- assignments basic law
Assignments: The Basic Law
The assignment of a right or obligation is a common contractual event under the law and the right to assign (or prohibition against assignments) is found in the majority of agreements, leases and business structural documents created in the United States.
As with many terms commonly used, people are familiar with the term but often are not aware or fully aware of what the terms entail. The concept of assignment of rights and obligations is one of those simple concepts with wide ranging ramifications in the contractual and business context and the law imposes severe restrictions on the validity and effect of assignment in many instances. Clear contractual provisions concerning assignments and rights should be in every document and structure created and this article will outline why such drafting is essential for the creation of appropriate and effective contracts and structures.
The reader should first read the article on Limited Liability Entities in the United States and Contracts since the information in those articles will be assumed in this article.
Basic Definitions and Concepts:
An assignment is the transfer of rights held by one party called the “assignor” to another party called the “assignee.” The legal nature of the assignment and the contractual terms of the agreement between the parties determines some additional rights and liabilities that accompany the assignment. The assignment of rights under a contract usually completely transfers the rights to the assignee to receive the benefits accruing under the contract. Ordinarily, the term assignment is limited to the transfer of rights that are intangible, like contractual rights and rights connected with property. Merchants Service Co. v. Small Claims Court , 35 Cal. 2d 109, 113-114 (Cal. 1950).
An assignment will generally be permitted under the law unless there is an express prohibition against assignment in the underlying contract or lease. Where assignments are permitted, the assignor need not consult the other party to the contract but may merely assign the rights at that time. However, an assignment cannot have any adverse effect on the duties of the other party to the contract, nor can it diminish the chance of the other party receiving complete performance. The assignor normally remains liable unless there is an agreement to the contrary by the other party to the contract.
The effect of a valid assignment is to remove privity between the assignor and the obligor and create privity between the obligor and the assignee. Privity is usually defined as a direct and immediate contractual relationship. See Merchants case above.
Further, for the assignment to be effective in most jurisdictions, it must occur in the present. One does not normally assign a future right; the assignment vests immediate rights and obligations.
No specific language is required to create an assignment so long as the assignor makes clear his/her intent to assign identified contractual rights to the assignee. Since expensive litigation can erupt from ambiguous or vague language, obtaining the correct verbiage is vital. An agreement must manifest the intent to transfer rights and can either be oral or in writing and the rights assigned must be certain.
Note that an assignment of an interest is the transfer of some identifiable property, claim, or right from the assignor to the assignee. The assignment operates to transfer to the assignee all of the rights, title, or interest of the assignor in the thing assigned. A transfer of all rights, title, and interests conveys everything that the assignor owned in the thing assigned and the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor. Knott v. McDonald’s Corp ., 985 F. Supp. 1222 (N.D. Cal. 1997)
The parties must intend to effectuate an assignment at the time of the transfer, although no particular language or procedure is necessary. As long ago as the case of National Reserve Co. v. Metropolitan Trust Co ., 17 Cal. 2d 827 (Cal. 1941), the court held that in determining what rights or interests pass under an assignment, the intention of the parties as manifested in the instrument is controlling.
The intent of the parties to an assignment is a question of fact to be derived not only from the instrument executed by the parties but also from the surrounding circumstances. When there is no writing to evidence the intention to transfer some identifiable property, claim, or right, it is necessary to scrutinize the surrounding circumstances and parties’ acts to ascertain their intentions. Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998)
The general rule applicable to assignments of choses in action is that an assignment, unless there is a contract to the contrary, carries with it all securities held by the assignor as collateral to the claim and all rights incidental thereto and vests in the assignee the equitable title to such collateral securities and incidental rights. An unqualified assignment of a contract or chose in action, however, with no indication of the intent of the parties, vests in the assignee the assigned contract or chose and all rights and remedies incidental thereto.
More examples: In Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs ., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998), the court held that the assignee of a party to a subordination agreement is entitled to the benefits and is subject to the burdens of the agreement. In Florida E. C. R. Co. v. Eno , 99 Fla. 887 (Fla. 1930), the court held that the mere assignment of all sums due in and of itself creates no different or other liability of the owner to the assignee than that which existed from the owner to the assignor.
And note that even though an assignment vests in the assignee all rights, remedies, and contingent benefits which are incidental to the thing assigned, those which are personal to the assignor and for his sole benefit are not assigned. Rasp v. Hidden Valley Lake, Inc ., 519 N.E.2d 153, 158 (Ind. Ct. App. 1988). Thus, if the underlying agreement provides that a service can only be provided to X, X cannot assign that right to Y.
