[Solved]-How to assign a C struct inline?-C++



the latter is called a "compound literal".

c inline struct assignment

as a complement to @muhsinfatih's answer, and with more authoritative references .

we can use c99's designator to achieve the goal, just like what @muhsinfatih has suggested:

the same rule applies to array as well:

c inline struct assignment

for the sake of maintainability i prefer the list syntax with explicitly identified variables, as follows:

or for returning inline for example:

i can imagine a scenario where one changes the order in which the variables are declared, and if you don't explicitly identify your variables you would have to go through all the code to fix the order of variables. this way it is cleaner and more readable

c inline struct assignment

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Struct declaration.

A struct is a type consisting of a sequence of members whose storage is allocated in an ordered sequence (as opposed to union, which is a type consisting of a sequence of members whose storage overlaps).

The type specifier for a struct is identical to the union type specifier except for the keyword used:

[ edit ] Syntax

[ edit ] explanation.

Within a struct object, addresses of its elements (and the addresses of the bit-field allocation units) increase in order in which the members were defined. A pointer to a struct can be cast to a pointer to its first member (or, if the member is a bit-field, to its allocation unit). Likewise, a pointer to the first member of a struct can be cast to a pointer to the enclosing struct. There may be unnamed padding between any two members of a struct or after the last member, but not before the first member. The size of a struct is at least as large as the sum of the sizes of its members.

[ edit ] Forward declaration

A declaration of the following form

hides any previously declared meaning for the name name in the tag name space and declares name as a new struct name in current scope, which will be defined later. Until the definition appears, this struct name has incomplete type .

This allows structs that refer to each other:

Note that a new struct name may also be introduced just by using a struct tag within another declaration, but if a previously declared struct with the same name exists in the tag name space , the tag would refer to that name

[ edit ] Keywords

[ edit ] notes.

See struct initialization for the rules regarding the initializers for structs.

Because members of incomplete type are not allowed, and a struct type is not complete until the end of the definition, a struct cannot have a member of its own type. A pointer to its own type is allowed, and is commonly used to implement nodes in linked lists or trees.

Because a struct declaration does not establish scope , nested types, enumerations and enumerators introduced by declarations within struct-declaration-list are visible in the surrounding scope where the struct is defined.

[ edit ] Example

Possible output:

[ edit ] References

  • C23 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:2023):
  • Structure and union specifiers (p: TBD)
  • C17 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:2018):
  • Structure and union specifiers (p: 81-84)
  • C11 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:2011):
  • Structure and union specifiers (p: 112-117)
  • C99 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1999):
  • Structure and union specifiers (p: 101-104)
  • C89/C90 standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1990):
  • Structure and union specifiers

[ edit ] See also

  • struct and union member access
  • struct initialization
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Lesser known C features

There are many C features which are lesser known even to experienced programmers.

Array of a variable size

Do not be confused with dynamic arrays. C99 supports arrays of variable length where the size is calculated at run-time while processing the array definition. This is a back-port from C++ and far better than the alloca function. Have a look at the example below.

It is not possible to skip the definition using break in switch statement.

Flexible array as a member of a structure

Arrays with unspecified size are used in structures to help addressing data past the structure end.

There are several restrictions. The flexible array member must be the last element of the structure and the structure itself must be neither used in another structure definition nor as a member of an array.

Structure field addressing in definitions

In old C the fields of a structure have to be in fixed order during initialization. It is a well-known GNU extension that specifies structure fields with the label-like syntax. C99 has a new approach using the . operator. Although it looks strange, it has a hidden meaning (see below).

Array initialization

It is not very well known that an array initiator may jump in index like in the enumeration definition.

Note that already initialized fields may be overwritten.

Compound literals

Compounds literals bring a new method of assigning to structures and passing structures as parameters.

Inline functions

Yes, C has inline functions. Like in C++ prepend the function header with the inline keyword ( __inline__ in headers). Note that certain constructions may disallow the compiler to inline the function. Especially constructions implemented on stack like variadic parameters, alloca or variable sized arrays.

Volatile type qualifier

Have a look at the example below - there are two functions each executed in a separate thread with the same pointer as a parameter. Do you think that the check function must terminate?

