helping you avoid paywalls while connecting you to authoritative research. In addition to providing readers with easy access to thousands of journals, Paperity seeks to help authors reach their audiences and help journals increase their exposure to boost readership.
Paperity has journal articles for every discipline, and the database offers more than a dozen advanced search options, including the length of the paper and the number of authors. There is even an option to include, exclude, or exclusively search gray papers.
Paperity is available for mobile, with both a mobile site and the Paperity Reader, an app that is available for both Android and Apple users. The database is also available on social media. You can interact with Paperity via Twitter and Facebook, and links to their social media are available on their homepage, including their Twitter feed.
Advanced Search Options: Title, abstract, journal title, journal ISSN, publisher, year of publication, number of characters, number of authors, DOI, author, affiliation, language, country, region, continent, gray papers
13. dblp Computer Science Bibliography
The dblp Computer Science Bibliography is an online index of major computer science publications. dblp was founded in 1993, though until 2010 it was a university-specific database at the University of Trier in Germany. It is currently maintained by the Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz Center for Informatics.
Although it provides access to both OA articles and those behind a paywall, you can limit your search to only OA articles. The site indexes more than three million publications, making it an invaluable resource in the world of computer science. dblp entries are color-coded based on the type of item.
dblp has an extensive FAQ section, so questions that might arise about topics like the database itself, navigating the website, or the data on dblp, in addition to several other topics, are likely to be answered. The website also hosts a blog and has a section devoted to website statistics.
EconBiz is a great resource for economic and business studies. A service of the Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, it offers access to full texts online, with the option of searching for OA material only. Their literature search is performed across multiple international databases.
EconBiz has an incredibly useful research skills section, with resources such as Guided Walk, a service to help students and researchers navigate searches, evaluate sources, and correctly cite references; the Research Guide EconDesk, a help desk to answer specific questions and provide advice to aid in literature searches; and the Academic Career Kit for what they refer to as Early Career Researchers.
Other helpful resources include personal literature lists, a calendar of events for relevant calls for papers, conferences, and workshops, and an economics terminology thesaurus to help in finding keywords for searches. To stay up-to-date with EconBiz, you can sign up for their newsletter.
Advanced Search Options: Title, subject, author, institution, ISBN/ISSN, journal, publisher, language, OA only
15. BioMed Central
BioMed Central provides OA research from more than 300 peer-reviewed journals. While originally focused on resources related to the physical sciences, math, and engineering, BioMed Central has branched out to include journals that cover a broader range of disciplines, with the aim of providing a single platform that provides OA articles for a variety of research needs. You can browse these journals by subject or title, or you can search all articles for your required keyword.
BioMed Central has a commitment to peer-reviewed sources and to the peer review process itself, continually seeking to help and improve the peer review process. They're "committed to maintaining high standards through full and stringent peer review." They publish the journal Research Integrity and Peer Review , which publishes research on the subject.
Additionally, the website includes resources to assist and support editors as part of their commitment to providing high-quality, peer-reviewed OA articles.
Other Services: BMC administers the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry. While initially designed for registering clinical trials, since its creation in 2000, the registry has broadened its scope to include other health studies as well.
The registry is recognized by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), and it meets the requirements established by the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.
The study records included in the registry are all searchable and free to access. The ISRCTN registry "supports transparency in clinical research, helps reduce selective reporting of results and ensures an unbiased and complete evidence base."
Advanced Search Options: Author, title, journal, list
A multidisciplinary search engine, JURN provides links to various scholarly websites, articles, and journals that are free to access or OA. Covering the fields of the arts, humanities, business, law, nature, science, and medicine, JURN has indexed almost 5,000 repositories to help you find exactly what you're looking for.
Search features are enhanced by Google, but searches are filtered through their index of repositories. JURN seeks to reach a wide audience, with their search engine tailored to researchers from "university lecturers and students seeking a strong search tool for OA content" and "advanced and ambitious students, age 14-18" to "amateur historians and biographers" and "unemployed and retired lecturers."
That being said, JURN is very upfront about its limitations. They admit to not being a good resource for educational studies, social studies, or psychology, and conference archives are generally not included due to frequently unstable URLs.
Collection: 5,064 indexed journals
Other Services: JURN has a browser add-on called UserScript. This add-on allows users to integrate the JURN database directly into Google Search. When performing a search through Google, the add-on creates a link that sends the search directly to JURN CSE. JURN CSE is a search service that is hosted by Google.
Clicking the link from the Google Search bar will run your search through the JURN database from the Google homepage. There is also an interface for a DuckDuckGo search box; while this search engine has an emphasis on user privacy, for smaller sites that may be indexed by JURN, DuckDuckGo may not provide the same depth of results.
Advanced Search Options: Google search modifiers
Dryad is a digital repository of curated, OA scientific research data. Launched in 2009, it is run by a not-for-profit membership organization, with a community of institutional and publisher members for whom their services have been designed. Members include institutions such as Stanford, UCLA, and Yale, as well as publishers like Oxford University Press and Wiley.
Dryad aims to "promote a world where research data is openly available, integrated with the scholarly literature, and routinely reused to create knowledge." It is free to access for the search and discovery of data. Their user experience is geared toward easy self-depositing, supports Creative Commons licensing, and provides DOIs for all their content.
Note that there is a publishing charge associated if you wish to publish your data in Dryad. When searching datasets, they are accompanied by author information and abstracts for the associated studies, and citation information is provided for easy attribution.
Advanced Search Options: No
Run by the British Library, the E-Theses Online Service (EThOS) allows you to search over 500,000 doctoral theses in a variety of disciplines. All of the doctoral theses available on EThOS have been awarded by higher education institutions in the United Kingdom.
Although some full texts are behind paywalls, you can limit your search to items available for immediate download, either directly through EThOS or through an institution's website. More than half of the records in the database provide access to full-text theses.
EThOS notes that they do not hold all records for all institutions, but they strive to index as many doctoral theses as possible, and the database is constantly expanding, with approximately 3,000 new records added and 2,000 new full-text theses available every month. The availability of full-text theses is dependent on multiple factors, including their availability in the institutional repository and the level of repository development.
Advanced Search Options: Abstract, author's first name, author's last name, awarding body, current institution, EThOS ID, year, language, qualifications, research supervisor, sponsor/funder, keyword, title
PubMed is a research platform well-known in the fields of science and medicine. It was created and developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). It has been available since 1996 and offers access to "more than 33 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books."
While PubMed does not provide full-text articles directly, and many full-text articles may be behind paywalls or require subscriptions to access them, when articles are available from free sources, such as through PubMed Central (PMC), those links are provided with the citations and abstracts that PubMed does provide.
PMC, which was established in 2000 by the NLM, is a free full-text archive that includes more than 6,000,000 records. PubMed records link directly to corresponding PMC results. PMC content is provided by publishers and other content owners, digitization projects, and authors directly.
Advanced Search Options: Author's first name, author's last name, identifier, corporation, date completed, date created, date entered, date modified, date published, MeSH, book, conflict of interest statement, EC/RN number, editor, filter, grant number, page number, pharmacological action, volume, publication type, publisher, secondary source ID, text, title, abstract, transliterated title
20. Semantic Scholar
A unique and easy-to-use resource, Semantic Scholar defines itself not just as a research database but also as a "search and discovery tool." Semantic Scholar harnesses the power of artificial intelligence to efficiently sort through millions of science-related papers based on your search terms.
Through this singular application of machine learning, Semantic Scholar expands search results to include topic overviews based on your search terms, with the option to create an alert for or further explore the topic. It also provides links to related topics.
In addition, search results produce "TLDR" summaries in order to provide concise overviews of articles and enhance your research by helping you to navigate quickly and easily through the available literature to find the most relevant information. According to the site, although some articles are behind paywalls, "the data [they] have for those articles is limited," so you can expect to receive mostly full-text results.
Other Services: Semantic Scholar supports multiple popular browsers. Content can be accessed through both mobile and desktop versions of Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Google Chrome, Apple Safari, and Opera.
Additionally, Semantic Scholar provides browser extensions for both Chrome and Firefox, so AI-powered scholarly search results are never more than a click away. The mobile interface includes an option for Semantic Swipe, a new way of interacting with your research results.
There are also beta features that can be accessed as part of the Beta Program, which will provide you with features that are being actively developed and require user feedback for further improvement.
Advanced Search Options: Field of study, date range, publication type, author, journal, conference, PDF
Zenodo, powered by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), was launched in 2013. Taking its name from Zenodotus, the first librarian of the ancient library of Alexandria, Zenodo is a tool "built and developed by researchers, to ensure that everyone can join in open science." Zenodo accepts all research from every discipline in any file format.
However, Zenodo also curates uploads and promotes peer-reviewed material that is available through OA. A DOI is assigned to everything that is uploaded to Zenodo, making research easily findable and citable. You can sort by keyword, title, journal, and more and download OA documents directly from the site.
While there are closed access and restricted access items in the database, the vast majority of research is OA material. Search results can be filtered by access type, making it easy to view the free articles available in the database.
Advanced Search Options: Access, file type, keywords
Check out our roundup of free research databases as a handy one-page PDF.
How to find peer-reviewed articles.
There are a lot of free scholarly articles available from various sources. The internet is a big place. So how do you go about finding peer-reviewed articles when conducting your research? It's important to make sure you are using reputable sources.
The first source of the article is the person or people who wrote it. Checking out the author can give you some initial insight into how much you can trust what you’re reading. Looking into the publication information of your sources can also indicate whether the article is reliable.
Aspects of the article, such as subject and audience, tone, and format, are other things you can look at when evaluating whether the article you're using is valid, reputable, peer-reviewed material. So, let's break that down into various components so you can assess your research to ensure that you're using quality articles and conducting solid research.
Check the Author
Peer-reviewed articles are written by experts or scholars with experience in the field or discipline they're writing about. The research in a peer-reviewed article has to pass a rigorous evaluation process, so it’s a foregone conclusion that the author(s) of a peer-reviewed article should have experience or training related to that research.
When evaluating an article, take a look at the author’s information. What credentials does the author have to indicate that their research has scholarly weight behind it? Finding out what type of degree the author has—and what that degree is in—can provide insight into what kind of authority the author is on the subject.
Something else that might lend credence to the author’s scholarly role is their professional affiliation. A look at what organization or institution they are affiliated with can tell you a lot about their experience or expertise. Where were they trained, and who is verifying their research?
Identify Subject and Audience
The ultimate goal of a study is to answer a question. Scholarly articles are also written for scholarly audiences, especially articles that have gone through the peer review process. This means that the author is trying to reach experts, researchers, academics, and students in the field or topic the research is based on.
Think about the question the author is trying to answer by conducting this research, why, and for whom. What is the subject of the article? What question has it set out to answer? What is the purpose of finding the information? Is the purpose of the article of importance to other scholars? Is it original content?
Research should also be approached analytically. Is the methodology sound? Is the author using an analytical approach to evaluate the data that they have obtained? Are the conclusions they've reached substantiated by their data and analysis? Answering these questions can reveal a lot about the article’s validity.
Reliable articles from peer-reviewed sources have certain format elements to be aware of. The first is an abstract. An abstract is a short summary or overview of the article. Does the article have an abstract? It's unlikely that you're reading a peer-reviewed article if it doesn’t. Peer-reviewed journals will also have a word count range. If an article seems far too short or incredibly long, that may be reason to doubt it.
Another feature of reliable articles is the sections the information is divided into. Peer-reviewed research articles will have clear, concise sections that appropriately organize the information. This might include a literature review, methodology, and results in the case of research articles and a conclusion.
One of the most important sections is the references or bibliography. This is where the researcher lists all the sources of their information. A peer-reviewed source will have a comprehensive reference section.
An article that has been written to reach an academic community will have an academic tone. The language that is used, and the way this language is used, is important to consider. If the article is riddled with grammatical errors, confusing syntax, and casual language, it almost definitely didn't make it through the peer review process.
Also consider the use of terminology. Every discipline is going to have standard terminology or jargon that can be used and understood by other academics in the discipline. The language in a peer-reviewed article is going to reflect that.
If the author is going out of their way to explain simple terms, or terms that are standard to the field or discipline, it's unlikely that the article has been peer reviewed, as this is something that the author would be asked to address during the review process.
The source of the article will be a very good indicator of the likelihood that it was peer reviewed. Where was the article published? Was it published alongside other academic articles in the same discipline? Is it a legitimate and reputable scholarly publication?
A trade publication or newspaper might be legitimate or reputable, but it is not a scholarly source, and it will not have been subject to the peer review process. Scholarly journals are the best resource for peer-reviewed articles, but it's important to remember that not all scholarly journals are peer reviewed.
It’s helpful to look at a scholarly source’s website, as peer-reviewed journals will have a clear indication of the peer review process. University libraries, institutional repositories, and reliable databases (and you now might have a list of some legit ones) can also help provide insight into whether an article comes from a peer-reviewed journal.
Common Research Mistakes to Avoid
Research is a lot of work. Even with high standards and good intentions, it’s easy to make mistakes. Perhaps you searched for access to scientific journals for free and found the perfect peer-reviewed sources, but you forgot to document everything, and your references are a mess. Or, you only searched for free online articles and missed out on a ground-breaking study that was behind a paywall.
Whether your research is for a degree or to get published or to satisfy your own inquisitive nature, or all of the above, you want all that work to produce quality results. You want your research to be thorough and accurate.
To have any hope of contributing to the literature on your research topic, your results need to be high quality. You might not be able to avoid every potential mistake, but here are some that are both common and easy to avoid.
Sticking to One Source
One of the hallmarks of good research is a healthy reference section. Using a variety of sources gives you a better answer to your question. Even if all of the literature is in agreement, looking at various aspects of the topic may provide you with an entirely different picture than you would have if you looked at your research question from only one angle.
Not Documenting Every Fact
As you conduct your research, do yourself a favor and write everything down. Everything you include in your paper or article that you got from another source is going to need to be added to your references and cited.
It's important, especially if your aim is to conduct ethical, high-quality research, that all of your research has proper attribution. If you don't document as you go, you could end up making a lot of work for yourself if the information you don’t write down is something that later, as you write your paper, you really need.
Using Outdated Materials
Academia is an ever-changing landscape. What was true in your academic discipline or area of research ten years ago may have since been disproven. If fifteen studies have come out since the article that you're using was published, it's more than a little likely that you're going to be basing your research on flawed or dated information.
If the information you're basing your research on isn’t as up-to-date as possible, your research won't be of quality or able to stand up to any amount of scrutiny. You don’t want all of your hard work to be for naught.
Relying Solely on Open Access Journals
OA is a great resource for conducting academic research. There are high-quality journal articles available through OA, and that can be very helpful for your research. But, just because you have access to free articles, that doesn't mean that there's nothing to be found behind a paywall.
Just as dismissing high-quality peer-reviewed articles because they are OA would be limiting, not exploring any paid content at all is equally short-sighted. If you're seeking to conduct thorough and comprehensive research, exploring all of your options for quality sources is going to be to your benefit.
Digging Too Deep or Not Deep Enough
Research is an art form, and it involves a delicate balance of information. If you conduct your research using only broad search terms, you won't be able to answer your research question well, or you'll find that your research provides information that is closely related to your topic but, ultimately, your findings are vague and unsubstantiated.
On the other hand, if you delve deeply into your research topic with specific searches and turn up too many sources, you might have a lot of information that is adjacent to your topic but without focus and perhaps not entirely relevant. It's important to answer your research question concisely but thoroughly.
Different Types of Scholarly Articles
Different types of scholarly articles have different purposes. An original research article, also called an empirical article, is the product of a study or an experiment. This type of article seeks to answer a question or fill a gap in the existing literature.
Research articles will have a methodology, results, and a discussion of the findings of the experiment or research and typically a conclusion.
Review articles overview the current literature and research and provide a summary of what the existing research indicates or has concluded. This type of study will have a section for the literature review, as well as a discussion of the findings of that review. Review articles will have a particularly extensive reference or bibliography section.
Theoretical articles draw on existing literature to create new theories or conclusions, or look at current theories from a different perspective, to contribute to the foundational knowledge of the field of study.
10 Tips for Navigating Journal Databases
Use the right academic journal database for your search, be that interdisciplinary or specific to your field. Or both!
If it’s an option, set the search results to return only peer-reviewed sources.
Start by using search terms that are relevant to your topic without being overly specific.
Try synonyms, especially if your keywords aren’t returning the desired results.
Even if you’ve found some good articles, try searching using different terms.
Explore the advanced search features of the database(s).
Learn to use Booleans (AND, OR, NOT) to expand or narrow your results.
Once you’ve gotten some good results from a more general search, try narrowing your search.
Read through abstracts when trying to find articles relevant to your research.
Keep track of your research and use citation tools. It’ll make life easier when it comes time to compile your references.
7 Frequently Asked Questions
1. how do i get articles for free.
Free articles can be found through free online academic journals, OA databases, or other databases that include OA journals and articles. These resources allow you to access free papers online so you can conduct your research without getting stuck behind a paywall.
Academics don’t receive payment for the articles they contribute to journals. There are often, in fact, publication fees that scholars pay in order to publish. This is one of the funding structures that allows OA journals to provide free content so that you don’t have to pay fees or subscription costs to access journal articles.
2. How Do I Find Journal Articles?
Journal articles can be found in databases and institutional repositories that can be accessed at university libraries. However, online research databases that contain OA articles are the best resource for getting free access to journal articles that are available online.
Peer-reviewed journal articles are the best to use for academic research, and there are a number of databases where you can find peer-reviewed OA journal articles. Once you've found a useful article, you can look through the references for the articles the author used to conduct their research, and you can then search online databases for those articles, too.
3. How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles?
Peer-reviewed articles can be found in reputable scholarly peer-reviewed journals. High-quality journals and journal articles can be found online using academic search engines and free research databases. These resources are excellent for finding OA articles, including peer-reviewed articles.
OA articles are articles that can be accessed for free. While some scholarly search engines and databases include articles that aren't peer reviewed, there are also some that provide only peer-reviewed articles, and databases that include non-peer-reviewed articles often have advanced search features that enable you to select “peer review only.” The database will return results that are exclusively peer-reviewed content.
4. What Are Research Databases?
A research database is a list of journals, articles, datasets, and/or abstracts that allows you to easily search for scholarly and academic resources and conduct research online. There are databases that are interdisciplinary and cover a variety of topics.
For example, Paperity might be a great resource for a chemist as well as a linguist, and there are databases that are more specific to a certain field. So, while ERIC might be one of the best educational databases available for OA content, it's not going to be one of the best databases for finding research in the field of microbiology.
5. How Do I Find Scholarly Articles for Specific Fields?
There are interdisciplinary research databases that provide articles in a variety of fields, as well as research databases that provide articles that cater to specific disciplines. Additionally, a journal repository or index can be a helpful resource for finding articles in a specific field.
When searching an interdisciplinary database, there are frequently advanced search features that allow you to narrow the search results down so that they are specific to your field. Selecting “psychology” in the advanced search features will return psychology journal articles in your search results. You can also try databases that are specific to your field.
If you're searching for law journal articles, many law reviews are OA. If you don’t know of any databases specific to history, visiting a journal repository or index and searching “history academic journals” can return a list of journals specific to history and provide you with a place to begin your research.