Novation Compared to Assignment:
Although the difference between a novation and an assignment may appear narrow, it is an essential one. “Novation is a act whereby one party transfers all its obligations and benefits under a contract to a third party.” In a novation, a third party successfully substitutes the original party as a party to the contract. “When a contract is novated, the other contracting party must be left in the same position he was in prior to the novation being made.”
A sublease is the transfer when a tenant retains some right of reentry onto the leased premises. However, if the tenant transfers the entire leasehold estate, retaining no right of reentry or other reversionary interest, then the transfer is an assignment. The assignor is normally also removed from liability to the landlord only if the landlord consents or allowed that right in the lease. In a sublease, the original tenant is not released from the obligations of the original lease.
An equitable assignment is one in which one has a future interest and is not valid at law but valid in a court of equity. In National Bank of Republic v. United Sec. Life Ins. & Trust Co. , 17 App. D.C. 112 (D.C. Cir. 1900), the court held that to constitute an equitable assignment of a chose in action, the following has to occur generally: anything said written or done, in pursuance of an agreement and for valuable consideration, or in consideration of an antecedent debt, to place a chose in action or fund out of the control of the owner, and appropriate it to or in favor of another person, amounts to an equitable assignment. Thus, an agreement, between a debtor and a creditor, that the debt shall be paid out of a specific fund going to the debtor may operate as an equitable assignment.
In Egyptian Navigation Co. v. Baker Invs. Corp. , 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 30804 (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 14, 2008), the court stated that an equitable assignment occurs under English law when an assignor, with an intent to transfer his/her right to a chose in action, informs the assignee about the right so transferred.
An executory agreement or a declaration of trust are also equitable assignments if unenforceable as assignments by a court of law but enforceable by a court of equity exercising sound discretion according to the circumstances of the case. Since California combines courts of equity and courts of law, the same court would hear arguments as to whether an equitable assignment had occurred. Quite often, such relief is granted to avoid fraud or unjust enrichment.
Note that obtaining an assignment through fraudulent means invalidates the assignment. Fraud destroys the validity of everything into which it enters. It vitiates the most solemn contracts, documents, and even judgments. Walker v. Rich , 79 Cal. App. 139 (Cal. App. 1926). If an assignment is made with the fraudulent intent to delay, hinder, and defraud creditors, then it is void as fraudulent in fact. See our article on Transfers to Defraud Creditors .
But note that the motives that prompted an assignor to make the transfer will be considered as immaterial and will constitute no defense to an action by the assignee, if an assignment is considered as valid in all other respects.
Enforceability of Assignments:
Whether a right under a contract is capable of being transferred is determined by the law of the place where the contract was entered into. The validity and effect of an assignment is determined by the law of the place of assignment. The validity of an assignment of a contractual right is governed by the law of the state with the most significant relationship to the assignment and the parties.
In some jurisdictions, the traditional conflict of laws rules governing assignments has been rejected and the law of the place having the most significant contacts with the assignment applies. In Downs v. American Mut. Liability Ins. Co ., 14 N.Y.2d 266 (N.Y. 1964), a wife and her husband separated and the wife obtained a judgment of separation from the husband in New York. The judgment required the husband to pay a certain yearly sum to the wife. The husband assigned 50 percent of his future salary, wages, and earnings to the wife. The agreement authorized the employer to make such payments to the wife.
After the husband moved from New York, the wife learned that he was employed by an employer in Massachusetts. She sent the proper notice and demanded payment under the agreement. The employer refused and the wife brought an action for enforcement. The court observed that Massachusetts did not prohibit assignment of the husband’s wages. Moreover, Massachusetts law was not controlling because New York had the most significant relationship with the assignment. Therefore, the court ruled in favor of the wife.
Therefore, the validity of an assignment is determined by looking to the law of the forum with the most significant relationship to the assignment itself. To determine the applicable law of assignments, the court must look to the law of the state which is most significantly related to the principal issue before it.
Assignment of Contractual Rights:
Generally, the law allows the assignment of a contractual right unless the substitution of rights would materially change the duty of the obligor, materially increase the burden or risk imposed on the obligor by the contract, materially impair the chance of obtaining return performance, or materially reduce the value of the performance to the obligor. Restat 2d of Contracts, § 317(2)(a). This presumes that the underlying agreement is silent on the right to assign.