No, it doesn't have to. The incrementation may by optimized. Below is a disassembled code produced by GCC -O1:

As we can see, *i has been replaced by the edx register, which is written only at the beginning and at the end of the cycle. The value of *i switches between 0 and 10, and never becomes 5.

Marking the pointer as volatile will solve the problem. The semantics is that a volatile object may change its value outside the scope of local execution and thus every read and write access has to be processed immediately without any optimizations. Focus on this problem when you observe different behavior across different optimization levels. It is not guaranteed that a read or write access even on volatile objects are atomic.

Restricted pointers

The freedom of pointers in C leads sometimes to slower code. The programmer can enable several optimizations by guarantying that objects referred by pointers do not overlap.

Both functions copy one block of chars into another. In copy2 the compiler may use word addressing instructions to speedup the execution. But when blocks overlap the behavior is undefined.

Macros with variable number of parameters

The syntax is similar to functions. Parameters in ... are then addressed as __VA_ARGS__ (variable argument).

Some predefined identifiers

  • __FILE__ expands to a string name of a current source file
  • __func__ expands to a string name of a current function
  • __LINE__ is expanded to the line number. This can be overwritten with the #line preprocessor directive
  • __DATE__ date of compilation
  • __TIME__ time of compilation
  • __STDC_VERSION__ is expanded to long int which represents the ISO norm (199901L as an example)

This may looks like a joke, but it is not. All occurrences of sequences ??<, ??>, ??(, ??), ??=, ??/, ??!, ??', ??- in a source file are converted to one of characters { } [ ] # / | ^ ~. So don't be surprised...

As an aside, tokens <: :> <% %> %: behave as [ ] { } # and ## (but the conversion is not performed in strings).

Types with defined size

Have a look at the header file stdint.h . There are typedefined types like (where N is in { 8, 16, 32, 64})

  • intN_t - signed integers with exactly specified width
  • int_leastN_t - signed integers with a width of at least N
  • int_fastestN_t - fastest signed integers with a width of at least N

Unsigned variants have prefix "u".

Be careful when using printf functions. Since you do not know which C type are behind these typedefs, you have to use predefined constants from inttypes.h . Constants starts with PRI followed by type character (one of diouxX ), modificator LEAST or FAST or nothing, and number of bits. For example, 32 bit fast integer would take the form PRIdFAST32 .

Boolean type

C still does not have a boolean type, but reserves an integer type _Bool big enough to store 0 and 1. The header file stdbool.h only typedefines _Bool as a bool and defines constants false as 0 and true as 1.

This is not C++ bool !

Complex numbers

C has three complex types: { float , double , long double } _Complex . In the header file complex.h _Complex is typedefined to complex . Complex types may be not implemented in freestanding (without OS) implementations.

Learn C++

13.6 — Struct aggregate initialization

In the previous lesson ( 13.5 -- Introduction to structs, members, and member selection ), we talked about how to define structs, instantiate struct objects, and access their members. In this lesson, we’ll discuss how structs are initialized.

Data members are not initialized by default

Much like normal variables, data members are not initialized by default. Consider the following struct:

Because we have not provided any initializers, when joe is instantiated, joe.id , joe.age , and joe.wage will all be uninitialized. We will then get undefined behavior when we try to print the value of joe.id .

However, before we show you how to initialize a struct, let’s take a short detour.

What is an aggregate?

In general programming, an aggregate data type (also called an aggregate ) is any type that can contain multiple data members. Some types of aggregates allow members to have different types (e.g. structs), while others require that all members must be of a single type (e.g. arrays).

In C++, the definition of an aggregate is narrower and quite a bit more complicated.

For advanced readers

To be an aggregate in C++, a type must meet the following criteria:

  • Is a class type (a struct, class, or union), or an array type (a built-in array or std::array ).
  • Has no private or protected non-static data members ( 14.5 -- Public and private members and access specifiers ).
  • Has no user-declared or inherited constructors ( 14.9 -- Introduction to constructors ).
  • Has no base classes ( 24.2 -- Basic inheritance in C++ ).
  • Has no virtual member functions ( 25.2 -- Virtual functions and polymorphism ).

Author’s note

In this tutorial series, when we use the term “aggregate” (or “non-aggregate”) we will mean the C++ definition of aggregate.