6. Are Peer-Reviewed Articles Really More Legitimate?
The short answer is yes, peer-reviewed articles are more legitimate resources for academic research. The peer review process provides legitimacy, as it is a rigorous review of the content of an article that is performed by scholars and academics who are experts in their field of study. The review provides an evaluation of the quality and credibility of the article.
Non-peer-reviewed articles are not subject to a review process and do not undergo the same level of scrutiny. This means that non-peer-reviewed articles are unlikely, or at least not as likely, to meet the same standards that peer-reviewed articles do.
7. Are Free Article Directories Legitimate?
Yes! As with anything, some databases are going to be better for certain requirements than others. But, a scholarly article database being free is not a reason in itself to question its legitimacy.
Free scholarly article databases can provide access to abstracts, scholarly article websites, journal repositories, and high-quality peer-reviewed journal articles. The internet has a lot of information, and it's often challenging to figure out what information is reliable.
Research databases and article directories are great resources to help you conduct your research. Our list of the best research paper websites is sure to provide you with sources that are totally legit.
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The Best Research and Reference Websites
Where to look when you need information
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Research websites come in handy in all kinds of situations, whether you're looking for the average rainfall in the Amazon rainforest, researching Roman history, or just having fun learning to find information.
This list of the best research websites will help greatly, and most of them are updated daily with new information.
I like to pair these sites with free research organizational tools to keep track of everything I gather online.
Best Research Websites
- Library of Congress : LOC.gov lets you not only ask a librarian for help , but also search catalogs of libraries from all over the world. This is truly a huge resource that should be on your Top 10 best research sites list. Anything from Academia Sinica in Taiwan to Yale University in the U.S. is here and ready to be searched.
- ReferenceDesk.org : Dubbed "The Internet's Best Reference Source," this extremely useful web directory provides everything from business and finance information to federal government resources, scholarship details, links to newspapers and calendars, search engines, and more.
- Ask the Space Expert : NASA's source for space and science research help. Use the video links to listen to questions answered by experts. These are from 2013 through 2015.
- USA.gov : This is where you should start when looking for specific U.S. government information. Learn about the country in general or education, housing, disability services, jobs, taxes, laws, and more.
- Reference.com : Extremely simple to use with a basic layout, this reference website lets you browse by category or search by keywords to research everything from food and health to history, beauty, education, technology, vehicles, art, and more.
- Refdesk.com : Billing itself as the internet's fact-checker, this site includes in-depth research links to breaking news, editorials, Today in History, Word of the Day, and other references.
- Encyclopedia.com : The #1 online encyclopedia that lets you search over 200 reference books and encyclopedias at once. The Picks of the week is a neat section to examine each week.
- Encyclopedia Britannica : One of the world's oldest encyclopedias online; has featured posts and category listings. The company launched in the 18th century and has been publishing exclusively online since 2011.
- Purdue University Quick Reference : This site has tons of information that includes resources specific to Purdue University and surrounding areas in Indiana. It also includes an Ask a Librarian service.
- Prescriber's Digital Reference : A wonderful research tool when gathering detailed medical information. The drug name browser includes summaries (dosage, description, and more) for hundreds of drugs.
- iTools.com : Serves as a gateway for reference and research links. It uses other websites for its searches, like YouTube and Google.
- ResearchGate : Scientific knowledge from over 160 million publication pages; browse topics in categories like engineering, biology, climate change, medicine, math, and more.
- Baseball-Reference.com : Here's everything you ever wanted to know about baseball.
- FOLDOC : Free Online Dictionary of Computing is a detailed computing dictionary for researching the meaning behind computer-related tools, standards, jargon, languages, and more. The "random" button is a fun way to learn new concepts.
Depending on the type of research you're doing or how you need to reference the information, you may need quick access to books. There are lots of places to find free book downloads , textbooks , and educational movies .
Other Ways to Do Research
Search engines like Google are a great way to perform online research. You can locate books, articles, interviews, and lots more. Learn how to search better to get the most out of your research.
Another top source of expert information is your local librarian— search for libraries near you at WorldCat . Librarians are trained to find answers to obscure questions, they're friendly, and best of all, you can talk with them face to face. They often ask you questions you might not have considered, leading to even better results. You can get help from librarians online, too, through some of the sources above.
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Research and Writing Guides
Writing a paper? Don't get lost.
The top list of academic research databases
Whether you are writing a thesis , dissertation, or research paper it is a key task to survey prior literature and research findings. More likely than not, you will be looking for trusted resources, most likely peer-reviewed research articles.
Academic research databases make it easy to locate the literature you are looking for. We have compiled the top list of trusted academic resources to help you get started with your research:
Scopus is one of the two big commercial, bibliographic databases that cover scholarly literature from almost any discipline. Beside searching for research articles, Scopus also provides academic journal rankings, author profiles, and an h-index calculator .
- Coverage: 90.6 million core records
- References: N/A
- Discipline: Multidisciplinary
- Access options: Limited free preview, full access by institutional subscription only
- Provider: Elsevier
- 2. Web of Science
Web of Science also known as Web of Knowledge is the second big bibliographic database. Usually, academic institutions provide either access to Web of Science or Scopus on their campus network for free.
- Coverage: approx. 100 million items
- References: 1.4 billion
- Access options: institutional subscription only
- Provider: Clarivate (formerly Thomson Reuters)
PubMed is the number one resource for anyone looking for literature in medicine or biological sciences. PubMed stores abstracts and bibliographic details of more than 30 million papers and provides full text links to the publisher sites or links to the free PDF on PubMed Central (PMC) .
- Coverage: approx. 35 million items
- Discipline: Medicine and Biological Sciences
- Access options: free
- Provider: NIH
For education sciences, ERIC is the number one destination. ERIC stands for Education Resources Information Center, and is a database that specifically hosts education-related literature.
- Coverage: approx. 1.6 million items
- Discipline: Education
- Provider: U.S. Department of Education
- 5. IEEE Xplore
IEEE Xplore is the leading academic database in the field of engineering and computer science. It's not only journal articles, but also conference papers, standards and books that can be search for.
- Coverage: approx. 6 million items
- Discipline: Engineering
- Provider: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
- 6. ScienceDirect
ScienceDirect is the gateway to the millions of academic articles published by Elsevier, 1.4 million of which are open access. Journals and books can be searched via a single interface.
- Coverage: approx. 19.5 million items
- 7. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
The DOAJ is an open-access academic database that can be accessed and searched for free.
- Coverage: over 8 million records
- Provider: DOAJ
JSTOR is another great resource to find research papers. Any article published before 1924 in the United States is available for free and JSTOR also offers scholarships for independent researchers.
- Coverage: more than 12 million items
- Provider: ITHAKA
- Frequently Asked Questions about academic research databases
PubMed is the number one resource for anyone looking for literature in medicine or biological sciences. PubMed stores abstracts and bibliographic details of more than 30 million papers and provides full text links to the publisher sites or links to the free PDF on PubMed Central (PMC)
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How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide
A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.
Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate.
This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.
Table of contents
Understand the assignment, choose a research paper topic, conduct preliminary research, develop a thesis statement, create a research paper outline, write a first draft of the research paper, write the introduction, write a compelling body of text, write the conclusion, the second draft, the revision process, research paper checklist, free lecture slides.
Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you. Before you start, make sure you thoroughly understanding the assignment task sheet:
- Read it carefully, looking for anything confusing you might need to clarify with your professor.
- Identify the assignment goal, deadline, length specifications, formatting, and submission method.
- Make a bulleted list of the key points, then go back and cross completed items off as you’re writing.
Carefully consider your timeframe and word limit: be realistic, and plan enough time to research, write, and edit.
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There are many ways to generate an idea for a research paper, from brainstorming with pen and paper to talking it through with a fellow student or professor.
You can try free writing, which involves taking a broad topic and writing continuously for two or three minutes to identify absolutely anything relevant that could be interesting.
You can also gain inspiration from other research. The discussion or recommendations sections of research papers often include ideas for other specific topics that require further examination.
Once you have a broad subject area, narrow it down to choose a topic that interests you, m eets the criteria of your assignment, and i s possible to research. Aim for ideas that are both original and specific:
- A paper following the chronology of World War II would not be original or specific enough.
- A paper on the experience of Danish citizens living close to the German border during World War II would be specific and could be original enough.
Note any discussions that seem important to the topic, and try to find an issue that you can focus your paper around. Use a variety of sources , including journals, books, and reliable websites, to ensure you do not miss anything glaring.
Do not only verify the ideas you have in mind, but look for sources that contradict your point of view.
- Is there anything people seem to overlook in the sources you research?
- Are there any heated debates you can address?
- Do you have a unique take on your topic?
- Have there been some recent developments that build on the extant research?
In this stage, you might find it helpful to formulate some research questions to help guide you. To write research questions, try to finish the following sentence: “I want to know how/what/why…”
A thesis statement is a statement of your central argument — it establishes the purpose and position of your paper. If you started with a research question, the thesis statement should answer it. It should also show what evidence and reasoning you’ll use to support that answer.
The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.
You will probably revise and refine the thesis statement as you do more research, but it can serve as a guide throughout the writing process. Every paragraph should aim to support and develop this central claim.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
A research paper outline is essentially a list of the key topics, arguments, and evidence you want to include, divided into sections with headings so that you know roughly what the paper will look like before you start writing.
A structure outline can help make the writing process much more efficient, so it’s worth dedicating some time to create one.
Your first draft won’t be perfect — you can polish later on. Your priorities at this stage are as follows:
- Maintaining forward momentum — write now, perfect later.
- Paying attention to clear organization and logical ordering of paragraphs and sentences, which will help when you come to the second draft.
- Expressing your ideas as clearly as possible, so you know what you were trying to say when you come back to the text.
You do not need to start by writing the introduction. Begin where it feels most natural for you — some prefer to finish the most difficult sections first, while others choose to start with the easiest part. If you created an outline, use it as a map while you work.
Do not delete large sections of text. If you begin to dislike something you have written or find it doesn’t quite fit, move it to a different document, but don’t lose it completely — you never know if it might come in useful later.
Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of research papers. Each one should focus on a single claim or idea that helps to establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.
George Orwell’s 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language” has had an enduring impact on thought about the relationship between politics and language. This impact is particularly obvious in light of the various critical review articles that have recently referenced the essay. For example, consider Mark Falcoff’s 2009 article in The National Review Online, “The Perversion of Language; or, Orwell Revisited,” in which he analyzes several common words (“activist,” “civil-rights leader,” “diversity,” and more). Falcoff’s close analysis of the ambiguity built into political language intentionally mirrors Orwell’s own point-by-point analysis of the political language of his day. Even 63 years after its publication, Orwell’s essay is emulated by contemporary thinkers.
It’s also important to keep track of citations at this stage to avoid accidental plagiarism . Each time you use a source, make sure to take note of where the information came from.
You can use our free citation generators to automatically create citations and save your reference list as you go.
APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator
The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you’ll build your arguments.
What? Be specific about the topic of the paper, introduce the background, and define key terms or concepts.
Why? This is the most important, but also the most difficult, part of the introduction. Try to provide brief answers to the following questions: What new material or insight are you offering? What important issues does your essay help define or answer?
How? To let the reader know what to expect from the rest of the paper, the introduction should include a “map” of what will be discussed, briefly presenting the key elements of the paper in chronological order.
The major struggle faced by most writers is how to organize the information presented in the paper, which is one reason an outline is so useful. However, remember that the outline is only a guide and, when writing, you can be flexible with the order in which the information and arguments are presented.
One way to stay on track is to use your thesis statement and topic sentences . Check:
- topic sentences against the thesis statement;
- topic sentences against each other, for similarities and logical ordering;
- and each sentence against the topic sentence of that paragraph.
Be aware of paragraphs that seem to cover the same things. If two paragraphs discuss something similar, they must approach that topic in different ways. Aim to create smooth transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections.
The research paper conclusion is designed to help your reader out of the paper’s argument, giving them a sense of finality.
Trace the course of the paper, emphasizing how it all comes together to prove your thesis statement. Give the paper a sense of finality by making sure the reader understands how you’ve settled the issues raised in the introduction.
You might also discuss the more general consequences of the argument, outline what the paper offers to future students of the topic, and suggest any questions the paper’s argument raises but cannot or does not try to answer.
You should not :
- Offer new arguments or essential information
- Take up any more space than necessary
- Begin with stock phrases that signal you are ending the paper (e.g. “In conclusion”)
There are four main considerations when it comes to the second draft.
- Check how your vision of the paper lines up with the first draft and, more importantly, that your paper still answers the assignment.
- Identify any assumptions that might require (more substantial) justification, keeping your reader’s perspective foremost in mind. Remove these points if you cannot substantiate them further.
- Be open to rearranging your ideas. Check whether any sections feel out of place and whether your ideas could be better organized.
- If you find that old ideas do not fit as well as you anticipated, you should cut them out or condense them. You might also find that new and well-suited ideas occurred to you during the writing of the first draft — now is the time to make them part of the paper.
The goal during the revision and proofreading process is to ensure you have completed all the necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible.
- Confirm that your paper completes every task specified in your assignment sheet.
- Check for logical organization and flow of paragraphs.
- Check paragraphs against the introduction and thesis statement.
Check the content of each paragraph, making sure that:
- each sentence helps support the topic sentence.
- no unnecessary or irrelevant information is present.
- all technical terms your audience might not know are identified.
Next, think about sentence structure , grammatical errors, and formatting . Check that you have correctly used transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas. Look for typos, cut unnecessary words, and check for consistency in aspects such as heading formatting and spellings .
Finally, you need to make sure your paper is correctly formatted according to the rules of the citation style you are using. For example, you might need to include an MLA heading or create an APA title page .
Scribbr’s professional editors can help with the revision process with our award-winning proofreading services.
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Checklist: Research paper
I have followed all instructions in the assignment sheet.
My introduction presents my topic in an engaging way and provides necessary background information.
My introduction presents a clear, focused research problem and/or thesis statement .
My paper is logically organized using paragraphs and (if relevant) section headings .
Each paragraph is clearly focused on one central idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .
Each paragraph is relevant to my research problem or thesis statement.
I have used appropriate transitions to clarify the connections between sections, paragraphs, and sentences.
My conclusion provides a concise answer to the research question or emphasizes how the thesis has been supported.
My conclusion shows how my research has contributed to knowledge or understanding of my topic.
My conclusion does not present any new points or information essential to my argument.
I have provided an in-text citation every time I refer to ideas or information from a source.
I have included a reference list at the end of my paper, consistently formatted according to a specific citation style .
I have thoroughly revised my paper and addressed any feedback from my professor or supervisor.
I have followed all formatting guidelines (page numbers, headers, spacing, etc.).
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Top 100 Best Websites to Find Academic Journals, Articles & Books
Internet is all about delivering information. Apart from chatting with friends on Facebook, watching videos on YouTube or shopping online at Amazon, you can also make use of the Web for academic purposes. There are many great websites out there that allow students, researcher and librarians searching for valuable academic journals and scholarly articles .
Here we’ve gathered 100 online databases and search engines where you can find great journals, articles, and books online for your academic and publishing success. If you know of any other worth-sharing sites, let us know in the comments section below.
3. ReaserchGate ResearchGate is the professional social network for scientists and researchers to share, discover, and discuss research. The network has more than 118 million publication pages, 15 million researchers and over 700k projects. Users can use its blogging feature to write short reviews on peer-reviewed articles.
5. VET-Bib VET-Bib is a bibliographic database covering European vocational education and training (VET) literature.
7. ArXiv.org e-Print Archive ArXiv is a repository of e-prints approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, electrical engineering, computer science, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online.
8. Astrophysics Data System The Astrophysics Data System is an online database of over 8 million astronomy and physics papers from both peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed sources.
9. Google Books Google Books lets users to search the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned and converted to text using optical character recognition, and stored in its digital database.
10. Google Correlate Google Correlate lets users to find search patterns which correspond with real-world trends. It gives researchers info on popularity trends, raw data and thematically-related search terms.
13. Oxford Academic Journals Search This is Oxford University Press website for academic and professional books, journals, reference, and online products. You can search its huge volume of data which is currently archived in numerous open-access databases.
15. Behavioral and Brain Sciences Behavioral and Brain Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of Open Peer Commentary where you can search for an extensive psychology and brain science articles.
16. PubChem PubChem is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds.
17. PubMed PubMed is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics.
18. CiteSeerX CiteSxeerX project is funded by the National Science Foundation, is a public integrated digital library, database, and search engine for scientific papers in chemistry. The goal of this project is to develop an intelligent search and database that provides easy access to relevant data for diverse community of users who need for chemical information.
19. Semantic Scholar Semantic Scholar is an academic search engine that utilizes artificial intelligence methods to provide highly relevant results for journal articles. It is designed to quickly highlight the most important papers and identify the connections between them. It currently includes on computer science and biomedical publications.
20. Web of Science Web of Science is an online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service that provides a comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases that reference cross-disciplinary research allowing in-depth exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific discipline.
21. Analytical Abstracts Analytical Abstracts is a literature updating service that keeps researchers and students informed of the latest developments in analytical science. It includes details of the most relevant literature presented as individual records that are easily searchable by analyte, matrix, technique and subject area.
22. Merck Index Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals offering more than 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds published online by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
23. MedlinePlus MedlinePlus is an online information service created by the United States National Library of Medicine. The service provides curated consumer health information and brings together information from the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, other U.S. government agencies, and health-related organizations.
24. Agricola Agricola is a bibliographic database of citations to the agricultural literature created by the National Agricultural Library. The database indexes a wide variety of publications covering agriculture and its allied fields, including, animal and veterinary sciences, entomology, plant sciences, forestry, aquaculture, fisheries, and many more.
25. AGRIS: Agricultural Database AGRIS is a global public domain database with more than 8 million structured bibliographical records on agricultural science and technology. The AGRIS Search system allows scientists, researchers to perform sophisticated searches using keywords, journal titles or names of countries, institutions, and authors.
26. WorldCat WorldCat is a global catalog of library collections. It enables you to search over 1.5 billion items including books, DVDs, CDs, articles and more.
27. IOPscience IOPscience is an online service for journal content published by IOP Publishing. It embraces innovative technologies to make it easier for researchers to access scientific, technical and medical content.
28. PLUS ONE PLOS One is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006. It covers primary research from any discipline within science and medicine.
29. Scopus Elsevier’s Scopus is one of the largest abstract and citation databases of peer-reviewed literature. You can search and access research for science, technology, medicine, etc.
30. Advanced Technologies & Aerospace Database The Advanced Technologies & Aerospace Database provides extensive coverage of advanced technology literature. It features over 26 million A&I records and more than 250 full-text titles that date back to 1962. Its topics cover aeronautics, communications, computer and IT, electronics, lasers, space sciences, telecommunications and many more.
31. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals (AULIMP) AULIMP is a subject index to significant articles, news items, and editorials from about 80 English language military and aeronautical periodicals. It has had two titles in its history.
32. ACM Digital Library The ACM Digital Library is a research and networking platform that provides a comprehensive bibliographic database focused exclusively on the field of computing. It has full-text collection of all ACM publications, including journals, conference proceedings, technical magazines, newsletters and books.
33. Project MUSE Project MUSE is an online source for quality books and journals in the humanities and social sciences from over 200 of the world’s most distinguished university presses and scholarly societies.
34. Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory is a bibliographic database providing comprehensive information about popular and academic magazines, scientific journals, newspapers and other serial publications.