If the contract specifically precludes assignment, the contractual right is not assignable. Whether a contract is assignable is a matter of contractual intent and one must look to the language used by the parties to discern that intent.
In the absence of an express provision to the contrary, the rights and duties under a bilateral executory contract that does not involve personal skill, trust, or confidence may be assigned without the consent of the other party. But note that an assignment is invalid if it would materially alter the other party’s duties and responsibilities. Once an assignment is effective, the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor and assumes all of assignor’s rights. Hence, after a valid assignment, the assignor’s right to performance is extinguished, transferred to assignee, and the assignee possesses the same rights, benefits, and remedies assignor once possessed. Robert Lamb Hart Planners & Architects v. Evergreen, Ltd. , 787 F. Supp. 753 (S.D. Ohio 1992).
On the other hand, an assignee’s right against the obligor is subject to “all of the limitations of the assignor’s right, all defenses thereto, and all set-offs and counterclaims which would have been available against the assignor had there been no assignment, provided that these defenses and set-offs are based on facts existing at the time of the assignment.” See Robert Lamb , case, above.
The power of the contract to restrict assignment is broad. Usually, contractual provisions that restrict assignment of the contract without the consent of the obligor are valid and enforceable, even when there is statutory authorization for the assignment. The restriction of the power to assign is often ineffective unless the restriction is expressly and precisely stated. Anti-assignment clauses are effective only if they contain clear, unambiguous language of prohibition. Anti-assignment clauses protect only the obligor and do not affect the transaction between the assignee and assignor.
Usually, a prohibition against the assignment of a contract does not prevent an assignment of the right to receive payments due, unless circumstances indicate the contrary. Moreover, the contracting parties cannot, by a mere non-assignment provision, prevent the effectual alienation of the right to money which becomes due under the contract.
A contract provision prohibiting or restricting an assignment may be waived, or a party may so act as to be estopped from objecting to the assignment, such as by effectively ratifying the assignment. The power to void an assignment made in violation of an anti-assignment clause may be waived either before or after the assignment. See our article on Contracts.
Noncompete Clauses and Assignments:
Of critical import to most buyers of businesses is the ability to ensure that key employees of the business being purchased cannot start a competing company. Some states strictly limit such clauses, some do allow them. California does restrict noncompete clauses, only allowing them under certain circumstances. A common question in those states that do allow them is whether such rights can be assigned to a new party, such as the buyer of the buyer.
A covenant not to compete, also called a non-competitive clause, is a formal agreement prohibiting one party from performing similar work or business within a designated area for a specified amount of time. This type of clause is generally included in contracts between employer and employee and contracts between buyer and seller of a business.
Many workers sign a covenant not to compete as part of the paperwork required for employment. It may be a separate document similar to a non-disclosure agreement, or buried within a number of other clauses in a contract. A covenant not to compete is generally legal and enforceable, although there are some exceptions and restrictions.
Whenever a company recruits skilled employees, it invests a significant amount of time and training. For example, it often takes years before a research chemist or a design engineer develops a workable knowledge of a company’s product line, including trade secrets and highly sensitive information. Once an employee gains this knowledge and experience, however, all sorts of things can happen. The employee could work for the company until retirement, accept a better offer from a competing company or start up his or her own business.
A covenant not to compete may cover a number of potential issues between employers and former employees. Many companies spend years developing a local base of customers or clients. It is important that this customer base not fall into the hands of local competitors. When an employee signs a covenant not to compete, he or she usually agrees not to use insider knowledge of the company’s customer base to disadvantage the company. The covenant not to compete often defines a broad geographical area considered off-limits to former employees, possibly tens or hundreds of miles.
Another area of concern covered by a covenant not to compete is a potential ‘brain drain’. Some high-level former employees may seek to recruit others from the same company to create new competition. Retention of employees, especially those with unique skills or proprietary knowledge, is vital for most companies, so a covenant not to compete may spell out definite restrictions on the hiring or recruiting of employees.
A covenant not to compete may also define a specific amount of time before a former employee can seek employment in a similar field. Many companies offer a substantial severance package to make sure former employees are financially solvent until the terms of the covenant not to compete have been met.
Because the use of a covenant not to compete can be controversial, a handful of states, including California, have largely banned this type of contractual language. The legal enforcement of these agreements falls on individual states, and many have sided with the employee during arbitration or litigation. A covenant not to compete must be reasonable and specific, with defined time periods and coverage areas. If the agreement gives the company too much power over former employees or is ambiguous, state courts may declare it to be overbroad and therefore unenforceable. In such case, the employee would be free to pursue any employment opportunity, including working for a direct competitor or starting up a new company of his or her own.