Putting the precise definition of a C++ aggregate aside, the important thing to understand at this point is that structs with only data members (which are the only kind of structs we’ll create in these lessons) are aggregates. Arrays (which we’ll cover in a future chapter) are also aggregates.

Aggregate initialization of a struct

Because a normal variable can only hold a single value, we only need to provide a single initializer:

However, a struct can have multiple members:

When we define an object with a struct type, we need some way to initialize multiple members at initialization time:

Aggregates use a form of initialization called aggregate initialization , which allows us to directly initialize the members of aggregates. To do this, we provide an initializer list as an initializer, which is just a braced list of comma-separated values.

There are 2 primary forms of aggregate initialization:

Each of these initialization forms does a memberwise initialization , which means each member in the struct is initialized in the order of declaration. Thus, Employee joe { 2, 28, 45000.0 }; first initializes joe.id with value 2 , then joe.age with value 28 , and joe.wage with value 45000.0 last.

Best practice

Prefer the (non-copy) braced list form when initializing aggregates.

In C++20, we can also initialize (some) aggregates using a parenthesized list of values:

We recommend avoiding this last form as much as possible, as it doesn’t currently work with aggregates that utilize brace elision (notably std::array ).

Missing initializers in an initializer list

If an aggregate is initialized but the number of initialization values is fewer than the number of members, then all remaining members will be value-initialized.

In the above example, joe.id will be initialized with value 2 , joe.age will be initialized with value 28 , and because joe.wage wasn’t given an explicit initializer, it will be value-initialized to 0.0 .

This means we can use an empty initialization list to value-initialize all members of the struct:

Const structs

Variables of a struct type can be const (or constexpr), and just like all const variables, they must be initialized.

Designated initializers C++20

When initializing a struct from a list of values, the initializers are applied to the members in order of declaration.

Now consider what would happen if you were to update this struct definition to add a new member that is not the last member:

Now all your initialization values have shifted, and worse, the compiler may not detect this as an error (after all, the syntax is still valid).

To help avoid this, C++20 adds a new way to initialize struct members called designated initializers . Designated initializers allow you to explicitly define which initialization values map to which members. The members can be initialized using list or copy initialization, and must be initialized in the same order in which they are declared in the struct, otherwise an error will result. Members not designated an initializer will be value initialized.

For Clang users

When doing designated initializers of single values using braces, Clang improperly issues warning “braces around scalar initializer”. Hopefully this will be fixed soon.

Designated initializers are nice because they provide some level of self-documentation and help ensure you don’t inadvertently mix up the order of your initialization values. However, designated initializers also clutter up the initializer list significantly, so we won’t recommend their use as a best practice at this time.

Also, because there’s no enforcement that designated initializers are being used consistently everywhere an aggregate is initialized, it’s a good idea to avoid adding new members to the middle of an existing aggregate definition, to avoid the risk of initializer shifting.

When adding a new member to an aggregate, it’s safest to add it to the bottom of the definition list so the initializers for other members don’t shift.

Assignment with an initializer list

As shown in the prior lesson, we can assign values to members of structs individually:

This is fine for single members, but not great when we want to update many members. Similar to initializing a struct with an initializer list, you can also assign values to structs using an initializer list (which does memberwise assignment):

Note that because we didn’t want to change joe.id , we needed to provide the current value for joe.id in our list as a placeholder, so that memberwise assignment could assign joe.id to joe.id . This is a bit ugly.

Assignment with designated initializers C++20

Designated initializers can also be used in a list assignment:

Any members that aren’t designated in such an assignment will be assigned the value that would be used for value initialization. If we hadn’t have specified a designated initializer for joe.id , joe.id would have been assigned the value 0.

Initializing a struct with another struct of the same type

A struct may also be initialized using another struct of the same type:

The above prints:

Note that this uses the standard forms of initialization that we’re familiar with (copy, direct, or list initialization) rather than aggregate initialization.

This is most commonly seen when initializing a struct with the return value of a function that returns a struct of the same type. We cover this in more detail in lesson 13.8 -- Passing and returning structs .