35. OAIster Database OAIster is a union catalog of millions of records that represent open access resources. This catalog was built through harvesting from open access collections worldwide using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH).
36. Beilstein Database Beilstein database is the largest database in the field of organic chemistry. The database covers the scientific literature and contains experimentally validated information on millions of chemical reactions and substances from original scientific publications.
37. Mendeley Mendeley is a free reference manager and academic social network site that enables you organize your research, collaborate with others, and follow the latest research.
38. Chinese Social Science Citation Index Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index (CSSCI) is an interdisciplinary citation index program in China. This citation database covers more than 500 Chinese academic journals of humanities and social sciences. Many Chinese universities and institutes use CSSCI as a basis for the evaluation of academic achievements and promotion.
39. Library of Congress The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress. You can use its online catalog to search the library’s collections by keyword or browse materials by subject, title, author & more.
40. CiNii Articles CiNii is a bibliographic database online service for material in Japanese academic libraries, especially focusing on Japanese works and English works published in Japan. The database contains more than 15 million articles from more than 3600 publications.
41. PsycINFO PsycINFO is a database of abstracts of literature in the field of psychology. It contains citations and summaries from the 19th century to the present of journal articles, book chapters, books, and dissertations.
42. Tisch Library – Journals and Articles With Tisch Library you can search a wide variety of books, journals and articles, film, music, images and other unique collections.
43. OpenEdition.org OpenEdition.org brings together four platforms dedicated to electronic resources in the humanities and social sciences.
44. Digital Library Of The Commons Repository (DLC) The DLC provides free and open access to full-text articles, papers, and dissertations. This site contains an author-submission portal, image database and the comprehensive bibliography of the commons.
45. Arts & Humanities Citation Index The Arts & Humanities Citation Index is a citation index, with abstracting and indexing for more than 1,700 arts and humanities journals, and coverage of disciplines that includes social and natural science journals. Its subjects cover arts, humanities, language, poetry, music, classical works, history, philosophy, architecture, religion, and many more.
46. Science Citation Index Science Citation Index covers more than 8,500 notable and significant journals, across 150 disciplines, from 1900 to the present.
47. Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database (CHBD) CHBD contains more than 8000 of records describing publications about all aspects of human health in the circumpolar region. The database is a project of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Team in Circumpolar Health Research.
48. CERN Document Server (CDS) The CERN Document Server is the institutional repository that provides acquisition, search and collaborative tools to manage collections of documents produced at CERN. This includes HEP documents, multimedia documents, bulletins, administrative documents, EU project documents and many more.
49. Open Library Open Library is an open, editable library catalog, building towards a web page for every book ever published. It contains over 20 million records from a variety of large catalogs as well as single contributions.
50. Ei Compendex Ei Compendex is an engineering literature database that provides a holistic and global view of peer reviewed and indexed publications with over 20 million records from 77 countries across 190 engineering disciplines.
51. Embase Embase improves your biomedical research with its comprehensive biomedical literature database.
52. IEEE Xplore EEE Xplore is a online database for access to journal articles, conference proceedings, technical standards on computer science, electrical engineering and electronics, etc.
53. Social Science Research Network (SSRN) SSRN is a website devoted to the rapid dissemination of scholarly research in the social sciences and humanities. It provides over 800k research papers from 386,975 researchers across 30 disciplines.
54. The World Factbook – CIA The World Factbook offers information on the people, history, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 267 world entities. It provides maps of the major world regions, flags of the World, political maps of the World, world oceans map as well as standard time zones of the world map.
55. Europe PMC Europe PMC is an archive of life sciences journal literature. It offers free access to a large and growing collection of biomedical research literature.
56. National Diet Library The National Diet Library (NDL) is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world.
57. DBLP Computer Science Bibliography DBLP is a computer science bibliography website. It lists more than 3.66 million journal articles, conference papers, and other publications on computer science.
58. National Archives Catalog With National Archives Catalog you can search historic documents, research, government information, and many more in a single search.
59. University of Guelph Library University of Guelph Library is a comprehensive public research university in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Its online portal lets you search hundreds of millions of online full-text journal articles, books, news articles, items in the Library’s catalogue and more.
60. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS is an online source of chemical information that provides many tools such as SciFinder and tagged keywords, summaries, indexes of disclosures and structures of compounds in recently published scientific documents. CAS has over 8,000 journals, technical reports, dissertations, conference proceedings available in different languages.
61. Scientific Information Database (SID) SID provides services both in Persian and English sections such as indexing the latest research-scientific journals of Iran, journal citation reports, indexing the abstracts of Iranian Papers published in International journals, online submission, setting of conferences and workshops.
62. CORE CORE aggregates and offers access to millions of open access research papers, enrich the collected data for text-mining and provide unique services to the research community.
63. Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) RePEc is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers to enhance the dissemination of research in economics and related sciences. The heart of the project is a decentralized bibliographic database of working papers, journal articles, books, books chapters and software components, all maintained by volunteers.
64. Book Review Index Online Book Review Index Online is a comprehensive source for book reviews and covers review published in nearly 500 periodicals and newspapers.
66. ASCE Library ASCE Library is an online civil engineering database that provides the contents of peer-reviewed journals, proceedings, e-books, and standards published by the American Society of Civil Engineers. It offers free access to abstracts of academic journal articles, proceedings papers, e-books, standards, etc.
67. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) NBER is a research organization committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community.
68. Inspec Inspec is another online resource that provides over 17 million abstracts and specialised indexing to quality research literature in physics and engineering.
69. INSPIRE-HEP INSPIRE-HEP is an open access digital library for the field of high energy physics. In addition to scientific papers, It provides other information like citation metrics, plots extracted from papers or internal experiment notes and tools for users to improve metadata.
70. MathSciNet Mathematical Reviews MathSciNet is a fully searchable database with many tools designed to help navigate the mathematical sciences literature. It serves researchers and scholars in the mathematical sciences by providing peer-reviewed articles and books.
71. African Journals Online (AJOL) AJOL is the world’s largest online library of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. With AJOL, you can browse peer-reviewed journals from Africa and download full text articles. Articles can be searched by title, authors or keywords.
72. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.
73. JournalTOCs JournalTOCs is a large and free collection of scholarly journal Tables of Contents (TOCs). The site is for researchers, students, librarians and anyone looking for the latest scholarly articles.
76. PhilPapers.org PhilPapers.org is a comprehensive index and bibliography of philosophy maintained by the community of philosophers. It’s an online source of research content in philosophy, including journals, books, open access archives, and personal pages maintained by academics.
77. SciELO.org SciELO is a bibliographic database that contains 985 scientific journals from different countries in free and universal access, full-text format.
78. EBSCO Information Services EBSCO is another provider of research databases, e-journals, magazine subscriptions, ebooks and discovery service for academic libraries, public libraries, law, corporate, and government markets.
79. Econlit EconLit offers myriad of economics publications including peer-reviewed journal articles, working papers from leading universities, dissertations, books, collective volume articles, conference proceedings, and book reviews.
80. State Legislative Websites Directory This online database contains information gleaned from the websites of the 50 state legislatures, the District of Columbia and the territories. You can select to view specific website content materials such as, bills, press rooms, statutes from any states.
81. Information Bridge: Department of Energy Scientific and Technical Information The Information Bridge provides free public access to over 298,000 full-text electronic documents of Department of Energy (DOE) research report literature. Documents are primarily from 1991 forward and were produced by DOE.
82. BioOne Complete BioOne Complete is a full-text database of more than 200 leading journals in the biological, ecological, and environmental sciences.
83. Civil Engineering Database CEDB is a free bibliographic database for all ASCE publications including journals, conference proceedings, books, standards, manuals, magazines, and newspapers on all the disciplines of civil engineering. The coverage dates back to 1872.
84. LessonPlanet Lesson Planet contains over 400,000 teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles.
85. CiteULike CiteULike is a free online service that allows users to save and share citations to academic papers. Based on the principle of social bookmarking, the site works to promote and to develop the sharing of scientific references amongst researchers.
86. Science.gov Science.gov searches over 60 databases and over 2,200 scientific websites to provide users with access to more than 200 million pages of authoritative federal science information including research and development results.
87. Cochrane Library The Cochrane Library is a collection of databases that contain different types of high-quality, independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making.
88. CAB Abstracts – CABI CAB Abstracts is an English-language bibliographic information online service that provides access to the world’s applied life sciences literature. It comes with CABI Full Text, giving users automatic access to over 410,000 journal articles, conference papers and reports.
89. Zenodo Zenodo is a research data repository. It provides a place for researchers to deposit datasets allowing researchers in any subject area to upload files up to 50 GB.
90. Archives Hub Archives Hub you can search across descriptions of archives, including links to digital content, held at over 300 institutions across the UK.
91. Highbeam HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive where you can search for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias.
92. Bioline Internationl Bioline International is a scholarly publishing cooperative that provides open access to quality research journals published in developing countries. It is managed by scientists and librarians.
93. WorldWideScience WorldWideScience.org is a global science gateway comprised of national and international scientific databases and portals. The site provides real-time searching and translation of globally-dispersed multilingual scientific literature.
94. Dimensions.ai Dimensions.ai Extensive research database including publications, grants, patents, and clinical trials. Dimensions is a collaborative project of six Digital Science portfolio companies.
95. Ethnologue Ethnologue is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It contains information on over 7000 languages including the number of speakers, locations, dialects, linguistic affiliations, autonyms, etc.
96. Popline.org Popline.org provides access to 380,000 carefully selected publications and resources related to family planning and reproductive health.
97. Zentralblatt MATH Zentralblatt MATH is a major international reviewing service providing reviews and abstracts for articles in pure and applied mathematics.
98. Paperity.org Paperity is a multidisciplinary aggregator of open access journals and papers. It includes more than 1.5 million articles from 4,200 journals, covering all academic disciplines including mathematical sciences, life sciences, medicine, social sciences, humanities and arts.
99. EconBiz EconBiz is a free search portal for economics and business studies that let you find literature, free full texts and events.
100. RefSeek – Academic Search Engine RefSeek is another academic search engine for students and researchers. It provides relevant academic search results from web pages, books, encyclopaedias, and journals.
101. Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) BASE is one of the world’s most voluminous search engines especially for academic web resources. BASE provides more than 120 million documents from more than 6,000 sources. You can access the full texts of about 60% of the indexed documents for free.
102. JournalSeek JournalSeek is a large online database covering academic journals. It includes journals published by over 5400 publishers. The categorized database includes journal descriptions and links to the journal’s homepages.
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15 Best Websites to Download Research Papers for Free
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Is your thirst for knowledge limited by expensive subscriptions? Explore the best websites to download research papers for free and expand your academic reach.
Today, navigating through the academic terrain often feels like being stuck in an intellectual desert, parched for knowledge.
With paywalls acting like impenetrable fortresses, accessing scholarly articles becomes a herculean task. However, a beacon of hope exists in the form of free-access platforms, quenching our thirst for intellectual wisdom. Let’s set sail on this scholarly journey.
Table of Contents
Do you recall the Z Library, a once-prominent source of free academic resources? While its seizure by the FBI was a stark reminder of copyright considerations, it also marked a transformative phase in the digital academic landscape.
Today’s champions of academia aren’t just about offering free access, they uphold ethics and copyright respectability. Let’s delve into these repositories that are reshaping the academia world. You can download free research papers from any of the following websites.
Best Websites to Download Research Papers
#1. sci-hub – best for accessing paywalled academic papers.
- Unlocks millions of academic articles
- Known as the ‘Robin Hood’ of research
- Free and easy to use
Sci-Hub is the defiant maverick of the academic sphere. Often termed the “Pirate Bay of Science,” it presents an unconventional solution to the paywall barrier, freely providing access to a vast range of scholarly literature.
What are the benefits of Sci-Hub?
- Unlimited Access: Unlocks paywalled research papers
- Extensive Database: Hosts a wide variety of academic disciplines
- User-friendly: Features a simple interface and easy navigation
Despite its contentious standing, Sci-Hub offers an invaluable service to knowledge-seekers. While navigating the tightrope between access and legality, it represents a game-changing force in the world of academic research.
#2. Library Genesis (Libgen) – Best for a Wide Range of Books and Articles
- Houses a comprehensive collection of books and articles
- Allows downloading in various formats
- Free and efficient
If the pursuit of knowledge was a grand voyage, Library Genesis, or Libgen, would undoubtedly be your trusty compass and map. Like the vast sea brimming with hidden treasures, Libgen is an expansive library with riches ranging from academic papers to rare textbooks, and even popular fiction.
It’s not just a repository, but a vibrant confluence of multiple disciplines and interests, catering to the unique intellectual appetite of each knowledge seeker.
What are the benefits of Libgen?
- Multidisciplinary: Holds resources for a vast array of subjects
- Diverse Content: Offers not just articles but also books, textbooks, and fiction
- Format Freedom: Allows content download in various formats
Libgen, with its remarkable expanse and variety, is the academic equivalent of a treasure trove. It’s a one-stop destination for researchers and readers, making it an invaluable ally in the quest for knowledge.
#3. Unpaywall – Best for Legal Open Access Versions of Scholarly Articles
- Provides legal access to millions of academic articles
- Fast and user-friendly
- Free and ethically sound
Unpaywall is the stately knight of the academic world. Upholding the banner of ethics, it gallantly charges through the battlefield of paywalls, breaking barriers and making scholarly literature accessible.
Unpaywall doesn’t just give you a key; it gives you a legal, ethically sound key to the treasure chest of academic wisdom. This website is not merely a tool; it’s a testament to the idea that knowledge should be accessible to all, without compromising on legality and respect for authorship.
What are the benefits of Unpaywall?
- Legal Access: Enables legitimate access to research papers
- Wide Reach: Features an extensive, continuously updated database
- Cost-free: All services are available without any charges
For those who believe in the harmony of free access and ethical consideration, Unpaywall is a guiding star. It reflects an ideal blend of accessibility, legality, and respect for intellectual property.
#4. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) – Best for Peer-Reviewed Open Access Journals
- Repository of high-quality, open-access, peer-reviewed journals
- Covers all subjects and many languages
- Free to use
DOAJ is one of the most popular open access repositories that offers peer-reviewed, open-access journals across numerous subjects and languages. More than just a tool, DOAJ symbolizes the collaborative ethos of academia, fostering a global exchange of knowledge with no entry ticket.
What are the benefits of DOAJ?
- High Quality: Ensures all listed journals are peer-reviewed for quality assurance
- Wide Range: Features journals covering numerous subjects and languages
- Free Access: No cost attached to access these resources
The DOAJ, in its essence, manifests the democratic spirit of academic research. It’s an indispensable platform for researchers seeking high-quality, peer-reviewed, open-access resources across a wide range of subjects.
#5. Open Access Button – Best for Free Versions of Paywalled Articles
- Finds legal free versions of paywalled articles
- Fast, simple, and reliable
- Free and respects copyright laws
Just like the rush of adrenaline you feel when you find a forgotten $20 bill in your old jeans, Open Access Button brings the same excitement to the academic sphere.
It is your trusty detective, sniffing out legal, freely accessible versions of those pesky paywalled articles. More than just a tool, it represents an ethical, innovative solution to the widespread issue of paywall barricades in academic research.
What are the benefits of Open Access Button?
- Legal & Free Access: Hunts for legal, open versions of paywalled research papers
- User-friendly: Easy to use with swift results
- Ethical: Respects and upholds copyright laws
Open Access Button serves as the ethical bridge between knowledge seekers and the scholarly content they need. Its commitment to providing free, legal access upholds the values of respect and fairness in academia.
#6. Science Open – Best for a Wide Variety of Open Access Scientific Research
- Features over 60 million articles
- Facilitates academic networking and discussion
- Free and comprehensive
Consider Science Open as a bustling town square in the city of scientific knowledge, where scholars from all walks of life gather, discuss, and dissect over 60 million articles.
It’s not just like the best university libraries, it’s a collaborative arena for scientists, researchers, and curious minds alike. By fostering open discussions and peer reviews, it not only disseminates information but also nourishes a robust, global scientific community.
What are the benefits of Science Open?
- Vast Library: Provides access to over 60 million research items
- Collaborative Platform: Encourages networking, discussion, and public peer review
- Comprehensive: Covers a wide array of scientific disciplines
Science Open is more than a tool; it’s a community fostering open scientific discourse. Its vast resources and collaborative platform make it a vital player in modern scientific research.
#7. CORE – Best for Open Access Content Across Disciplines
- Harvests research papers from repositories worldwide
- Features millions of open access articles
CORE is like a skilled artisan, meticulously crafting a vast tapestry of open-access content across various disciplines. By aggregating data from repositories worldwide, it weaves together a rich, comprehensive picture of global research.
This tool doesn’t merely provide access; it delivers an integrated research experience that pushes the frontiers of academia and knowledge exploration.
What are the benefits of CORE?
- Wide Coverage: Harvests data from global repositories, providing extensive coverage
- Open Access: Features millions of open access research papers
- User-friendly: Simple, efficient interface for seamless navigation
With its unparalleled aggregation and comprehensive access, CORE embodies the grand orchestra of global research. It stands as an essential tool in the modern researcher’s toolkit.
#8. ERIC – Best for Education Research
- Specialized in education research literature
- Offers a wide range of resources, including articles, reports, and studies
- Free and tailored for educators and researchers
Like an esteemed professor, ERIC curates and presents a wealth of scholarly resources for educators, policymakers, and researchers. It serves as a guiding light, illuminating the path to evidence-based practices and enriching the field of education.
What are the benefits of ERIC?
- Focus on Education: Offers a specialized collection of education research literature
- Comprehensive Resources: Includes articles, reports, studies, and more
- Tailored for Educators: Provides valuable insights and tools specifically for educators and researchers
ERIC stands as a pillar in the realm of education research, equipping educators with the knowledge and evidence they need to drive innovation and improve educational practices.
#9. PaperPanda – Best for Free Access to Research Papers
- Provides free access to research papers across multiple disciplines
- Offers convenient search and download options
- Free and user-friendly
PaperPanda is always there to assist you in your quest for knowledge. With its vast collection of research papers spanning various disciplines, PaperPanda ensures that you have the resources you need right at your fingertips.
It’s like having a personal research assistant, guiding you through the maze of scholarly literature.
What are the benefits of PaperPanda?
- Wide Range of Disciplines: Offers research papers across multiple fields of study
- Easy Search and Download: Provides convenient search and download options
- User-Friendly Interface: Makes the research process smooth and accessible
PaperPanda, with its user-friendly approach and expansive collection, simplifies the journey of accessing research papers. It empowers researchers and knowledge enthusiasts by putting a world of information within reach.
#10. Citationsy Archives – Best for Research Papers from Numerous Fields
- Curates a vast collection of research papers
- Offers easy-to-use citation and bibliography management tools
As you navigate through the vast corridors of this digital library, you’ll discover a wealth of academic resources from diverse fields.
Citationsy Archives provides access to valuable research papers. It also equips you with powerful citation and bibliography management tools, ensuring that your scholarly journey remains organized and efficient.
What are the benefits of Citationsy?
- Extensive Collection: Curates a wide variety of research papers from numerous fields
- Citation Management: Offers user-friendly tools for organizing citations and creating bibliographies
- Comprehensive Support: Helps researchers streamline their academic workflow
Citationsy Archives serves as a haven for researchers seeking a comprehensive collection of research papers. Its integrated citation and bibliography management tools make it an indispensable companion in the scholarly pursuit.