It has been held that an employee’s covenant not to compete is assignable where one business is transferred to another, that a merger does not constitute an assignment of a covenant not to compete, and that a covenant not to compete is enforceable by a successor to the employer where the assignment does not create an added burden of employment or other disadvantage to the employee. However, in some states such as Hawaii, it has also been held that a covenant not to compete is not assignable and under various statutes for various reasons that such covenants are not enforceable against an employee by a successor to the employer. Hawaii v. Gannett Pac. Corp. , 99 F. Supp. 2d 1241 (D. Haw. 1999)
It is vital to obtain the relevant law of the applicable state before drafting or attempting to enforce assignment rights in this particular area.
In the current business world of fast changing structures, agreements, employees and projects, the ability to assign rights and obligations is essential to allow flexibility and adjustment to new situations. Conversely, the ability to hold a contracting party into the deal may be essential for the future of a party. Thus, the law of assignments and the restriction on same is a critical aspect of every agreement and every structure. This basic provision is often glanced at by the contracting parties, or scribbled into the deal at the last minute but can easily become the most vital part of the transaction.
As an example, one client of ours came into the office outraged that his co venturer on a sizable exporting agreement, who had excellent connections in Brazil, had elected to pursue another venture instead and assigned the agreement to a party unknown to our client and without the business contacts our client considered vital. When we examined the handwritten agreement our client had drafted in a restaurant in Sao Paolo, we discovered there was no restriction on assignment whatsoever…our client had not even considered that right when drafting the agreement after a full day of work.
One choses who one does business with carefully…to ensure that one’s choice remains the party on the other side of the contract, one must master the ability to negotiate proper assignment provisions.
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Collateral Assignment Of Lease
Jump to section, need help with a legal contract, what is a collateral assignment of lease.
A collateral assignment of lease is a legal contract that transfers the rights to rental payments from the asset's owner to a lender to secure funding. In this contract, the lease’s rentals are like a loan from the funder to the lessor and the lease acts as security. Collateral assignment of lease agreements are often used in commercial real estate. In addition to the actual contract, the agreement is often accompanied by a promissory note and a security agreement. Throughout the duration of a collateral assignment of lease agreement, the lessor retains ownership of the leased asset.
Common Sections in Collateral Assignment Of Leases
Below is a list of common sections included in Collateral Assignment Of Leases. These sections are linked to the below sample agreement for you to explore.
Collateral Assignment Of Lease Sample
Reference : Security Exchange Commission - Edgar Database, EX-10.4 5 dex104.htm COLLATERAL ASSIGNMENT OF LEASES AND RENTS FOR THE LA CIENEGA-LA PROPERTY , Viewed November 9, 2021, View Source on SEC .
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Collateral Assignment of Contracts, Licenses, Permits, and Plans (Construction Loan) | Practical Law
Collateral Assignment of Contracts, Licenses, Permits, and Plans (Construction Loan)
Practical law standard document w-008-0125 (approx. 20 pages).
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4 Assignment, Sub-Letting, the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 and Collateral Warranties
- Published: May 2021
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This chapter explores assignment, which denotes the transfer of contractual rights from one party to another. It explains how there can be no assignment of the burden of a contract without the consent of the other contracting party. This chapter also looks at sub-letting, the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 and collateral warranties.
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- Life Insurance
What Is Collateral Assignment (of a Life Insurance Policy)?
Meredith Mangan is a senior editor for The Balance, focusing on insurance product reviews. She brings to the job 15 years of experience in finance, media, and financial markets. Prior to her editing career, Meredith was a licensed financial advisor and a licensed insurance agent in accident and health, variable, and life contracts. Meredith also spent five years as the managing editor for Money Crashers.
Definition and Examples of Collateral Assignment
How collateral assignment works, alternatives to collateral assignment.
Kilito Chan / Getty Images
If you assign your life insurance contract as collateral for a loan, you give the lender the right to collect from the policy’s cash value or death benefit in two circumstances. One is if you stop making payments; the other is if you die before the loan is repaid. Securing a loan with life insurance reduces the lender’s risk, which improves your chances of qualifying for the loan.
Before moving forward with a collateral assignment, learn how the process works, how it impacts your policy, and possible alternatives.