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Initialize struct in C [3 ways]

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In this article, we have explored how to initialize struct in C Programming Language using different techniques such as designated initializer, dot operator and more.

Only a single data type can be stored in an array (if you declare a char type, you cannot store anything other than char type), but by using the structure in C language, we can combine variables with different data types into one.

Table of Contents :

  • Introduction

USE A Struct

  • Structure initialization
  • Initialization at Declaration
  • Initialization using Designated Initializer
  • Initialized at compile time using the dot(.) operator

When should the structure be initialized?


A structure is a function that allows you to collectively manage multiple values. It can also be said that it is a function that creates a new data type by gathering multiple data types.

struct in simpler terms can be said to be the keyword for "I'm going to define a structure now."

Arrays are also a function that can handle multiple values collectively, but whereas arrays are collections of the same data type, structures can collectively manage different data types.

A variable defined in a structure is called a member variable .

Basic steps to write a struct in C :

  • Write the structure name following struct. You can decide the structure name as you like.
  • Next, create a block with curly braces {}.
  • Inside this block, define one or more variables that you want to use in your structure.
  • In the sample code, name is defined as a char type array, marks is defined as an int type, and a structure is created to store Subject information.
  • Don't forget to end the block with a semicolon (;).
  • A function definition didn't need a semicolon, so it's easy to forget it in a struct definition.

We use the dot operator to access member variables from structure variables. Write "." (dot, period) after the structure variable, and then write the name of the member variable you want to use.

Structure initialization in C

C language offers us many ways to initialize a structure in our program. We can use the following initialization method to initialize struct:

Structure variables can be initialized at the same time they are declared, just like normal variables and arrays.

General form: structure type structure variable = { value1, value2, ... };

Following C code demonstrates Initialization of struct using Designated Initializer:

Note : Order of assigning the variables do not matter.

Structure variable can be initialized at compile time using the dot(.) operator. Initialization that directly assigns values to members of structure variables.

First of all, the structure may be initialized when the structure variable is created.

By initializing the structure variables by clearing them to 0, bugs related to the variables can be reduced. If the structure has a pointer it may contain a random value unless it is initialized. In the code after that, it is not possible to judge whether the value of the pointer is a proper memory address or a random value that has not been initialized.

Therefore, if you clear the structure variable to 0 and set the pointer to NULL when creating the structure variable for the first time, you can reduce the bug errors.

We have seen the initialization of structures in C language in this article at OpenGenus. We found out that there are a multiple ways to initialize the structure like below:

Which one to use solely depends on the judgment of the programmer.

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Structure types (C# reference)

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A structure type (or struct type ) is a value type that can encapsulate data and related functionality. You use the struct keyword to define a structure type:

For information about ref struct and readonly ref struct types, see the ref structure types article.

Structure types have value semantics . That is, a variable of a structure type contains an instance of the type. By default, variable values are copied on assignment, passing an argument to a method, and returning a method result. For structure-type variables, an instance of the type is copied. For more information, see Value types .

Typically, you use structure types to design small data-centric types that provide little or no behavior. For example, .NET uses structure types to represent a number (both integer and real ), a Boolean value , a Unicode character , a time instance . If you're focused on the behavior of a type, consider defining a class . Class types have reference semantics . That is, a variable of a class type contains a reference to an instance of the type, not the instance itself.

Because structure types have value semantics, we recommend you define immutable structure types.

readonly struct

You use the readonly modifier to declare that a structure type is immutable. All data members of a readonly struct must be read-only as follows:

  • Any field declaration must have the readonly modifier
  • Any property, including auto-implemented ones, must be read-only or init only .

That guarantees that no member of a readonly struct modifies the state of the struct. That means that other instance members except constructors are implicitly readonly .

In a readonly struct, a data member of a mutable reference type still can mutate its own state. For example, you can't replace a List<T> instance, but you can add new elements to it.

The following code defines a readonly struct with init-only property setters:

readonly instance members

You can also use the readonly modifier to declare that an instance member doesn't modify the state of a struct. If you can't declare the whole structure type as readonly , use the readonly modifier to mark the instance members that don't modify the state of the struct.

Within a readonly instance member, you can't assign to structure's instance fields. However, a readonly member can call a non- readonly member. In that case, the compiler creates a copy of the structure instance and calls the non- readonly member on that copy. As a result, the original structure instance isn't modified.