#11. OA.mg – Best for Direct Download Links to Open Access Papers
- Provides direct download links to open access papers
- Offers a straightforward, no-frills interface
OA.mg presents a no-nonsense approach to providing direct download links to scholarly articles, ensuring that you have immediate access to the knowledge you seek. With its simplicity and efficiency, OA.mg streamlines the process of finding and accessing open access papers.
What are the benefits of OA.mg?
- Direct Download Links: Offers quick access to open access papers without unnecessary hurdles
- Simplicity: Features a straightforward interface for effortless navigation
- Efficient Access: Saves time by bypassing intermediary steps in accessing research papers
OA.mg stands as a reliable conduit between knowledge seekers and open access papers. Its focus on direct download links enhances the efficiency of accessing scholarly resources.
#12. Social Science Research Network (SSRN) – Best for Social Sciences and Humanities Research
- Specializes in social sciences and humanities research
- Hosts a vast collection of scholarly papers, working papers, and preprints
- Free and tailored for researchers in these fields
This digital haven caters to the intellectual curiosity of scholars in these fields, providing access to a wealth of scholarly papers, working papers, and preprints.
SSRN fosters collaboration and knowledge-sharing, creating a vibrant community at the forefront of social sciences and humanities research.
What are the benefits of SSRN?
- Specialized Content: Focuses on social sciences and humanities research
- Diverse Collection: Offers scholarly papers, working papers, and preprints
- Research Community: Facilitates collaboration and knowledge-sharing among researchers
SSRN serves as an invaluable resource for researchers in the social sciences and humanities, fostering a community that drives innovation and advancements in these fields.
#13. Project Gutenberg – Best for Free Access to eBooks
- Houses a vast collection of free eBooks
- Covers a wide range of subjects and genres
- Free and easily accessible
Project Gutenberg is a paradise for book lovers and knowledge enthusiasts. This impressive collection of free eBooks spans various subjects and genres, from classic literature to scientific works.
Project Gutenberg opens the doors to a world of literary exploration, providing access to timeless wisdom and captivating stories that shape our intellectual landscape.
What are the benefits of Project Gutenberg?
- Extensive eBook Collection: Offers a vast selection of free eBooks
- Diverse Subjects and Genres: Covers a wide range of topics and literary genres
- Free and Accessible: Provides easy access to literary works without any cost
Project Gutenberg serves as a testament to the power of literature and the accessibility of knowledge. It enables readers worldwide to embark on intellectual journeys through its extensive collection of free eBooks.
#14. PLOS (Public Library of Science) – Best for Open Access to Scientific and Medical Research
- Publishes open access scientific and medical research
- Features high-quality, peer-reviewed articles
- Free and promotes global scientific collaboration
As a leading publisher of open access research, PLOS fosters the dissemination of cutting-edge scientific discoveries to a global audience.
With a commitment to quality and peer-reviewed excellence, PLOS supports the collaborative spirit of scientific advancement, empowering researchers and scientists to share their findings freely.
What are the benefits of PLOS?
- Open Access Publications: Provides free access to high-quality scientific and medical research
- Peer-Reviewed Excellence: Ensures rigorous peer review for published articles
- Global Scientific Collaboration: Facilitates knowledge sharing and collaboration among researchers worldwide
PLOS stands at the forefront of the open access movement, promoting the free flow of scientific and medical knowledge. It represents the spirit of collaboration and transparency, empowering researchers to push the boundaries of human understanding.
#15. arXiv.org – Best for Preprints in Science, Mathematics, and Computer Science
- Specializes in hosting preprints in science, mathematics, and computer science
- Provides early access to cutting-edge research
- Free and fosters collaboration among researchers
arXiv.org is the epicenter of preprints in science, mathematics, and computer science. This virtual haven serves as an incubator for innovative ideas, granting researchers early access to the latest findings and nurturing collaboration within these rapidly evolving disciplines.
What are the benefits of arXiv?
- Cutting-Edge Research: Provides access to preprints, allowing early exploration of groundbreaking ideas
- Interdisciplinary Reach: Spans science, mathematics, and computer science, fostering cross-disciplinary collaboration
- Global Knowledge Exchange: Encourages the sharing of research findings and facilitates collaboration among researchers worldwide
arXiv.org stands as a catalyst for scientific progress, offering a glimpse into the future of research. By providing early access to preprints, it fuels innovation, collaboration, and the acceleration of knowledge in science, mathematics, and computer science.
In a world where knowledge is king, accessing a research paper shouldn’t feel like an impossible task. Thanks to these free and innovative websites, we can escape the barriers of paywalls and dive into a vast ocean of intellectual wealth.
From the rebellious spirit of Sci-Hub to the collaborative nature of PLOS, these digital champions are reshaping the academic landscape.
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6 Top Reference Sites to Write a Winning Research Paper
To write a successful research paper, you should provide thorough information and tie it together into a conclusive story. While obtaining conclusive information tends to be rather difficult in itself, writing a convincing manuscript appears to be an even bigger hurdle. So what is the problem?
It seems that many authors don't realize that a good research manuscript requires more than consistent and complete data. The central challenge of everything you ever write is to capture the reader's interest and convincingly tell your story. In other words, you must understand your audience, what they expect, what they already know or where you need to fill them in. When writing a research manuscript, however, you must also follow a standard structure and apply the principles of scientific writing.
The following sites explain how to write a research paper. They reveal the rules of scientific writing, give practical examples, and guide you through the entire process of preparing a successful research manuscript. Best of luck!
How to Write a Research Paper
This wikiHow page summarizes the single steps of how to write a research paper in a broad overview.
Your greatest obstacle may be that you're feeling overwhelmed, which may result in never getting started. What you need to do is break up the project in small, managable steps. For a research paper that would be to decide on a topic, do your research, scan the material, formulate your thesis statement, write the paper, and finally format and proofread the manuscript.
All of these steps are equally important and difficult. The overview given at wikiHow is very general. Depending on what type of research paper you're going to write, you may need more details and help. Pick your category below.
A+ Research & Writing
This is a guide for high school and college students. It provides details, outside links, and a lot of background information for each step of writing a thesis.
In case you weren't assigned a topic, you will find the chapter on Discovering and Choosing a Topic very helpful. The articles on Info Search, e.g. Learning to Research on the Web or Skills for Online Searching will aid you in finding information.
For students, this information should be sufficient. However, some of the advanced links, for example the Guidelines on Style, could answer further questions.
With all of its additional article, for example on citing sources, the above site is packed with information. If you can't be bothered with reading that much, try the following reference site.
Infoplease Homework Center: How to Write a Research Paper
The article at Infoplease divides the process of writing a research paper into nine single steps. Each chapter contains further steps with straightforward instructions and clear examples. A wiki style menu makes it easy to jump back and forth between chapters.
In respect to formatting their work, students are relatively free. There may be guidelines, but they are hardly as specific or strict as those of professional journals or publishers.
Working in academia, it's necessary to regularly report about new findings, i.e. publish results. To be published, the manuscript must be submitted to a journal, be approved by the editor, pass through a peer-review process, eventually also through a revision, and finally be accepted by the editor. This process can be accelerated by submitting a well written manuscript. To be admitted into the review process it may even be more important to adhere exactly to the journal's instructions to authors, which cover details about formatting, length of manuscript, accepted image files etc.
How to Write a Paper in Scientific Journal Style and Format
Bates College has published an incredibly thorough guide to writing scientific papers. The first chapter deals with scientific writing, followed by a chapter on how to go about writing the actual paper. Most useful, however, are the "How Do I Write the..." and "How Do I..." sections, that explain the different elements and conventions of a scientific paper.
The information compiled in this guide is comprehensive, but to the point. It's not just full of advice and examples, but also provides handy lists, for example units and conversions for the metric system.
Many pages of the guide are available in PDF format. Look for the respective link at the top of each chapter page.
Guidelines on Style for Scientific Writing
Will G Hopkins wrote this article that goes into detail on scientific writing, addressing points such as punctuation, abbreviations and acronyms, use of words, and grammar.
Finally, Wikipedia has an article on scientific writing. While it contains a long list with examples and advice, it may be difficult to scan.
Scientific Writing Booklet
The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Arizona offers a free booklet as PDF download. You can download it here: Scientific Writing Booklet
This booklet is a pleasure to read and provides tons of lists and examples that are easy to understand and implement.
Wikipedia also has an article on Scientific writing, however, despite a wealth of information, it's comparably difficult to scan.
The theoretic advice in these guides is invaluable. But how do you motivate yourself to actually sit down and start writing? What is your secret?
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6 Best Research Paper Writing Services in the U.S.
Seattle, Washington, UNITED STATES
SEATTLE, March 26, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Stressays conducted a research study among 23,584 college students in the U.S. and prepared a list of the six most popular research paper writing services used by American students.
The study also revealed why students use such services in the first place. The most common reasons were: heavy workload, too much academic pressure and low grades. A lot of students felt pressured because of the sudden shift to remote learning and lack of hands-on guidance. Therefore, for many students, hiring a professional research paper writer online becomes the only solution.
Below you will find six research paper writing service reviews. These companies are ranked from first to last based on their popularity and overall number of positive reviews.
1. PaperHelp – The Most Popular Service
PaperHelp has been around for almost ten years, and it’s one of the most popular and trusted research paper writing services currently available. Most customers note that this service provides high-quality papers on time. Besides, it offers affordable prices.
PaperHelp gets tons of positive feedback from customers online. Although there are also some unsatisfied customers, the customer support service replies to all of them and does its best to resolve any issues.
Reasons why students choose PaperHelp:
- Timely delivery
- Decent quality and originality of papers
- Best research paper writers
- Great customer support — all customer reviews are considered by support representatives
The company offers a money-back guarantee and free revisions. You can get a refund if PaperHelp doesn’t find a writer for your assignment, if you receive your paper too late, or if it turns out to be plagiarized. The ordering process is straightforward and simple: you should fill out an online form, providing the type of your paper, its format, deadline, and other details. After this, you can use a price calculator to evaluate your expenses. The price calculator is also available on the home page.
The price for a high school research paper with a two-week deadline starts at $12 per page. A page of a Ph.D. dissertation with the same deadline will cost you $24.
2. ExpertWriting – The Cheapest Service
ExpertWriting is one of the best writing services with some interesting features. For instance, it doesn’t have its own team of writers. Instead, this company collaborates with freelancers. As a result, EssayOneDay offers very low prices. Although not all writers are native English speakers, you can request an ENL writer when making an order. The quality of writing is decent, and this company also has a good customer support team.
Reasons Why Students Choose ExpertWriting:
- Good quality of writing
- Quick customer support
The money-back policy is somewhat sketchy but many customers report getting a 100% refund when they were unsatisfied with their papers. The ordering process consists of three steps. First, you should provide the necessary details about your assignment, then you can select additional services, and then you must pay for your order to confirm it.
A high-school research paper with a two-week deadline will only cost you $7.50 per page, and a Ph.D. dissertation with the same deadline will cost you $35 per page.
3. EssayPro – Best Choice of Writers
EssayPro is different from many other writing services because it enables customers to choose writers who will work on their orders. There are many professional writers who deliver well-written papers on different topics. Many customers note that this service is a good choice for difficult assignments so it can be a good option if you’re looking for a term paper or dissertation. Besides, it has affordable prices.
Reasons Why Students Choose EssayPro:
- This service accepts orders with tight deadlines
- An opportunity to choose a writer
- Direct communication with your writer
- Good quality
A great thing about this service is that you can pay for your order after you actually receive the paper. However, you should make sure that you have some money in your account before making an order. To buy a paper, you should sign up and fill out an online form, providing the details of your assignment. After this, you’ll start receiving applications from writers so you can talk to them and choose the one who meets your requirements.
The prices are low. A high-school essay or a research paper delivered in two weeks will cost you $10.80 per page, and the price for a doctoral dissertation starts at $15.60 per page.
4. JustDoMyEssay – Best in Quality
JustDoMyEssay is another writing service that focuses on academic papers. This service appeared not so long ago so it doesn’t have a whole army of fans yet, but it does have something to offer. Its modern design and a simple website will help you quickly figure out what to do even if you’re going to order a paper online for the first time. This service has an active support team and provides decent papers with respect to deadlines. In addition, it offers a number of extra services, including progressive delivery, for free.
Reasons Why Students Choose JustDoMyEssay:
- Original content
- Active support team
- Nice quality of writing
- A loyalty program
A great thing about this service is its money-back guarantee. Not all writing services can offer a 100% refund if you get your paper too late. You can even get a 30% refund if you find any grammar and spelling mistakes. Perhaps, the main drawback of this platform is that you cannot calculate the price of your paper before making an order.
This service isn’t cheap, but neither is it too expensive. The pricing policy is somewhat unclear given the absence of a price calculator, but generally, the price for custom writing starts at $17.55 per page.
5. SpeedyPaper – Best Value for Money
This is a reliable paper writing service with a great online reputation that offers academic help with writing, editing, and problem-solving tasks. This company has many professional writers, and you can evaluate their writing skills by reading sample papers available on the website.
The website also has a lot of information for those who have never used research paper services before. The best thing about SpeedyPaper is its support team. Just as the name of this company suggests, support representatives reply very quickly, and they are always ready to help you with any issues.
Reasons Why Students Choose SpeedyPaper:
- Great customer support
- Affordable prices
- A referral program
Unlike many other writing services, SpeedyPaper manages to deliver high-quality papers regardless of how tight the deadlines are. If you need your paper to be written quickly, SpeedyPaper is a great solution. You can choose regular or PRO/TOP writers, but in both cases, the quality will be good. The company also offers three free revisions, but some customers note that they also got additional revisions for free, as well.
A high-school essay with a 20-day deadline will only cost you $9 per page. If you need it in two weeks, you can buy it for $11 per page, and a Ph.D. dissertation with the same deadline will cost you from $23 per page.
6. GradeMiners – The Fastest Writing Service
GradeMiners is a legit research paper writing service where you can order not only essays of all kinds but also many other assignments. Here you can get help with math tasks and buy custom lab reports. Papers are delivered on time, and the quality of writing is acceptable. Although not all reviews from customers are good, most of them seem to enjoy this service.
The best thing about GradeMiners is that you can come here even if your deadlines are extremely tight. Here you can order your paper even if you need it to be done in three hours.
Reasons Why Students Choose GradeMiners:
- Rush delivery (1 hour turnaround available)
- Decent quality of writing
- A reliable customer support team
If you’re not satisfied with your writer’s work, you can request a refund within 14 days and provide evidence to support your claim that the quality is low. For instance, you can submit a plagiarism report.
A high school essay with a 14-day deadline will cost you $15.09 per page. The price for a Ph.D. dissertation starts at $27.08 per page.
10 FAQs About Research Paper Services
Research paper writing services are extremely popular among students. Although educators keep criticizing such companies and accuse students of cheating, they don’t solve the problem. The main reason why students use such services is that they don’t have enough time to deal with countless writing assignments.
However, not all companies are actually reliable. All of them may promise great papers written by professional writers, but not all companies keep their promises. Some sites hire unprofessional ESL writers, and some companies sell unoriginal papers or even resell them to multiple clients. Here are the most popular questions that students ask, answered.
Will I Get Caught If I Buy an Essay or a Research Paper Online?
It’s impossible to catch you buying an essay if you are using legitimate research paper writing services. Companies that are popular on the web care about their reputation and never provide students with the same works, so you can be sure that your essay will not be plagiarized. They also don’t publish papers on the Internet or pass them to third parties, even upon request. Hence, there is no way to see your assignment somewhere else on the web. Despite the fact that essay agencies keep written works, nobody has access to them except for writers, so you can be sure that your paper is safe.
However, if you use unreliable services with poor reviews, there is no 100% guarantee that you will get an original writing assignment. Therefore, you should always check if anybody had any negative experience with a particular company and place an order only when you are absolutely confident about its service quality.
Are Research Paper Services Worth It?
Most research paper writing companies provide high-quality services but their rates may vary dramatically, so it’s difficult to say exactly whether a particular essay platform is worth using. To answer this question, one should take into account the price for a paper and analyze if it corresponds to the quality. It’s important to note that a higher rate doesn’t necessarily mean that you will get a better product. Unfortunately, in some cases, a high price doesn’t indicate good quality.
Another way to find out if an academic paper writing service is worth using is to ask yourself why you need it. If you realize that it can save you a lot of time that can be spent on exam preparation or a term project, then you probably should try it. Sometimes, students ask for research paper writing help because they prefer to make a career instead of studying various theories, which is also a legitimate reason to use an essay service.
What Is the Best Research Paper Writing Service in the USA?
Taking into account numerous reviews from people studying in the United States, the top-rated research paper writing services are: PaperHelp , EssayPro and GradeMiners . If you are wondering how to identify if an assignment company is really the best in its niche, here is the answer: pay attention to the main factors of its success.
First of all, check if an agency delivers papers on time. Secondly, check their quality by asking someone for an independent review. Then, have a look at rates and compare them with those of other companies to make sure that they are not too high. If writers provide original works that completely meet the given requirements, then you shouldn't doubt about using their services.
Generally, when it comes to defining service quality, this might be quite subjective. But if one relies on objective assessment factors, such as those mentioned above, then it becomes possible to tell which research paper writing service is the best.
Are Paper Writing Services Legal?
All essay and research paper writing services that are registered as business companies are legal. In other words, if they are officially acknowledged by the government and work in accordance with existing regulations, they are legal. As with any type of business, assignment writing agencies have to stick to the laws set on the national level. If they don't break any federal rules, then there is no reason to worry about it.
Research paper writing companies serve for educational purposes. Their main aim is to help students in their learning process and improve their writing skills. Professional writers guide clients to enhance their academic performance, so this kind of business is considered legitimate. Summing up, if you turn to an assignment agency for help, this doesn't mean that you break the law or contribute to illegal business.
Can Turnitin Detect Essays and Research Papers Bought Online?
It's impossible to detect essays bought online with the help of Turnitin if they are not plagiarized. Turnitin checks whether the content is original and not published elsewhere. Hence, if your essay wasn't posted on the web, it cannot be defined as purchased from someone.
As a rule, all credible research paper writing websites create papers from scratch. Professional writers don't use someone else's thoughts but offer their own ideas. Their wording is also unique and cannot be similar to someone's writing style. Therefore, clients always get essays that are not alike to those on the web.
This means that any plagiarism checker including Turnitin can't find similarities with writing assignments available on the Internet. The clients of research paper writing services shouldn't be afraid that their work will be detected as bought online with the help of such tools as Turnitin.
Can I Pay Someone to Write a Research Paper? Is It Legal?
If you want to pay someone to write a custom research paper for you according to the given requirements instead of writing it on your own, you should select a credible writing company. You should choose essay services very carefully to make sure that you are going to pick the most reliable one. Hiring a professional writer from an assignment company is probably the best solution if you want to get a paper of top quality. Such companies always guarantee confidentiality, original works and a full refund in case something goes wrong. Your customer rights are protected when you are using the services of a popular company.
On the contrary, if you decide to work with freelance writers, there is no guarantee that you'll get what you need. Their performance is not regulated by any external rules, so they may let you down and deliver a paper of poor quality.
How to Find Genuine Research Paper Writing Service Reviews?
The most important thing about finding genuine reviews is not to rely on one source. If you are reading reviews only on one platform, chances are they will not be objective. You should check multiple websites and read different opinions to get an idea of what a particular service is. Choose a platform on which you can compare different reviews and then analyze them carefully. Pay special attention to negative comments so you can know about the weak points of a certain company. But still don't be discouraged by negative feedback as it's impossible for companies to meet the needs of all clients and make everybody satisfied.
Note that one-sided opinion cannot be true. If an agency doesn't have negative reviews on the web, then something is wrong with it. This might be a warning sign for you not to use their services.
Are Research Paper Writing Services Safe?
Using credible research paper writing services is absolutely safe for everybody. First of all, they have professional writers that work in accordance with a policy. Secondly, your customer rights are protected by the contract regulations, so can feel confident about the quality of work you will get. Also, most essay companies offer 100% refund if they don't meet your requirements, so you shouldn't worry about wasting your finances. If you prove that there is something wrong with your order, you will get your money back. Furthermore, it's impossible to get caught on buying assignments because all the personal information you provide to writers is confidential, which means that they cannot pass it to third parties.
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7 Best Websites for Academic Research
It’s quite challenging to write a research paper even if you are good at writing.
With the advent of digital libraries, it became very easy for everyone to read and write academic research and have access to a variety of research papers that are published in an enormous number of publications.
Here are some of the best-known websites that provide access to a variety of academic research:
If you are into extensive research, Elsevier is the website to look out for, because it is one of the best online research journals, with its competitive features like an effective full-text search option and database. It is quite interesting because of its thorough peer reviews and multiple topics.
One of the most trusted websites for research papers in all areas of study is Academia.edu. It is considered one of the most popular websites for publishing papers for free, and also has a feature that includes the capability of a user to monitor his published articles and a compatible validation mechanism.
Is an online directory that provides access to high-quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals, and papers that are all freely available. It helps the users to search within multiple areas of scientific topics in its database.
CORE or COnnecting REpositories is a British origin website for more than half a million open source contents. You can access the data for free and it will surely be quite relevant for your academic and research paper publishing and accessing requirements.
ScienceOpen is freely accessible for publishers, institutes, and researchers. It offers hosting and promotional services within the platform and provides full end-to-end open access publishing solutions. You can easily publish, and share write-ups and information along with reviewing papers.
6. ERIC (Education Resources Information Center)
ERIC is an online digital library of education research and information that is free for public use, and it provides access to millions of records that make it a leader in the academic and research community.
7. Microsoft Academic
Microsoft Academic previously known as Microsoft Academic Search is a very powerful tool for searching and researching topics. It consists of some interesting features like information reading and it uses new technologies like machine learning and knowledge discovery for the searching capability that redefines the way you have been doing an academic search.
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Best Websites for Accessing Research Papers for Students
As a college student, you may have heard the phrase “research is important” thrown around by your professors all the time, but you may be wondering exactly why that is?
Not only does it help students better understand their chosen field of study, but it also allows them to develop important skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication.
In this article, we will be highlighting some of the best websites for accessing a wide range of research materials. Whether you’re looking for papers in a specific field or just want a general database of scholarly articles, these websites have got you covered.
Best Websites for Accessing Research Papers & Journals
The following are the best websites for college students to access research papers & journals:
1. Google Scholar
Google Scholar is a search engine that specifically searches for scholarly literature, including articles, books, theses, conference proceedings, etc. It is a free resource that can be accessed through the website, and it is available to anyone who is interested in finding research papers and other academic materials.
One of the benefits of using Google Scholar is that it searches a wide range of sources, including academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, and universities. This means that you can find a diverse range of materials on a variety of topics.
Google Scholar also allows you to search for specific authors or institutions, and it provides tools to help you track your own research and manage your citations. You can also set up alerts to receive notifications when new research is published on a particular topic.
Access Research Papers Now
2. Microsoft Academic
Microsoft Academic is a free, public web search engine that allows users to search for academic papers, conferences, journals, and authors. It was developed by Microsoft and launched in 2012.
One of the key features of Microsoft Academic is its ability to search for papers based on the relationships between them. For example, you can use the website to find documents that have been cited by a particular research paper or research papers that have cited a particular research paper.
This can be a useful tool for researchers looking to discover new papers in their field or for students seeking additional resources for a research project.
Microsoft Academic also includes information about authors, conferences, and journals, and allows users to track their academic activity and achievements. Users can create their own profiles on the website and add their own papers to the database.
Science.gov is a website that provides access to over 60 databases, over 2,200 websites, and over 200 million pages of scientific and technical information from U.S. government agencies, including full-text documents, citations, scientific data supporting federally funded research, and multimedia.
It is a collaborative effort between various U.S. government agencies and is maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI).
Users can search for information using keywords or browse by topic. Science.gov is a useful resource for researchers, students, and anyone else interested in accessing scientific and technical information from U.S. government agencies.
ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. It was founded in 2008 by Ijad Madisch, Sören Hofmayer, and Horst Fickenscher. As of 2022, the website has over 20 million users from 190 countries, and hosts over 17 million research articles.
ResearchGate allows users to search for and access research papers for free, although some papers may be behind a paywall. The site also provides tools for researchers to manage their publications, track their impact, and connect with their peers. In addition to hosting research papers, ResearchGate also has a question and answer forum where users can ask and answer questions on various scientific topics.
Pricing: Free (some articles are behind a paywall)
BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine) is a search engine for scholarly web resources, including research papers and journals. It was developed at Bielefeld University in Germany and is operated by the Bielefeld University Library.
BASE claims to be one of the most voluminous search engines for academic web resources, with over 300 million documents from more than 10,000 content providers. including research papers, theses, conference proceedings, and more.
The search engine is free to use and provides access to a wide range of academic content. In addition to searching for research papers, users can also use BASE to search for other types of academic resources, such as datasets, images, and videos.
Pricing: Free Access Research Papers Now
6. Directory of Open Access Journals
The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a digital library that provides access to free, full-text, peer-reviewed open access journals. Open access journals are scholarly journals that are available online and are free to access and read.
The DOAJ was launched in 2003 with the goal of increasing the visibility and accessibility of open access scientific and scholarly journals. It currently contains over 13,000 journals and more than 3.5 million articles.
The DOAJ is a not-for-profit organization that is supported by a number of organizations and individuals. It is run by a small team of staff and governed by a steering committee made up of representatives from the open access community.
7. Royal Society Open Science
The Royal Society Open Science is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original research across the natural and physical sciences. It is published by the Royal Society, which is a fellowship of the world’s most eminent scientists and the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence.
It is an open access journal, which means that all of its articles are available to read and download for free. All articles are subject to rigorous peer review to ensure the highest quality and standards.
The journal was established in 2014 with the goal of increasing transparency and reproducibility in scientific research. It has a broad scope and publishes research articles, reviews, letters, and perspectives. The journal covers a wide range of scientific disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library that provides online access to thousands of academic journals, books, and primary sources. It was founded in 1995 by William G. Bowen, then-president of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, as a way to digitize and preserve scholarly literature. JSTOR is a subscription-based service that provides access to its collections to libraries, institutions, and individuals.
JSTOR’s collections include more than 12 million academic journal articles, books, and primary sources in the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It also has a growing selection of ebooks and other resources in science, technology, and medicine.
JSTOR is known for its high-quality content and advanced search and discovery tools, which make it a popular resource for researchers and students.
Pricing: Subscription-based Access Research Papers Now
The websites listed above are just a few of the many options available for accessing research papers and journals. These websites can provide a wealth of knowledge and help you stay up-to-date on the latest research and developments in your field.
Be sure to check out the various options and see which one works best for your needs and budget.
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25 Best Websites for Research Papers Free & Accessible
Searching for the Best Websites for Research Papers Free for Researchers? Then you are on the right page.
A research paper is well-detailed Academic writing that discusses a subject topic explicitly based on in-depth research and analysis.
Research papers provide the ability of critical thinking to students and let them discover more about a subject topic.
Research papers also help students develop problem-solving skills by analyzing data, determining the relevant data to be used, and collecting them all into one main idea or solution.
Research papers are all over the internet but only very few are free and peer-reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles are academic writings written by experts and endorsed by other experts or professionals in the field.
A peer-reviewed article means that the article was written by an expert and has been reviewed by other experts on the subject topic.
While some research papers can be free, only a few are peer-reviewed which is most times the type of research papers required by students. You can check for peer-reviewed research papers by limiting your search in the journal’s database to peer-reviewed.
Open Access Journals provide students, scholars, and researchers with free access to journals and research papers that can be peer-reviewed or not.
To find a good research paper for academic writing, it is necessary to ensure that they are peer-reviewed.
25 Best Websites for Research Papers Free for Researchers
These are the websites that offer free research papers:
Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)
Directory of open access journal (doaj) , science open, google scholar, library genesis, semantic scholar, e-theses online service (ethos), arxiv e-print archive, cia world factbook, biomed central, social science research network, public library of science, bielefeld academic search engine, digital library of the commons repository, dplp computer science bibliography, citationsy archives.
CORE is the world’s largest holder of Open Access Journals that are peer-reviewed. It has over 220 million collected research papers globally.
CORE includes advanced search options where students can access a research paper using Language, publisher, author, journal, repository, publisher, and DOI.
With its uniquely built API that serves clients everywhere, it is able to provide research papers to students globally.
Start your search on core here
This is an online research database where you can search for full-text research articles for free. It also includes a search filter for peer-reviewed articles.
They have their own API that lets you query from their database and collects enough material for your academic writings. Their interface is simple and easy to use.
Start your search on ERIC here
This is a community-curated Research site. It provides high-quality research that is peer-reviewed papers to students for academic writing.
It has research papers in over 80 languages and represents 130 countries. The number of journals accessible on the site reaches up to 18, 000 and it has about 8 million articles.
Gave access to indexed journals and research papers from anywhere in the world.
Start your search on DOAJ here
Science Open is a research and publishing site that houses over 70 million articles in Science related fields.
Science Open also provides networking opportunities via a Science Open Profile where people can interact with each other and connect ideas.
To be able to view the full context of articles, you would need to register with them. Registration is free and open to anyone.
Start your search on Science Open here
Google Scholar is an open-access literature Journal powered by Google. It gives you access to peer-reviewed online academic journals that are indexed.
It offers advanced search options by author, publish date, phrase, etc. Access to these journals is unlimited.
Start your search on Google Scholar here
This is a digital file-sharing library that gives free access to research papers, journals, eBooks, images, etc. It was established in March 2008 and has since served billions of people worldwide.
Library Genesis developed from the underground file-sharing culture of the Soviet Union, growing into a library for the collection of books worldwide.
Start your search on Library Genesis here
Sci-Hub is a research site borne out of the idea to provide researchers, medical professionals, and journalists access to free and unlimited journals, research papers, and academic writings.
Sci-Hub started as a quick tool that provides access to scientific journals but has now evolved to be a database with over 87 million research articles and books.
Sci-Hub is constantly helping people unlock access to information and is the most popular tool used by science students globally.
Start your search on Sci-Hub here
Semantic scholar is a revolutionized powerful search tool for finding research papers in scientific literature.
Semantic Scholar is powered by AI to find Searches across its database. The filters let you search the database by relevance, citation count, most influential papers, and recency.
Take advantage of this Open Access Scientific Journal database today.
Start your search on Semantic Scholar here
Dryad is an open access community-led repository for scientific and medical research data. Dryad makes research data discoverable, freely reusable, and citable.
Start your search on Dryad here
PubMed Central is an Open Access journal for a full-text archive of biomedical and life sciences literature.
It is government owned and located at the U.S National Institutes of Health’s National Library of Medicine. Browse through an archive of over 8.1 million articles for your academic writings.
Start your search on PubMed here
Zenodo is an online repository that allows researchers to upload and share their research papers for free. Zenodo is free to access and it is peer-reviewed. It makes it data citable and reusable by researchers everywhere.
Start your search on Zenodo here
ETHOS is a free research site operated by the British Library. It has a collection of about 520, 000 theses in different fields.
Although the library is open access, it also has limitations to some documents which are paid for. The library is not peer-reviewed.
Start your search on ETHOS here
Owned by Cornell University Library, arXiv is a STEM archive that provides searches for Math and Science. It is open access and has a collection of about 2 million journals.
Resources are not peer-reviewed.
Start your search on arXiv here
OpenDOAR is used to search a different repository of databases on the internet through google custom search.
It is free and open for use by anyone.
Start your search on OpenDOAR here
CIA World Factbook allows users to search its database for issues relating to history, government, economy, energy, geography, military, and transportation in over 260 locations across the world.
Start your search on World Factbook here
Paperity is a multi-field research tool that is open access. It is the first multi-disciplinary aggregator of free research papers, journals, and articles.
Paperity is open to access from anywhere around the world. It aims to solve the paywall that scholars encounter while trying to access research papers.
Start your search on Paperity here
JURN provides links to scholarly websites where research papers can be accessed for free. It covers fields such as arts, humanities, business, law, nature, science, and medicine.
Having indexed over 5,000 repositories, JURN is the perfect site to access research on different topics.
Start your search on JURN here
For over 20 years, BioMed central has been providing free high-quality research journals to researchers in fields related to BMC Biology and BMC Medicine.
BioMed Central expanded its fields to include the physical sciences, mathematics, and engineering disciplines thus providing open access to academic writings for millions of users all over the world.
Start your search on BioMed here
Social Science Research Network offers Searches on 67 different Social Science topics. The site holds 700,00+ abstracts and about 600,000 full-text articles.
To use their search feature, it requires that you register with them for free. Becoming a member gives you access to 700, 000 Abstracts and 600, 000 articles plus the opportunity to interact and connect with scholars all over the world.
Start your search on SSRN here
PLOS is one of the leading open-access science journals all over the world. All of its full-text articles and journals are peer-reviewed and available to anyone anywhere in the world.
The Public Library of Science also grooms peer reviewers and helps professionals take on the path to becoming a peer reviewer.
Start your search on PLOS here
BASE is run by the Bielefield University Library in Germany and is a good source of peer-reviewed journals.
More than 60% of its documents are open access and you can apply multiple filters to narrow down your search.
Search can be done by author, title, or date and is very efficient in finding research papers.
Start your search on BASE here
EconBiz is a site for Economics and business research. It is not completely free, but it offers filters to search for open-access journals only.
Start your search on EconBiz here
The Digital library of the commons is operated by Indiana University that allows users access to thousands of free articles and research papers.
Start your search on DLCR here
This research site is mainly for computer science students to make use of research journals and articles. It is an online index for major computer science publications.
It is not completely free but it has filters that narrow your searches to only open access journals. It is also a good source of peer-reviewed articles.
Start your search on dplp here
This is a research website that allows you to cite and download journal articles and scientific papers.
Start your search on Citationsy here
Many research sites now try to eliminate the paywall that scholars face while trying to access the research papers on their sites.
More and more sites are evolving to open access while few choose to offer open access to a number of their research papers.
The good news is that more quality and peer-reviewed journals and articles are now available for download by scholars eliminating the barriers that once existed for them. What are your thoughts about these best websites for research papers free for researchers?
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14 Websites to Download Research Paper for Free – 2023
Download Research Paper for Free
Collecting and reading relevant research articles to one’s research areas is important for PhD scholars. But for any research scholar, downloading a research paper is one of the most difficult tasks. You must pay for access to high-quality research materials or subscribe to the journal or publication. In this article, ilovephd lists the top 14 websites to download free research papers, journals, books, datasets, patents, and conference proceedings downloads.
Download Research Paper for Free – 2023
14 best free websites to download research papers are listed below:
Sci-Hub is a website link with over 64.5 million academic papers and articles available for direct download. It bypasses publisher paywalls by allowing access through educational institution proxies. To download papers Sci-Hub stores papers in its repository, this storage is called Library Genesis (LibGen) or library genesis proxy 2023.
Visit: Working Sci-Hub Proxy Links – 2023
Z-Library is a clone of Library Genesis, a shadow library project that allows users to share scholarly journal articles, academic texts, and general-interest books via file sharing (some of which are pirated). The majority of its books come from Library Genesis, however, some are posted directly to the site by individuals.
Individuals can also donate to the website’s repository to make literature more widely available. Z-library claims to have more than 10,139,382 Books and 84,837,646 Articles articles as of April 25, 2023.
It promises to be “the world’s largest e-book library” as well as “the world’s largest scientific papers repository,” according to the project’s page for academic publications (at booksc.org). Z-library also describes itself as a donation-based non-profit organization.
Visit: Z-Library – You can Download 70,000,000+ scientific articles for free
3. Library Genesis
The Library Genesis aggregator is a community aiming at collecting and cataloging item descriptions for the most part of scientific, scientific, and technical directions, as well as file metadata. In addition to the descriptions, the aggregator contains only links to third-party resources hosted by users. All information posted on the website is collected from publicly available public Internet resources and is intended solely for informational purposes.
Unpaywall harvests Open Access content from over 50,000 publishers and repositories, and makes it easy to find, track, and use. It is integrated into thousands of library systems, search platforms, and other information products worldwide. In fact, if you’re involved in scholarly communication, there’s a good chance you’ve already used Unpaywall data.
Unpaywall is run by OurResearch, a nonprofit dedicated to making scholarships more accessible to everyone. Open is our passion. So it’s only natural our source code is open, too.
GetTheResearch.org is an Artificial Intelligence(AI) powered search engine for search and understand scientific articles for researchers and scientists. It was developed as a part of the Unpaywall project. Unpaywall is a database of 23,329,737 free scholarly Open Access(OA) articles from over 50,000 publishers and repositories, and make it easy to find, track, and use.
Visit: Find and Understand 25 Million Peer-Reviewed Research Papers for Free
6. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) was launched in 2003 with 300 open-access journals. Today, this independent index contains almost 17 500 peer-reviewed, open-access journals covering all areas of science, technology, medicine, social sciences, arts, and humanities. Open-access journals from all countries and in all languages are accepted for indexing.
DOAJ is financially supported by many libraries, publishers, and other like-minded organizations. Supporting DOAJ demonstrates a firm commitment to open access and the infrastructure that supports it.
The researcher is a free journal-finding mobile application that helps you to read new journal papers every day that are relevant to your research. It is the most popular mobile application used by more than 3 million scientists and researchers to keep themselves updated with the latest academic literature.
Visit: 10 Best Apps for Graduate Students
8. Science Open
ScienceOpen is a discovery platform with interactive features for scholars to enhance their research in the open, make an impact, and receive credit for it. It provides context-building services for publishers, to bring researchers closer to the content than ever before. These advanced search and discovery functions, combined with post-publication peer review, recommendation, social sharing, and collection-building features make ScienceOpen the only research platform you’ll ever need.
OA.mg is a search engine for academic papers. Whether you are looking for a specific paper, or for research from a field, or all of an author’s works – OA.mg is the place to find it.
10. Internet Archive Scholar
Internet Archive Scholar (IAS) is a full-text search index that includes over 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth-century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web.
Visit: Sci hub Alternative – Internet Archive Scholar
11. Citationsy Archives
Citationsy was founded in 2017 after the reference manager Cenk was using at the time, RefMe, was shut down. It was immediately obvious that the reason people loved RefMe — a clean interface, speed, no ads, simplicity of use — did not apply to CiteThisForMe. It turned out to be easier than anticipated to get a rough prototype up.