Typically, you apply the readonly modifier to the following kinds of instance members:

You can also apply the readonly modifier to methods that override methods declared in System.Object :

properties and indexers:

If you need to apply the readonly modifier to both accessors of a property or indexer, apply it in the declaration of the property or indexer.

The compiler declares a get accessor of an auto-implemented property as readonly , regardless of presence of the readonly modifier in a property declaration.

You may apply the readonly modifier to a property or indexer with an init accessor:

You can apply the readonly modifier to static fields of a structure type, but not any other static members, such as properties or methods.

The compiler may make use of the readonly modifier for performance optimizations. For more information, see Avoiding allocations .

Nondestructive mutation

Beginning with C# 10, you can use the with expression to produce a copy of a structure-type instance with the specified properties and fields modified. You use object initializer syntax to specify what members to modify and their new values, as the following example shows:

record struct

Beginning with C# 10, you can define record structure types. Record types provide built-in functionality for encapsulating data. You can define both record struct and readonly record struct types. A record struct can't be a ref struct . For more information and examples, see Records .

Inline arrays

Beginning with C# 12, you can declare inline arrays as a struct type:

An inline array is a structure that contains a contiguous block of N elements of the same type. It's a safe-code equivalent of the fixed buffer declaration available only in unsafe code. An inline array is a struct with the following characteristics:

  • It contains a single field.
  • The struct doesn't specify an explicit layout.

In addition, the compiler validates the System.Runtime.CompilerServices.InlineArrayAttribute attribute:

  • The length must be greater than zero ( > 0 ).
  • The target type must be a struct.

In most cases, an inline array can be accessed like an array, both to read and write values. In addition, you can use the range and index operators.

There are minimal restrictions on the type of the single field. It can't be a pointer type, but it can be any reference type, or any value type. You can use inline arrays with almost any C# data structure.

Inline arrays are an advanced language feature. They're intended for high-performance scenarios where an inline, contiguous block of elements is faster than other alternative data structures. You can learn more about inline arrays from the feature speclet

Struct initialization and default values

A variable of a struct type directly contains the data for that struct . That creates a distinction between an uninitialized struct , which has its default value and an initialized struct , which stores values set by constructing it. For example consider the following code:

As the preceding example shows, the default value expression ignores a parameterless constructor and produces the default value of the structure type. Structure-type array instantiation also ignores a parameterless constructor and produces an array populated with the default values of a structure type.

The most common situation where you see default values is in arrays or in other collections where internal storage includes blocks of variables. The following example creates an array of 30 TemperatureRange structures, each of which has the default value:

All of a struct's member fields must be definitely assigned when it's created because struct types directly store their data. The default value of a struct has definitely assigned all fields to 0. All fields must be definitely assigned when a constructor is invoked. You initialize fields using the following mechanisms:

  • You can add field initializers to any field or auto implemented property.
  • You can initialize any fields, or auto properties, in the body of the constructor.

Beginning with C# 11, if you don't initialize all fields in a struct, the compiler adds code to the constructor that initializes those fields to the default value. The compiler performs its usual definite assignment analysis. Any fields that are accessed before being assigned, or not definitely assigned when the constructor finishes executing are assigned their default values before the constructor body executes. If this is accessed before all fields are assigned, the struct is initialized to the default value before the constructor body executes.

Every struct has a public parameterless constructor. If you write a parameterless constructor, it must be public. If a struct declares any field initializers, it must explicitly declare a constructor. That constructor need not be parameterless. If a struct declares a field initializer but no constructors, the compiler reports an error. Any explicitly declared constructor (with parameters, or parameterless) executes all field initializers for that struct. All fields without a field initializer or an assignment in a constructor are set to the default value . For more information, see the Parameterless struct constructors feature proposal note.

Beginning with C# 12, struct types can define a primary constructor as part of its declaration. Primary constructors provides a concise syntax for constructor parameters that can be used throughout the struct body, in any member declaration for that struct.

If all instance fields of a structure type are accessible, you can also instantiate it without the new operator. In that case you must initialize all instance fields before the first use of the instance. The following example shows how to do that:

In the case of the built-in value types , use the corresponding literals to specify a value of the type.