CORE is the world’s largest aggregator of open-access research papers from repositories and journals. It is a not-for-profit service dedicated to the open-access mission. We serve the global network of repositories and journals by increasing the discoverability and reuse of open-access content.
It provides solutions for content management, discovery, and scalable machine access to research. Our services support a wide range of stakeholders, specifically researchers, the general public, academic institutions, developers, funders, and companies from a diverse range of sectors including but not limited to innovators, AI technology companies, digital library solutions, and pharma.
Dimensions cover millions of research publications connected by more than 1.6 billion citations, supporting grants, datasets, clinical trials, patents, and policy documents.
Dimensions are the most comprehensive research grants database that links grants to millions of resulting publications, clinical trials, and patents. It
provides up-to-the-minute online attention data via Altmetric, showing you how often publications and clinical trials are discussed around the world. 226m Altmetric mentions with 17m links to publications.
Dimensions include datasets from repositories such as Figshare, Dryad, Zenodo, Pangaea, and many more. It hosts millions of patents with links to other citing patents as well as to publications and supporting grants.
PaperPanda is a Chrome extension that uses some clever logic and the Panda’s detective skills to find you the research paper PDFs you need. Essentially, when you activate PaperPanda it finds the DOI of the paper from the current page, and then goes and searches for it. It starts by querying various Open Access repositories like OpenAccessButton, OaDoi, SemanticScholar, Core, ArXiV, and the Internet Archive. You can also set your university libraries domain in the settings (this feature is in the works and coming soon). PaperPanda will then automatically search for the paper through your library. You can also set a different custom domain in the settings.
I Hope, this article would help you to know some of the best websites to download the research papers and journals for free.
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Top 5 Websites for Academic Research
It’s no doubt that whenever you are searching online about something related to your assignment or project work, the first thing that comes to your mind is Google. However, when it comes to academic research, the Google search engine does not provide that much detailed and quality research as required for academic purposes. Apart from Google, there are a number of websites dedicated to academic research purposes. In this article, we will discuss the top 5 websites that are specifically designed for academic research.
Such websites can help you to get relevant information required for deep research purposes. Many college students, professors, scientists, researchers, etc make use of such websites for preparing research papers, documents and other academic research.
1. Google Scholar
As the name suggests, this special website or search engine is designed by Google. Google Scholar’s prime purpose is to provide academic research about a wide range of topics. Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. Search across a wide variety of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions.
Google Scholar helps you find relevant work across the world of scholarly research. Google Scholar aims to rank documents the way researchers do, weighing the full text of each document, where it was published, who it was written by, as well as how often and how recently it has been cited in other scholarly literature.
Features of Google Scholar:
- Search all scholarly literature from one convenient place
- Explore related works, citations, authors, and publications
- Locate the complete document through your library or on the web
- Keep up with recent developments in any area of research
- Check who’s citing your publications, create a public author profile
Official website link: https://scholar.google.com/
Using Google Scholar for Academic Research video:
2. Microsoft Academic
Microsoft Academic is a free website or search engine, developed by Microsoft, for academic publications and literature. One of its best features is that it provides graphs, maps and trends for your academic research. It contains different types of content including scientific papers, publications, conferences, journals and many other types of academic research papers.
Features of Microsoft Academic:
- Microsoft Academic (MA) makes use of advances in machine learning, semantic inference and knowledge discovery to help you explore scholarly information in more powerful ways than ever before.
- MA is a semantic search engine, not a keyword-based one (It means they match the keywords you type in the search field with the words related to it, and doesn’t rely only on keyword matching).
- It employs natural language processing to understand and remember the knowledge conveyed in each document. Thus it recognizes the user’s intent and delivers results relevant to the user’s intention.
- It also provides related information about the most relevant authors, institutions, publication outlets, and research areas.
Official website link: https://academic.microsoft.com/
Let’s look out the Microsoft Academic Intro video:
BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine) is one of the world’s most voluminous search engines especially for academic web resources, e.g. journal articles, preprints, digital collections, images/videos or research data. The BASE provides more than 240 million documents from more than 8,000 content providers. It is operated by Bielefeld University Library.
It facilitates effective and targeted searches and retrieves high quality, academically relevant results. The content providers which are included in the BASE are intellectually selected and reviewed.
Features of BASE:
- Content providers are indexed only after a check by qualified personnel of Bielefeld University Library.
- Only document servers and journals that comply with the specific requirements of academic quality and relevance are included.
- Multilingual search (find search terms in more than 20 translated languages)
- The display of search results includes precise bibliographic data
- Several options for sorting the result list (by author, title, date)
- “Refine your search result” options (by author, subject, DDC, year of publication, content provider, language, document type, access and terms of re-use)
Official website link: https://www.base-search.net/
CORE is one of the world’s largest collections of open access research papers. CORE’s mission is to aggregate all open access research worldwide and deliver unrestricted access for all. It is a not-for-profit service delivered by The Open University and Jisc.
It currently contains 207,255,818 open access articles collected from 10,635 data providers around the world. CORE harvests research papers such as institutional and subject repositories, and open access and hybrid journals.
Features of CORE:
- CORE enriches scholarly data using state-of-the-art text and data mining technologies to aid discoverability.
- Enable others to develop new tools and use cases on top of the CORE platform.
- Supports the network of open access repositories and journals with innovative technical solutions.
- Facilitate a scalable, cost-effective route for the delivery of open scholarships.
Official website link: https://core.ac.uk/
Let us see video about Introduction to CORE:
RefSeek is a web search engine for students and researchers that aims to make academic information easily accessible to everyone. It searches more than five billion documents, including web pages, books, encyclopedias, journals, and newspapers.
It’s unique approach offers students comprehensive subject coverage without the information overload of a general search engine—increasing the visibility of academic information and compelling ideas that are often lost in a muddle of sponsored links and commercial results.
Official website link: https://www.refseek.com/
The Internet is a vast collection of different types of data. If you really need to do deep research on any topic for your academic research purpose, then you surely need to gather information from genuine and reliable sources. These were the top 5 websites or search engines for academic research. These sources mentioned can be of great help to you to make your research powerful. In the end, they will help you to submit quality assignments, project work or research papers.
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7 Best Websites Where I Can Pay Someone To Write My Research Paper
“can i pay someone to write my research paper” yes, you can we’ve selected seven reliable services you can trust to help you with your research paper..
What’s the Best Website to Write My Research Paper?
Essaypro : best value for the money.
- 3 hours: $22.23/page
- 12 hours: $19.76/page
- 1 day: $18.53/page
- 2 days: $14.45/page
- 3 days: $13.34/page
- 5 days: $12.35/page
- You can get a ready-to-submit research paper in as little as three hours.
- You can also get help with editing, proofreading, rewriting, problem-solving, and calculations from EssayPro experts.
- Originality report, formatting, unlimited revisions, title page, and outline are all included in the per-page rate.
- You can save up to 40% if you order more than one page.
- Limited payment methods: you can pay only with a debit or credit card.
- Phone customer support isn’t available.
EssayService : Best for US-Based Students
- Writers are from the U.S. and Canada.
- Flawless grammar, punctuation, and formatting.
- Solid refund policy.
- Unlimited and free revisions.
- The fastest turnaround is three hours.
- Customer support sometimes takes longer than ideal to respond in the live chat.
- PayPal payments aren’t available.
PaperWriter : Best for Urgent Orders
- School: $17.55/page
- College: $18.53/page
- University: $19.5/page
- Master’s: $21.45/page
- Doctorate: $23.4/page
- The catalog is full of research paper writers with years of experience who are proficient in urgent research paper help.
- Delivered papers rely on in-depth research and analysis.
- You can request the writer to use your original research or specific sources.
- The internal QA team is there to polish off the draft before you receive it.
- The order form can be a tad too complicated for first-time customers.
- Bids start pouring in after you publish the order, which can be overwhelming.
WritePaper : Best for Building on Your Original Research
- School: $11.7/page
- College: $12.35/page
- University: $13/page
- Master’s: $14.3/page
- Doctorate: $15.6/page
- Writers follow every custom requirement and guideline to the letter.
- Pricing remains affordable even considering the custom approach to every paper.
- You get formatting, plagiarism report, and a title page for free, among other things.
- It can be tough to select just one writer among dozens of bids.
- You can’t reach customer support by phone.
DoMyEssay : Best for College Students
- DoMyEssay is home to hundreds of college experts well-versed in standard and school-specific quality requirements.
- Your order will be delivered on time and, whenever possible, ahead of the deadline.
- You can request unlimited revisions free of charge, and they get introduced promptly.
- If you’re dissatisfied with your order, you can request a refund.
- Some customers report having to request edits because of typos.
EssayHub : Best for Customer Experience
- Customer support is responsive and available 24/7 and aims to help every customer.
- Writers are easily accessible via a chat and respond promptly to any questions or requests.
- You can count on a personal approach in every aspect, from pre-selected sources to custom formatting requirements.
- EssayHub is home to a variety of experts in disciplines from law to physics and everything in between.
- The payment process can be confusing for first-time users.
- There aren’t a lot of discounts or great deals to help you save money.
AssignmentMaster : Best Affordable Service
- Order prices are among the most affordable on the market, but AssignmentMaster doesn’t sacrifice paper quality for the sake of low prices.
- You can save anywhere from 5% to 40% on multipage orders.
- You can get help with a wide range of disciplines, from statistics to biology.
- Customer support responds promptly and goes the extra mile to assist you.
- Payment methods are limited to credit and debit cards.
- The ordering and payment process can be a bit overwhelming for new customers.
FAQ: How to Pay Someone to Write My Research Paper
Why should i pay someone to write my research paper.
- You don’t have to spend hours putting your research into words.
- You can dedicate time to what matters more to you.
- You can be sure you’ll receive an A-worthy paper.
Where can I pay for someone to write my paper?
Can i pay someone to write my paper, are research paper writing services safe.
- A secure, PCI-compliant gateway that processes payment data
- A well-rounded refund policy for dissatisfied customers
How do I pay someone to write my essay with peace of mind?
- Pricing is transparent and clear.
- The service doesn’t charge extra for a plagiarism report or formatting.
- Writer selection criteria are clearly stated on the website.
- There’s an internal quality assurance system.
- Customer support is responsive and helpful 24/7.
What is the best research paper writing service in the USA?
How do i choose the right research paper expert.
- Check out their profiles, from the academic credentials to rating and reviews.
- Make sure the person you choose is well-versed in the discipline and type of assignment by reviewing their order stats.
- Chat with a few candidates if you struggle to choose the writer.
Can I pay someone to do my essay safely?
- Partnering up with a reputable, PCI-compliant gateway
- Encrypting the website with a 256-bit SSL protocol
- Following the 3D secure authentication protocols
How do I pay someone to write my paper?
- You fill out the order form, get bids on your order, and select the writer.
- The platform invites you to make a deposit.
- You safely use your credit or debit card to add funds to your account via a secure, PCI-compliant gateway.
- Those funds remain there while your writer is working on your paper.
- You receive the final draft and can request as many edits as you want for free.
- Once you’re 100% happy with the paper, you release the payment to your writer.
So, Which Service Should I Choose to Write My Research Paper for Me?
Funds to Israel's Arab sector needs oversight, if carried out right - editorial
Sudan: A battlefield for close friends-turned-rival warlords - opinion
Itamar Ben-Gvir is a gift to antisemites, Israel-haters - opinion
Zionism is not the evil ideology non-Jews are bastardizing it into - opinion
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6 Best Sites to Buy College Research Papers Online
If you are a college student, you probably know the amount of stress that comes with writing a research paper, otherwise you probably wouldn’t be looking to buy research papers online.
You not only have to conduct extensive research, but you also need to come up with a proper structure and references. Considering all of this, it is no wonder why students often seek professional help when writing their research papers.
A lot of businesses provide such services today due to the high demand for them. However, because of this, it can be difficult to identify a reliable paper writing service. Fortunately, we have examined and identified some of the best websites for you.
These sites not only provide professional research paper help, but also ensure that every client receives their money’s worth in terms of quality work. Let us take a look at what makes these sites our top picks.
The 6 Best Sites to Buy College Research Paper From
All of the aforementioned writing services will provide you with a high-quality research paper that is professionally written. Just choose the one that offers the best value for money, ensuring that you get the highest possible grade.
- PaperHelp — Good Value for Money
The rates at PaperHelp start at $10 per page for high school papers and $12 per page for college papers.
PaperHelp is one of the oldest and most reputable websites to buy a research paper from. They have a customer support team, and they also offer live chat sessions. Their professional writers are always available so as to ensure that they meet the given deadline. Apart from offering top-notch research papers for sale, PaperHelp offers proofreading and editing services at affordable prices.
PaperHelp provides a list of their expert writers with advanced degrees that you can choose for your college research paper. By doing this, you will receive a guarantee of a high-quality paper.
- Reputable company with solid reputation;
- Great quality for a reasonable price;
- Transparent money-back guarantee;
- Plagiarism-free papers.
- Slow customer service;
- It can be hard to quickly find a writer due to the large number of orders that PaperHelp has to deal with.
2. JustDoMyEssay — Premium Quality
At JustDoMyEssay, college and university students can buy custom research paper for $17.55 per page regardless of its complexity.
JustDoMyEssay is a reputable online writing service that delivers top-notch research papers to students all across the globe. This company is known for timely delivery of orders, a secure payment system, professional customer support and affordable rates.
They have a huge team that is dedicated to offering top-notch research paper writing services at cheap prices.
All of the school and college papers are written by professional native English writers. They will provide you with an original research paper that is free of plagiarism, ensuring you get the highest grades.
- Best writers you can find online;
- Excellent quality;
- Plagiarism report comes for free;
- Free revisions to ensure customer satisfaction.
- More expensive than other sites
3. ExpertWriting — Experienced ESL Writers
The prices at ExpertWriting start at $10 per page for high school essays and $12 per page for college essays.
ExpertWriting aims to provide the best mix of affordable prices and professional writing services. This makes it ideal for buying research papers that won’t leave you with an empty hole in your pocket. They are committed to writing custom research papers for their clients within the shortest time possible.
This makes them meet the set deadlines, ensuring that you get your work on time. Unlike most companies that only hire native English writers, ExpertWriting mostly has English as a Second Language (ESL) writers.
- Fair price, good quality papers
- Regular discounts for loyal customers
- Computer science papers (as well as most exact science papers) can get expensive;
- Plagiarism report isn’t free.
- Slow customer support.
4. EssayPro — Cheap Service
At EssayPro, a high school paper will cost you around $10.8 per page. If you want to purchase a research paper, prices start at $11.4 per page.
EssayPro provides a wide range of writing services including custom writing, dissertation writing, term paper writing, essay editing, and coursework help. This makes it ideal for college students who are seeking a wide range of services and good value for money.
If you decide to buy research paper for college, EssayPro is one of the best options to do so. They have a huge team of experienced academic writers and offer 24/7 customer support, helping their clients when in need.
- Good price;
- Paper quality is always top-notch;
- EssayPro offers a bunch of free features, including a free plagiarism report;
- You can buy custom research papers straight from EssayPro’s mobile app.
- Finding a suitable writer for your academic assignment might take quite some time;
- Most writers are ESL.
5. SpeedyPaper — Great Customer Service
At SpeedyPaper, one page of a high school paper may cost you as little as $9, while college prices start at $11 per page.
SpeedyPaper is known for providing high-quality college essays with the best customer experience. Apart from writing, their services include paraphrasing, rewriting, reviewing, editing and grading. As a student, this means that you can reach out to SpeedyPaper at any stage of the writing process.
The best part is that you can get a quote for your requirements immediately. All you need to do is go on their website, select the service you want along with the number of days in which it needs to be finished. Based on this, you can make a better decision about buying research papers online.
- Good quality;
- Excellent reputation;
- Exceptional customer service, their support team won’t stop at nothing to make you satisfied with their services;
- Free title and reference pages.
- Getting a full refund isn’t that easy as SpeedyPaper claims it to be;
- Most writers at SpeedyPaper are ESL.
6. GradeMiners — Most Reputable Company
The standard price for one page of a high school essay at GradeMiners is $16.23, and $18.19 for one page of a college paper.
GradeMiners has the largest pool of academic writers that provide any kind of service you are looking for. Compared to other websites, GradeMiners has a wider range of specializations, including working on an essay assignment, coursework research paper, case study, PowerPoint presentation, book report/review, dissertation term paper, research proposal, and lab report.
This means that you can buy any kind of assignment from GradeMiners and rest assured that they will give you 100% original, custom papers. You can also trust them to deliver your paper on time as per the set requirements. Just visit their website, select the subject area and deadline, and leave the rest to their writers.
- GradeMiners has the largest database of writers, so finding a suitable writer for your specific task will be easy;
- Plagiarism free paper is guaranteed, every time.
- Some students complain about typos and grammatical mistakes in their papers.
Is buying a research paper online safe?
Yes, it is absolutely safe to buy a research paper online as long as you’re buying it from a professional academic writing company. However, there are a few simple rules that you have to keep in mind to stay safe while purchasing academic papers online.
Everyone can’t be an expert on every topic. It can be exhausting when a student has too many tasks in different subjects. This exhaustion and overload may result in low grades and poor performance. Therefore, it is a good idea to buy research paper online.
Beware of scammers. However, buying a research paper online can be safe if you keep the following points in mind. Conduct thorough research of the service provider.
Don’t fall for a low budget lucrative offer; such academic writing services are mostly scams. Chances are, you’ll end up buying a poorly written project or plagiarized content.
The cost of the project depends on its complexity. Ask the essay writing service representative about the writer’s education. Good agencies will provide you with details about their writers.
Also, try to look for a native speaker and ask about deadlines. Giving more time to the writer will minimize the cost and improve quality.
Apart from the points listed above, make sure to keep your personal information hidden.
- Don’t forget to use an anonymous profile to protect privacy.
- Never provide information about your instructors, institution, etc.
- Use a VPN to avoid leaving a digital footprint.
How much does it cost to buy a custom research paper?
The average price of a research paper can be anywhere from $100 to $400. The final price will depend on the subject, length, quality, amount of research, and turnaround time. The price range mentioned above will buy you a high-quality 10-page research paper from a skilled professional. Professional writers may charge between $15 and $40 per page on average, which will result in the aforementioned price. Naturally, if you need a longer research paper, expect to pay more.
If you’re in a pinch and need someone to complete the work a lot quicker, you might end up paying double or even triple the price. If, on the other hand, you have lots of time and are only willing to spend under $100, you can find someone who is less skilled or just starting their copywriting career. A copywriter who charges less will more than likely deliver work that will need editing and proofreading.
Assuming you’re looking for someone to deliver a high-quality, plagiarism-free, well-written research paper on time, prepare to spend some money. If you can afford it, a good grade will be worth the investment! Plus, you can save lots of time if you hire someone to write your research paper for you.
Who will write my research paper?
Trusting someone to complete your homework might be difficult. Of course, you can’t be 100% sure about the skills and qualifications of the person writing your paper. Even if you choose a freelance writer by yourself, there are no guarantees that your work will be done by that person.
Since you can’t control anybody, there is a certain amount of risk when it comes to delegating your responsibilities. However, if you order your research paper from a reliable custom writing company, you can feel safe about the quality of your completed assignment.
People working at credible custom writing companies are usually highly professional. Your custom paper will be written by experts with a college degree or higher and all the necessary qualifications for your field of studies. Typically, companies organize regular assessments for their employees, so they can make sure that specialists have sufficient knowledge and the skill set needed to deliver a certain type of order.
How soon can I have my research paper written?
School teachers and college instructors often give tight deadlines for college assignments. It’s really stressful to live under the pressure of urgent tasks all the time. Luckily, many essay writing companies offer fast turnaround time. Your paper can be ready as quickly as in a few hours! The quickest turnaround time for your paper will depend on the number of pages required and the level of academic writing you expect. A college essay may take longer to write than a high school paper. Rewriting, editing, and proofreading are slightly simpler than writing from scratch, so they require less time too.
Essentially, you can request for your 10-page essay to be written only one day in advance. The only downside is that you’ll have to pay extra for the quick turnaround. For that reason, it’s always best to start on your essays as soon as possible. This way you will end up paying the most reasonable price.
Is it illegal to buy a research paper online?
No, it is absolutely legal to purchase research papers and term papers on the web. There is no law in the U.S. that would prohibit you from doing that. You won’t get in trouble with the law for buying a paper that someone wrote for you. Essentially, you’re paying a copywriter to write a text that you will use for your own purposes. Having received a custom written paper, you can read it, learn from it, and improve your own writing skills.
What’s illegal is plagiarism. Have your wits about you when choosing the company you’re going to hire to write your paper. If they use plagiarism and you submit a plagiarized essay at college, you might get in trouble. It would be very unfortunate considering you didn’t actually plagiarize.
Can you buy a research paper for college?
There are a number of websites that offer research papers for sale. Scroll up on this article to see some great options for students who seek professional assistance with their papers. Websites like PaperHelp, JustDoMyEssay, ExpertWriting, EssayPro and others are all reliable sources for your essay writing needs.
To find out more about your options, visit the websites mentioned in this guide and read more about their offers. To get an even better idea, we recommend reading reviews. Reviews will tell you everything you need to know about the company and the people that work there from the eyes of the customer.
The bottom line is - you can’t go wrong with any one of the companies mentioned here, especially PaperHelp! This is a cheap and reliable writing service that has the biggest number of positive comments on the web.
Are there any advantages of purchasing a research paper from a freelance writer?
If you decide to order research paper online, your first instinct might be to find the option with the lowest price. While that is entirely logical, you shouldn’t always lead by that criterion in your search. In fact, it’s often better to pay a little extra and work with a reputable company. There are many reasons for that!
Plagiarism is the biggest problem in essay writing. Teachers and professors at schools and colleges often emphasize the importance of doing your own research and citing your sources in order to avoid plagiarism. When you buy a research paper from a reputable company, you can rest assured that it won’t be plagiarized.
Citing your sources and maintaining the correct format is another tedious task related to academic writing. It’s so easy to slip up and forget to include a page number here and there, or mess up the headers and footers. While the research part of the project might be interesting, you can certainly leave the formatting part to the professionals. When you work with a reputable company, you receive a quality guarantee that ensures all the formatting will be up to par.
Finding reliable sources can be a problem in itself. Unreliable sources may subject your research paper to a lot of questions from your professors, while reliable sources will make the project more trustworthy in their eyes. Professional paper writing companies are familiar with the best academic sources and know exactly where to go to do the research for your project.
If time is not on your side and you have a bunch or papers piled up, it may be wise to buy research papers from PaperHelp. This is a professional writing service that is fast and efficient at delivering orders.
Before choosing the writing service you’re going to settle on, you should have a clear idea of your essay requirements. This will help you choose the best service that is within your budget, ensuring that you get the highest value for your money. Furthermore, you should also check out our guidelines that will help you avoid scams and save time.
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You might have noticed that research paper writing services have been gaining huge popularity in recent years. But have you ever wondered what’s the reason for that? Obviously, such a tendency takes place because they carry a lot of benefits to customers.
For example, a professional writing service helps busy students save their time. Instead of learning non-stop, they can spend a few hours recharging mental batteries. What’s more, assignment companies always deliver excellent work. If you want to boost your grades, professional help can be a great option for you.
So is there any reason not to try assignment writing services? Of course, no. Consider some of the most reliable platforms below!
1. PaperHelp : The Most Reputable Company
If you want to purchase research paper from a trusted company, then PaperHelp is your best choice. Their team has been working since 2013. Their experience and devotion have earned the company a stellar reputation. You can be absolutely sure that your order will be delivered on time. All the specialists at PaperHelp have degrees in different fields. Hence, they are capable of writing a paper of any complexity in a wide range of disciplines.
According to customer feedback on the web, research paper writers always meet academic requirements set by institutions. It’s also important to note that prices for academic writing services start from $10 per page, which is quite cheap compared to other services.
2. BBQPapers : Professional Writers
If you need to complete a research paper but there is no time for it, you should definitely turn to BBQPapers. This company specializes in research paper writing. You can choose an expert with a Ph.D. degree in the most suitable field and get a paper of excellent quality. In fact, research is a strong point of any BBQPapers’ specialist.
They always conduct in-depth analysis and build college papers on impeccable logic. The good news is that the service has competitive prices, so you won’t spend too much money on your homework. The rates start at $5.85 per 100 words for high school students and $6.77 per 100 words for individuals studying at college.
3. ExpertWriting : Cheap Service
Another low-cost service for students is ExpertWriting. If the amount of money you have is very limited, it could be a suitable solution for you. Although it offers custom papers for low prices, their quality is still high. This is the case when professionalism goes hand in hand with affordability.
At ExpertWriting, you can choose mostly ESL writers that have advanced command of English. Despite that, their professionalism shouldn’t be questioned. You will definitely get your college research papers on time for the lowest price. If you want to purchase research papers from ExpertWriting, the minimum rate per page starts at $10.
4. EssayPro : Best Bidding Platform
If you are looking for an old reputable company, you should consider EssayPro. Many years of experience have made this agency one of the best in its niche. You can connect with professional writers after learning about their qualifications and place a bid for your work. Once you match with a specialist, discuss all the necessary details of your order and agree on a deadline date.
If needed, you can also ask a writer to share an outline or request a plagiarism report. Being one of the oldest companies on the market, EssayPro always delivers top-notch services to maintain their reputation. Therefore, you can get an unlimited number of revisions if you are not satisfied with the result.
5. SpeedyPaper : Known for Customer Service
Everybody is looking for a great customer experience, and this is what SpeedyPaper can provide you with. The service works for both high-school and college students. Specialists from SpeedyPaper are very client-oriented.
That means your needs will be met, no matter how complicated your requirements are. And you don’t have to pay tons of money for your order because the prices at SpeedyPaper are quite fair. The minimum rate for high-school tasks is $9 per page, while university research papers can be written for as cheap as $11 per page.
Buying research papers online is a legitimate way to progress through your academic career without burning out. However, you need to use well-regarded services to ensure plagiarism-free, high-quality writing.
We’re sure that the process of buying research paper online raises lots of questions and concerns, so we’ll answer the most commonly asked ones here. That way, you’ll understand precisely where to find the best of the best.
Is it safe to buy research paper online?
Students are often worried about safety issues when using the services of custom writing companies. And no wonder why! Most institutions perceive such practices as cheating, so it’s really dangerous if professors discover that your assignment was written by someone else.
Negative consequences can ruin your reputation in the academic world as well as disrupt your career prospects. But your fears shouldn’t stop you from getting help. In fact, old reliable companies are absolutely safe for users. They protect your private data and don’t pass any information to third parties. Your identity will be kept a secret. That means nobody, including your instructors, will never know if your assignment was written for money.
How much does it cost to buy a research paper?
Price is one of the most important aspects to consider when choosing a custom writing company. If you are a student on a budget, you are probably limited in the amount of money to spend on your studies. Hence, you must be wondering if buying a research paper online is expensive. It’s difficult to give an exact answer to this question because the prices vary dramatically from one service to another. What’s more, they depend on your academic level and some other criteria.
For example, if you need to get a paper for high school done, you can find services with rates from $7 per page. But college students definitely need to pay more. Professional writers can complete a college paper for at least $10 per page. When it comes to Ph.D. research papers, the rates are even higher.
While counting a price for your order, companies also take into account a discipline you are studying. The more complicated your subject is, the more you’ll have to pay. Additionally, your deadlines also affect the price. If you have an urgent deadline, you’ll be required to spend some extra money.
Who will write my research paper?
In most cases, choosing a person that will write your research paper is up to you. Websites usually feature a list of writers with short descriptions of their education, skills and experience. You can read what degree each specialist has and when it was received. Usually, all writers have advanced degrees, which guarantees high quality of their work. For example, if you need to complete a paper in Economics, you can pick a good research paper writer who has higher education in this field. The same works for any discipline you are studying.
Depending on your preferences, you can also choose between ESL writers and native English speakers. However, you shouldn’t be driven by your stereotypes. Some people believe that native speakers are always better specialists than ESL writers. However, is it really true? In fact, certificates like IELTS Academic prove that an individual has a good command of English and can do their job really well. That’s why it’s really important to check qualifications.
How soon can I have my custom research paper written?
Students usually turn to essay writing services when they can’t deal with their homework on time. Tight deadlines make young people seek help, so that’s why it’s really important how quickly your research paper will be delivered.
The good news is that almost any reputable essay writing service can complete your urgent assignments. If your deadlines are burning, you will get your term paper done in a few days. Some companies promise to complete college tasks in 24 hours. But note that you will have to pay extra for fast services. Why? Because writers need to prioritize your order, so they have a bigger workload.
In fact, the more time you give to specialists, the cheaper your paper will cost you. If you need a custom research paper to be written for you in a few hours, the price can rise up to $41 per page or even more. The minimum rate usually works for deadlines of about three weeks. But if you need your paper to be done in two weeks, it will be more expensive.
Is it illegal to buy research papers online?
Since most institutions strictly prohibit using the services of assignment writing companies, it raises a lot of concerns among young people. Students are often worried about the legal consequences of their actions. They are afraid of being punished according to the existing laws. However, it doesn’t make any sense because there are no laws prohibiting paper writing services. If a company has a license and operates according to the required business regulations, it’s absolutely safe.
Officially registered agencies that don’t break any general rules are a great solution for busy university students. But the question is “How to make sure that you’ve chosen the right essay writing service?” Well, actually it’s pretty easy. All you need to do is just to check their official website and see if there is any information about licensing.
Where can I buy a research paper online?
Now it’s not a problem to get your research done online. The number of writing services that complete academic assignments keeps growing. If you just type something like ‘buy college research paper’, ‘write my assignment for me’ or ‘order research paper’ in Google, you will see a long list of companies in search results.
There are hundreds of agencies that can complete almost any type of academic task for you. Some of the most popular are PaperHelp, BBQPapers, ExpertWriting, EssayPro, ExpertWriting and SpeedyPaper. While choosing a service for yourself, you should learn as much information about it as possible. Check its prices, read about writers’ qualifications and study terms and conditions carefully.
Where can I get research papers for free?
You can find research papers in your area of study for free from a variety of online directories and libraries. But keep in mind that they are not for submitting as your own work. Instead, you can use them to bolster your own original research paper. Some sites offering free papers include:
- Library Genesis
What are the dangers of hiring a research paper writer on Reddit?
Hiring a research paper writer from Reddit or any other place that isn’t a reputable writing company comes with a plethora of dangers, including:
1. Plagiarism risk
Writers on Reddit don’t have protocols in place to ensure complete originality in the final product. Submitting a research paper filled with plagiarism or unoriginal thoughts could seriously impact your grades and, depending on your institution, lead to expulsion.
Checking for plagiarism should be of utmost importance, and hiring a Reddit-based writer doesn’t necessarily give you this peace of mind.
2. Late delivery
As you know, the punctual submission of term papers and research papers is paramount to success. If the writer fails to meet the deadline you set, the paper could be useless, wasting time and money.
While life does through curveballs to everybody, hiring a writer from Reddit provides no assurance that they’ll deliver your paper on time.
3. Poor writing quality
Poor writing quality is very likely if you fail to use a legitimate writing service and instead choose to hire a writer from Reddit.
It’s unlikely that they will show you samples of their previous work, causing your grades to slip if they can’t meet the high standards of academic writing.
4. Failure to meet requirements
Every essay has criteria that must be met. Writers who aren’t experienced with such writing can fail to meet the standards or conduct a thorough research.
We recommend hiring expert writers from reputable websites only, despite the potentially low cost of those advertising their services on Reddit.
How can a research paper writing website guarantee original, plagiarism-free papers?
Naturally, you need original, plagiarism-free work from your writing service. Otherwise, your grades are at stake.
Only reliable services offer guarantees of originality and ensure they write the paper from scratch. So, that’s the first thing you should look for when deciding where to buy a research paper online.
The services ensure original work by running all final papers through at least one plagiarism checker. Depending on the specific site, they may give you this report for free.
Reasons to Buy Custom Research Paper Online
The advantages of buying research papers from reputable companies are numerous. Firstly, it’s all about quality. Well-known agencies value their reputation on the market, so they never deliver papers of a poor quality. Otherwise, you will get your money back. What’s more, recognized assignment writing services complete orders on time.
Therefore, you can be confident about submitting your homework due to the deadline date. Another important feature of highly-rated companies is that they can write your paper very fast. So if you have an urgent task, you can pay extra and get it done in 24-72 hours.
Just in case you’ve noticed any mistakes in your paper, you can ask writers for a revision. Usually, credible companies offer an unlimited number of revisions, so you can request them until your requirements are completely met.
And last but not least, reputable sites where you can order research paper online typically provide clients with a plagiarism report. Hence, you can make sure that your research paper is original. For your instructors, it will be impossible to reveal that your work was written by somebody else.
Buying research papers online is a common practice nowadays. Many students turn to special services that complete their assignments for money. This is a very convenient way to get your homework done when you are overloaded with academic and professional responsibilities. A reliable writing service can save your time and energy, helping you avoid emotional burnout.
Before you choose a company to buy a paper from, you need to do proper research. Try to find as much information about different platforms as possible. Also, compare their prices and terms. Judging by multiple reviews, one of the best services available today is PaperHelp. But the choice is completely up to you, so you should make your own analysis.
Article paid for by: Ocasio Media The news and editorial staffs of the Bay Area News Group had no role in this post’s preparation.
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Tillie Ferguson’23 wins Best Student Paper Award
Tillie Ferguson '23 won the Best Student Paper Award at the 2023 Practice and Experience in Advanced Research Computing Conference ( PEARC'23 ), competing with other first authored research papers from graduate and undergraduate students.
Tillie presented her paper, entitled "Efficient Parallelization of Dynamic Programming for Large Applications" , co-authored with professors Lila Fontes and Tia Newhall , at the conference. The paper is based on her CS honors thesis research project, which developed and evaluated novel techniques for parallelizing dynamic programming algorithms. The research work specifically targeted “big data”-sized applications, which are too large to feasibly solve using just a single compute node. Her experimental results show that her algorithm scales well to solving these large-sized applications. Her work can be applied to efficiently solve a wide range of data intensive applications such as RNA secondary substructure folding, detecting gerrymandering in election districts, large scheduling problems, and numerous computational science problems. Tillie plans to continue investigating extensions to her research post-graduation.
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- 16 August 2023
LK-99 isn’t a superconductor — how science sleuths solved the mystery
- Dan Garisto
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
You have full access to this article via your institution.
Pure crystals of LK-99, synthesized by a team at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany. Credit: Pascal Puphal
Researchers seem to have solved the puzzle of LK-99. Scientific detective work has unearthed evidence that the material is not a superconductor, and clarified its actual properties.
The conclusion dashes hopes that LK-99 — a compound of copper, lead, phosphorus and oxygen — would prove to be the first superconductor that works at room temperature and ambient pressure. Instead, studies have shown that impurities in the material — in particular, copper sulfide — were responsible for sharp drops in its electrical resistivity and a display of partial levitation over a magnet, properties similar to those exhibited by superconductors.
“I think things are pretty decisively settled at this point,” says Inna Vishik, a condensed-matter experimentalist at the University of California, Davis.
Claimed superconductor LK-99 is an online sensation — but replication efforts fall short
The LK-99 saga began in late July, when a team led by Sukbae Lee and Ji-Hoon Kim at the Quantum Energy Research Centre, a start-up firm in Seoul, published preprints 1 , 2 claiming that LK-99 is a superconductor at normal pressure, and at temperatures up to at least 127 ºC (400 kelvin). All previously confirmed superconductors function only at very low temperatures and extreme pressures.
The extraordinary claim quickly grabbed the attention of the science-interested public and researchers, some of whom tried to replicate LK-99. Initial attempts did not find signs of room-temperature superconductivity , but were not conclusive. Now, after dozens of replication efforts, many specialists are confidently saying that the evidence shows LK-99 is not a room-temperature superconductor. (Lee and Kim’s team did not respond to Nature ’s request for comment.)
The South Korean team based its claim on two of LK-99’s properties: levitation above a magnet and abrupt drops in resistivity. But separate teams at Peking University 3 and the Chinese Academy of Sciences 4 (CAS), both in Beijing, found mundane explanations for these phenomena.
Another study 5 , by researchers in the United States and Europe, combined experimental and theoretical evidence to demonstrate how LK-99’s structure made superconductivity infeasible. And other experimenters synthesized and studied pure samples 6 of LK-99, erasing doubts about the material’s structure and confirming that it is not a superconductor, but an insulator.
The only further confirmation would come from the South Korean team sharing its samples, says Michael Fuhrer, a physicist at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. “The burden’s on them to convince everybody else,” he says.
Perhaps the most striking evidence for LK-99’s superconductivity was a video taken by the South Korean team that showed a coin-shaped sample of silvery material wobbling over a magnet. The researchers said that the sample was levitating because of the Meissner effect — a hallmark of superconductivity in which a material expels magnetic fields. Multiple unverified videos of LK-99 levitating subsequently circulated on social media, but none of the researchers who initially tried to replicate the findings observed any levitation.
Several red flags popped out to Derrick VanGennep, a former condensed-matter researcher at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who now works in finance but was intrigued by LK-99. In the video, one edge of the sample seemed to stick to the magnet, and it seemed delicately balanced. By contrast, superconductors that levitate over magnets can be spun and even held upside down. “None of those behaviours look like what we see in the LK-99 videos,” VanGennep says.
He thought LK-99’s properties were more likely to be the result of ferromagnetism. So he constructed a pellet of compressed graphite shavings with iron filings glued to it. A video made by VanGennep shows that his disc — made of non-superconducting, ferromagnetic materials — mimicked LK-99’s behaviour.
On 7 August, the Peking University team reported 3 that this “half-levitation” appeared in its own LK-99 samples because of ferromagnetism. “It’s exactly like an iron-filing experiment,” says team member Yuan Li, a condensed-matter physicist. The pellet experiences a lifting force, but it’s not enough for it to levitate — only for it to balance on one end.
Li and his colleagues measured their sample’s resistivity, and found no sign of superconductivity. But they couldn’t explain the sharp resistivity drop seen by the South Korean team.
The South Korean authors noted one particular temperature at which LK-99 showed a tenfold drop in resistivity, from about 0.02 ohm-centimetres to 0.002 Ω cm. “They were very precise about it: 104.8 ºC,” says Prashant Jain, a chemist at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. “I was like, wait a minute, I know this temperature.”