Limitations with the design of a structure type

Structs have most of the capabilities of a class type. There are some exceptions, and some exceptions that have been removed in more recent versions:

  • A structure type can't inherit from other class or structure type and it can't be the base of a class. However, a structure type can implement interfaces .
  • You can't declare a finalizer within a structure type.
  • Prior to C# 11, a constructor of a structure type must initialize all instance fields of the type.

Passing structure-type variables by reference

When you pass a structure-type variable to a method as an argument or return a structure-type value from a method, the whole instance of a structure type is copied. Pass by value can affect the performance of your code in high-performance scenarios that involve large structure types. You can avoid value copying by passing a structure-type variable by reference. Use the ref , out , in , or ref readonly method parameter modifiers to indicate that an argument must be passed by reference . Use ref returns to return a method result by reference. For more information, see Avoid allocations .

struct constraint

You also use the struct keyword in the struct constraint to specify that a type parameter is a non-nullable value type. Both structure and enumeration types satisfy the struct constraint.


For any structure type (except ref struct types), there exist boxing and unboxing conversions to and from the System.ValueType and System.Object types. There exist also boxing and unboxing conversions between a structure type and any interface that it implements.

C# language specification

For more information, see the Structs section of the C# language specification .

For more information about struct features, see the following feature proposal notes:

  • Readonly structs
  • Readonly instance members
  • C# 10 - Parameterless struct constructors
  • C# 10 - Allow with expression on structs
  • C# 10 - Record structs
  • C# 11 - Auto default structs
  • C# reference
  • The C# type system
  • Design guidelines - Choosing between class and struct
  • Design guidelines - Struct design

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  1. Get Rolling with The Best Inline Skates and Adjustable Rollerblades

    Not only is inline skating a fun way to improve your cardiovascular and muscle health, it’s a terrific way to spend the afternoon with friends and fellow skaters. However, it’s important to have a pair of great roller blades to keep you com...

  2. What Is the Abbreviation for “assignment”?

    According to Purdue University’s website, the abbreviation for the word “assignment” is ASSG. This is listed as a standard abbreviation within the field of information technology.

  3. What Is a Deed of Assignment?

    In real property transactions, a deed of assignment is a legal document that transfers the interest of the owner of that interest to the person to whom it is assigned, the assignee. When ownership is transferred, the deed of assignment show...

  4. How to assign a C struct inline?

    3 Answers 3 ... Initialization: counter_t c = {10, 30, 47};. Assignment: c = (counter_t){10, 30, 48};. The latter is called a "compound literal".

  5. Inline Assignment of C Struct: A Guide

    How to assign a C struct inline?, Assignment vs. Initialization: Initializing structs inside another struct in C, Using struct Initializer

  6. [Solved]-How to assign a C struct inline?-C++

    initialization: counter_t c = {10, 30, 47};. assignment: c = (counter_t){10, 30, 48};. the latter is called a "

  7. Struct and union initialization

    When initializing a struct, the first initializer in the list initializes the first declared member (unless a designator is specified)(since C99)

  8. Struct declaration

    See struct initialization for the rules regarding the initializers for structs. ... struct car c = {.year = 1923, .make = "Nash"}; printf("Car: %d

  9. C++ : How to assign a C struct inline?

    C++ : How to assign a C struct inline? To Access My Live Chat Page, On Google, Search for "hows tech developer connect" I promised to reveal

  10. Lesser known C features

    Array of a variable size · Flexible array as a member of a structure · Structure field addressing in definitions · Array initialization · Compound literals · Inline

  11. 13.6

    To help avoid this, C++20 adds a new way to initialize struct members called designated initializers. Designated initializers allow you to

  12. Initialize struct in C [3 ways]

    USE A Struct; Structure initialization; Initialization at Declaration; Initialization using Designated Initializer; Initialized at compile time using the dot(.)

  13. Structure types

    In this article · readonly struct · readonly instance members · Nondestructive mutation · record struct · Inline arrays · Struct initialization and

  14. Defining Structs in Go

    Inline struct definitions appear on the right-hand side of a variable assignment. ... package main import "fmt" func main() { c := struct { Name