The reaction that synthesizes LK-99 uses an unbalanced recipe. For every one part that it makes of copper-doped lead phosphate crystal — pure LK-99 — it produces 17 parts copper and 5 parts sulfur. These leftovers lead to numerous impurities — especially copper sulfide (Cu 2 S), which the South Korean team reported finding in its sample.
Jain, a copper-sulfide specialist, remembered 104 ºC as the temperature at which Cu 2 S undergoes a phase transition. Below that temperature, the resistivity of air-exposed Cu 2 S drops dramatically — a signal almost identical to LK-99’s purported superconducting phase transition. “I was almost in disbelief that they missed it,” says Jain, who published a preprint 7 on the important confounding effect.
On 8 August, the CAS team reported 4 on the effects of Cu 2 S impurities in LK-99. “Different contents of Cu 2 S can be synthesized using different processes,” says team member Jianlin Luo, a CAS physicist. The researchers tested two samples — the first heated in a vacuum, which resulted in 5% Cu 2 S content, and the second in air, which gave 70% Cu 2 S content.
The first sample’s resistivity increased smoothly as it cooled, as did samples from other replication attempts. But the second sample’s resistivity plunged near 112 ºC (385 K) — closely matching the South Korean team’s observations.
“That was the moment where I said, ‘Well, obviously, that’s what made them think this was a superconductor,’” says Fuhrer. “The nail in the coffin was this copper sulfide thing.”
Making conclusive statements about LK-99’s properties is difficult, because the material is unpredictable and samples contain varying impurities. “Even from our own growth, different batches will be slightly different,” says Li. But he argues that samples that are close enough to the original are sufficient for checking whether LK-99 is a superconductor in ambient conditions.
With strong explanations for the resistivity drop and the half-levitation, many in the community were convinced that LK-99 was not a room-temperature superconductor. But mysteries lingered — namely, what were the material’s actual properties?
Initial theoretical attempts using an approach called density functional theory (DFT) to predict LK-99’s structure had hinted at interesting electronic signatures known as flat bands. These are areas where the electrons move slowly and can be strongly correlated. In some cases, this behaviour leads to superconductivity. But these calculations were based on unverified assumptions about LK-99’s structure.
To better understand the material, the US–European group 5 performed precision X-ray imaging of its samples to calculate LK-99’s structure. Crucially, the imaging allowed the team to make rigorous calculations that clarified the situation of the flat bands, showing that they were not conducive to superconductivity. Instead, the flat bands in LK-99 came from strongly localized electrons, which cannot ‘hop’ in the way that a superconductor requires.
On 14 August, a separate team at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany, reported 6 synthesizing pure, single crystals of LK-99. Unlike previous synthesis attempts, which had relied on crucibles, this one used a technique called floating-zone crystal growth. This enabled the researchers to avoid introducing sulfur into the reaction, thereby eliminating the Cu 2 S impurities.
The result was a transparent purple crystal — pure LK-99, or Pb 8.8 Cu 1.2 P 6 O 25 . Separated from impurities, LK-99 is not a superconductor, but an insulator with a resistance in the millions of ohms — too high for a standard conductivity test to be run. It shows minor ferromagnetism and diamagnetism, but not enough for even partial levitation. “We therefore rule out the presence of superconductivity,” the team concluded.
The team suggests that the hints of superconductivity seen in LK-99 were caused by Cu 2 S impurities, which are absent from their crystal. “This story is exactly showing why we need single crystals,” says Pascal Puphal, a specialist in crystal growth and the Max Planck physicist who led the study. “When we have single crystals, we can clearly study the intrinsic properties of a system.”
Many researchers are reflecting on what they’ve learnt from the summer’s superconductivity sensation.
For Leslie Schoop, a solid-state chemist at Princeton University in New Jersey, who co-authored the flat-bands study, the lesson about premature calculations is clear. “Even before LK-99, I have been giving talks about how you need to be careful with DFT, and now I have the best story ever for my next summer school,” she says.
Jain points to the importance of old, often overlooked data — the crucial measurements that he relied on for the resistivity of Cu 2 S were published in 1951.
Although some commentators have pointed to the LK-99 saga as a model for reproducibility in science, others say that it involved an unusually swift resolution of a high-profile puzzle. “Often these things die this very slow death, where it’s just the rumours and nobody can reproduce it,” says Fuhrer.
When copper oxide superconductors were discovered in 1986, researchers leapt to probe their properties. But nearly four decades later, there is still debate over the materials’ superconducting mechanism, says Vishik. Efforts to explain LK-99 came readily. “The detective work that wraps up all of the pieces of the original observation — I think that’s really fantastic,” she says. “And it’s relatively rare.”
Nature 620 , 705-706 (2023)
Lee, S. et al. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.12037 (2023).
Lee, S., Kim, J.-H. & Kwon, Y.-W. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.12008 (2023).
Guo, K., Li, Y. & Jia, S. Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron . https://doi.org/10.1007/s11433-023-2201-9 (2023).
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Zhu, S., Wu, W., Li, Z. & Luo, J. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.04353 (2023).
Jiang, Y. et al. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.05143 (2023).
Puphal, P. et al. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.06256 (2023).
Jain, P. K. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.05222 (2023).
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5 Best Stock Research Websites of 2023
For a savvy investor, finding the best stock research website is an essential part of the process. The best stock research platforms provide in-depth market research and top-quality analysis. They can help you pick the best investments which minimize risk and maximize returns. With so many different platforms to choose from, we wanted to explore which is best. Our exploration uncovered the 5 best stock research websites of 2023.
Best Stock Research Websites of 2023
We identified five leading stock research websites:
1. TipRanks 2. The Motley Fool 3. Yahoo Finance 4. Trading View 5. Zacks
Why Is Choosing the Right Investment Research Website Important?
Stock market research websites provide access to the latest information on the stock markets. However, that’s not all. They also enable you to research which individual stocks to invest in. That’s why it is essential that you choose a platform that you can rely on for your stock research and analysis.
We evaluated the pros and cons of the five best stock research websites to see which offers the best service. This information can help you choose the right platform to make informed, profitable decisions.
Comparing Stock Research Tools
To find out which platform is most likely to help you make the best investment decisions we asked the following questions.
–Where can you find the most comprehensive, accurate, and reliable data? –Which stock research website provides all the tools and analysis an investor needs? –Which stock analysis tools are the most easy-to-use and user-friendly? –Where will you get the best value for money? –What do users of the stock research websites think?
Which is the Best Stock Research Site?
These are the best stock research websites with the most reliable data and accurate analysis., 1. tipranks.
TipRanks’ stock analysis and market research tools offer institutional-level data simplified for individual investors.
The platform is unique in that it presents the ratings and price targets of individual analysts. Most of its peers only give out brokerage recommendations and price targets. This sort of transparency gives investors the ability to follow the best experts. TipRanks also presents how individual analysts rank based on their performance track records. You can even see how they perform for the individual stocks they cover.
TipRanks’ also ranks other experts. This gives you access to the top corporate insiders , hedge fund managers , financial bloggers , and even individual investors .
The platform offers a wide variety of tools. This includes tools that help investors find new ideas. For example, their easy-to-use stock screener enables investors to search for stocks according to different criteria, including unique TipRanks data.
TipRanks also enables a full stock analysis , including alternative datasets such as analyst consensus , news sentiment , website traffic , risk analysis , and financial blogger recommendations. Additionally, TipRanks assigns a “Smart Score” to each stock. The score is based on eight key market factors. Stocks with a maximum score have historically outperformed the S&P 500.
Its Smart Portfolio tool incorporates all of its data to give investors a full analysis of their holdings. Additionally, the site provides stock news and has a streaming service .
What’s more reassuring is that their data is trusted by “over 50 leading financial institutions”, as per the TipRanks website. Its Smart Portfolio tool is used by Nasdaq on its platform.
It also offers flexible subscription models, including monthly payment, or its best value 3-year plan, which includes one free year.
2. The Motley Fool
The Motley Fool wants to “make the world smarter, happier and richer.” It offers a range of market research solutions to improve investors’ decision-making process. The platform uses both a fundamental and technical analysis approach to recommend stocks.
It provides a free, as well as paid premium service to investors globally. Its paid premium membership services include stock recommendations, company analysis, model portfolios, live streaming videos, free market news, etc.
Motley Fool has two popular services: Stock Advisor and Rule Breakers which provide opinions, investment newsletters, and stock recommendations.
Its Stock Advisor gives out stock picking ideas expected to beat the overall market performance. It also provides add-on research and data to support recommendations.
The service gives out Starter Stocks recommendations for new as well as seasoned investors. It also gives two new stock picks and recommendations every month. Additionally, it also offers investors access to the investor community. This offers insights based on the knowledge and experience of other investors.
Its Rule Breakers service lays more emphasis on high-growth stocks that are set to outperform the market in future years. While the high-growth stocks promise higher returns, they come with their own set of risks. This can mean that they tend to be very volatile, especially in difficult macroeconomic conditions.
Further, not every high-growth stock recommended provides positive returns with many of them landing in the negative return territory.
Although first-time subscribers get attractive discounts, their renewal prices tend to get expensive.
3. Yahoo! Finance
Yahoo! Finance is one of the best free investment websites available at present. It offers the latest company news, press releases, stock quotes, stock charts, stock screeners, top gainers and losers, information and data about mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), cryptocurrencies as well as futures and options.
It is a great option for beginners and novice investors who get access to free information about any particular stock, mutual fund, or ETFs.
On Yahoo! Finance, an investor can create a portfolio and add or remove stocks from their personal watchlist. The price charts also come in handy giving an indication of the stock price movements over various different time periods.
Though Yahoo! Finance is better known for its wide variety of free products, it does have a paid subscription service. Yahoo! Finance Plus Plans are available for a fee and come under two different plans: Yahoo! Essential and Yahoo! Finance Lite.
Yahoo! Essential comes at a price of $29.16 per month. It offers research reports from Morningstar & Argus, a market digest newsletter, daily trading ideas, fair value analysis tools, portfolio tracking, alerts, and community insights, among other services. Yahoo! Lite is priced at $20.83 per month and also provides a range of similar services.
Yahoo! Finance is well-reckoned for basic information on stocks. However, it lacks in-depth analysis and various datasets and tools a current-generation investor would need to know more about their stock investments.
4. Trading View
TradingView is an investment research software that is based on technical analysis and is frequently used by stock traders for their day-to-day trading requirements.
The stock application provides stock charts with real-time data across numerous exchanges. It also includes specific indicators like relative strength index (RSI), Moving Averages, Bollinger Bands, etc.
In addition, there are customized technical analysis services available that provide key metrics like historical annual financial data on charts, volume indicators, Moving average convergence divergence (MACD), backtesting, et al.
TradingView offers basic services for free under its free plan. Under its paid plans, traders can choose from various options ranging from $14.95 to $59.95.
It offers real-time market data and also provides options to create charts, track stock portfolios and share technical charts and insights with the trading groups.
Its premium services come with enhanced tools. Alerts are attached with the stock trading tools that make investors aware of important stock price movements.
Zacks Investment Research (or Zacks) provides a comprehensive stock analysis for a subscription-based service based on a fundamental analysis approach. It also has technical analysis tools for trading stocks, like Trading View charts.
Zacks puts a greater emphasis on earnings estimates and their upward or downward revisions. Zacks believes that stocks that exhibit increasing earnings estimates have a higher chance of outperforming the market.
Its free services include market data and information about the stock market and related market and financial news. The platform includes average price targets, brokerage recommendations, earnings, and dividends.
The Zacks Premium service includes the Zacks #1 Rank List, a portfolio of long-term stocks, a premium stock screener, equity research reports, and more.
The popular Zacks Rank feature provides a score to each stock based on value, growth, and momentum. The Zacks Ranks range from 1 to 5 mirroring strong buy to strong sell. Stocks with higher ranks are expected to outperform the markets.
For long-term investors, Zacks offers the Zacks Investor Collection. It includes real-time buy and sell signals and reports for stocks, ETFs, and mutual funds, on top of premium access.
Its Stock Screener allows investors to choose stocks matching their investing criteria. This includes price changes, dividends, EPS estimates, Zack Rank, and others. However, most of the filters are locked and available to premium subscribers only.
Visually, Zacks has a more traditional platform, data, and layout. Based on reviews, not all Zacks Rank #1 stocks have posted positive returns.
Which is the most trusted stock research website?
The 5 top investment research websites have a range of innovative tools that offer valuable insights. They all help investors make important decisions about which stocks to invest in. However, which do investors trust? We also thought it was important to see what their customers think.
When considering the services offered, costs, and what their customers think, TipRanks appears to be the preferred investment research website. It has a competitive edge as it offers alternative datasets that are otherwise available only to institutional investors. It also wins with its user-friendly and interactive interface. TipRanks has an attractive price compared to the other platforms available in the market.
Essentially, TipRanks is also the platform that customers like best according to their reviews. We used the well-known review tool Trustpilot to see how the websites rank and what their reviews tell us. They agreed with our assessment.
According to Trustpilot:
1. TipRanks tops the list with a score of 4.5 with an Excellent rating based on 195 reviews.
2. Second, on the list is Motley Fool with a score of 3.6 (106 reviews)
3. Third, on the list is Yahoo! Finance with a score of 3.2.
4. TradingView comes in fourth, with a score of 2.6 (468 reviews).
5. Last on the list is Zacks Investment Research with a score of 2.2 based on 52 reviews.
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- Code Llama is a state-of-the-art LLM capable of generating code, and natural language about code, from both code and natural language prompts.
- Code Llama is free for research and commercial use.
- Code Llama, the foundational code model;
- Codel Llama - Python specialized for Python;
- and Code Llama - Instruct, which is fine-tuned for understanding natural language instructions.
- In our own benchmark testing, Code Llama outperformed state-of-the-art publicly available LLMs on code tasks
- Code Llama research paper
- Code Llama GitHub
- Download the Code Llama model
Today, we are releasing Code Llama, a large language model (LLM) that can use text prompts to generate code. Code Llama is state-of-the-art for publicly available LLMs on code tasks, and has the potential to make workflows faster and more efficient for current developers and lower the barrier to entry for people who are learning to code. Code Llama has the potential to be used as a productivity and educational tool to help programmers write more robust, well-documented software.
The generative AI space is evolving rapidly, and we believe an open approach to today’s AI is the best one for developing new AI tools that are innovative, safe, and responsible. We are releasing Code Llama under the same community license as Llama 2 .
How Code Llama works
We are releasing three sizes of Code Llama with 7B, 13B, and 34B parameters respectively. Each of these models is trained with 500B tokens of code and code-related data. The 7B and 13B base and instruct models have also been trained with fill-in-the-middle (FIM) capability, allowing them to insert code into existing code, meaning they can support tasks like code completion right out of the box.
The three models address different serving and latency requirements. The 7B model, for example, can be served on a single GPU. The 34B model returns the best results and allows for better coding assistance, but the smaller 7B and 13B models are faster and more suitable for tasks that require low latency, like real-time code completion.
The Code Llama models provide stable generations with up to 100,000 tokens of context. All models are trained on sequences of 16,000 tokens and show improvements on inputs with up to 100,000 tokens.
Aside from being a prerequisite for generating longer programs, having longer input sequences unlocks exciting new use cases for a code LLM. For example, users can provide the model with more context from their codebase to make the generations more relevant. It also helps in debugging scenarios in larger codebases, where staying on top of all code related to a concrete issue can be challenging for developers. When developers are faced with debugging a large chunk of code they can pass the entire length of the code into the model.
Additionally, we have further fine-tuned two additional variations of Code Llama: Code Llama - Python and Code Llama - Instruct.
Code Llama - Python is a language-specialized variation of Code Llama, further fine-tuned on 100B tokens of Python code. Because Python is the most benchmarked language for code generation – and because Python and PyTorch play an important role in the AI community – we believe a specialized model provides additional utility.
Code Llama - Instruct is an instruction fine-tuned and aligned variation of Code Llama. Instruction tuning continues the training process, but with a different objective. The model is fed a “natural language instruction” input and the expected output. This makes it better at understanding what humans expect out of their prompts. We recommend using Code Llama - Instruct variants whenever using Code Llama for code generation since Code Llama - Instruct has been fine-tuned to generate helpful and safe answers in natural language.
We do not recommend using Code Llama or Code Llama - Python to perform general natural language tasks since neither of these models are designed to follow natural language instructions. Code Llama is specialized for code-specific tasks and isn’t appropriate as a foundation model for other tasks.
When using the Code Llama models, users must abide by our license and acceptable use policy.
Evaluating Code Llama’s performance
To test Code Llama’s performance against existing solutions, we used two popular coding benchmarks: HumanEval and Mostly Basic Python Programming ( MBPP ). HumanEval tests the model’s ability to complete code based on docstrings and MBPP tests the model’s ability to write code based on a description.
Our benchmark testing showed that Code Llama performed better than open-source, code-specific LLMs and outperformed Llama 2. Code Llama 34B, for example, scored 53.7% on HumanEval and 56.2% on MBPP, the highest compared with other state-of-the-art open solutions, and on par with ChatGPT.
As with all cutting edge technology, Code Llama comes with risks. Building AI models responsibly is crucial, and we undertook numerous safety measures before releasing Code Llama. As part of our red teaming efforts, we ran a quantitative evaluation of Code Llama’s risk of generating malicious code. We created prompts that attempted to solicit malicious code with clear intent and scored Code Llama’s responses to those prompts against ChatGPT’s (GPT3.5 Turbo). Our results found that Code Llama answered with safer responses.
Details about our red teaming efforts from domain experts in responsible AI, offensive security engineering, malware development, and software engineering are available in our research paper .
Releasing Code Llama
Programmers are already using LLMs to assist in a variety of tasks, ranging from writing new software to debugging existing code. The goal is to make developer workflows more efficient, so they can focus on the most human centric aspects of their job, rather than repetitive tasks.
At Meta, we believe that AI models, but LLMs for coding in particular, benefit most from an open approach, both in terms of innovation and safety. Publicly available, code-specific models can facilitate the development of new technologies that improve peoples' lives. By releasing code models like Code Llama, the entire community can evaluate their capabilities, identify issues, and fix vulnerabilities.
Code Llama’s training recipes are available on our Github repository .
Model weights are also available.
Our research paper discloses details of Code Llama’s development as well as how we conducted our benchmarking tests. It also provides more information into the model’s limitations, known challenges we encountered, mitigations we’ve taken, and future challenges we intend to investigate.
We’ve also updated our Responsible Use Guide and it includes guidance on developing downstream models responsibly, including:
- Defining content policies and mitigations.
- Preparing data.
- Fine-tuning the model.
- Evaluating and improving performance.
- Addressing input- and output-level risks.
- Building transparency and reporting mechanisms in user interactions.
Developers should evaluate their models using code-specific evaluation benchmarks and perform safety studies on code-specific use cases such as generating malware, computer viruses, or malicious code. We also recommend leveraging safety datasets for automatic and human evaluations, and red teaming on adversarial prompts .
The future of generative AI for coding
Code Llama is designed to support software engineers in all sectors – including research, industry, open source projects, NGOs, and businesses. But there are still many more use cases to support than what our base and instruct models can serve.
We hope that Code Llama will inspire others to leverage Llama 2 to create new innovative tools for research and commercial products.
Try Code Llama today
Read the research paper
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