Collateral assignment is the practice of using a life insurance policy as collateral for a loan . Collateral is any asset that your lender can take if you default on the loan.
For example, you might apply for a $25,000 loan to start a business. But your lender is unwilling to approve the loan without sufficient collateral. If you have a permanent life insurance policy with a cash value of $40,000 and a death benefit of $300,000, you could use that life insurance policy to collateralize the loan. Via collateral assignment of your policy, you authorize the insurance company to give the lender the amount you owe if you’re unable to keep up with payments (or if you die before repaying the loan).
Lenders have two ways to collect under a collateral assignment arrangement:
- If you die, the lender gets a portion of the death benefit—up to your remaining loan balance.
- With permanent insurance policies, the lender can surrender your life insurance policy in order to access the cash value if you stop making payments.
Lenders are only entitled to the amount you owe, and are not generally named as beneficiaries on the policy. If your cash value or the death benefit exceeds your outstanding loan balance, the remaining money belongs to you or your beneficiaries.
Whenever lenders approve a loan, they can’t be certain that you’ll repay. Your credit history is an indicator, but sometimes lenders want additional security. Plus, surprises happen, and even those with the strongest credit profiles can die unexpectedly.
Assigning a life insurance policy as collateral gives lenders yet another way to secure their interests and can make approval easier for borrowers.
Types of Life Insurance Collateral
Life insurance falls into two broad categories: permanent insurance and term insurance . You can use both types of insurance for a collateral assignment, but lenders may prefer that you use permanent insurance.
- Permanent insurance : Permanent insurance, such as universal and whole life insurance, is lifelong insurance coverage that contains a cash value. If you default on the loan, lenders can surrender your policy and use that cash value to pay down the balance. If you die, the lender has a right to the death benefit, up to the amount you still owe.
- Term insurance : Term insurance provides a death benefit, but coverage is limited to a certain number of years (20 or 30, for example). Since there’s no cash value in these policies, they only protect your lender if you die before the debt is repaid. The duration of a term policy used as collateral needs to be at least as long as your loan term.
A Note on Annuities
You may also be able to use an annuity as collateral for a bank loan. The process is similar to using a life insurance policy, but there is one key difference to be aware of. Any amount assigned as collateral in an annuity is treated as a distribution for tax purposes. In other words, the amount assigned will be taxed as income up to the amount of any gain in the contract, and may be subject to an additional 10% tax if you’re under 59 ½.
A collateral assignment is similar to a lien on your home . Somebody else has a financial interest in your property, but you keep ownership of it.
To use life insurance as collateral, the lender must be willing to accept a collateral assignment. When that’s the case, the policy owner, or “assignor,” submits a form to the insurance company to establish the arrangement. That form includes information about the lender, or “assignee,” and details about the lender’s and borrower’s rights.
Policy owners generally have control over policies. They may cancel or surrender coverage, change beneficiaries, or assign the contract as collateral. But if the policy has an irrevocable beneficiary, that beneficiary will need to approve any collateral assignment.
State laws typically require you to notify the insurer that you intend to pledge your insurance policy as collateral, and you must do so in writing. In practice, most insurers have specific forms that detail the terms of your assignment.
Some lenders might require you to get a new policy to secure a loan, but others allow you to add a collateral assignment to an existing policy. After submitting your form, it can take 24 to 48 hours for the assignment to go into effect.
Lenders Get Paid First
If you die and the policy pays a death benefit , the lender receives the amount you owe first. Your beneficiaries get any remaining funds once the lender is paid. In other words, your lender takes priority over your beneficiaries when you use this strategy. Be sure to consider the impact on your beneficiaries before you complete a collateral assignment.
After you repay your loan, your lender does not have any right to your life insurance policy, and you can request that the lender release the assignment. Your life insurance company should have a form for that. However, if a lender pays premiums to keep your policy in force, the lender may add those premium payments (plus interest) to your total debt—and collect that extra money.
There may be several other ways for you to get approved for a loan—with or without life insurance:
- Surrender a policy : If you have a cash value life insurance policy that you no longer need, you could potentially surrender the policy and use the cash value. Doing so might prevent the need to borrow, or you might borrow substantially less. However, surrendering a policy ends your coverage, meaning your beneficiaries will not get a death benefit. Also, you’ll likely owe taxes on any gains.
- Borrow from your policy : You may be able to borrow against the cash value in your permanent life insurance policy to get the funds you need. This approach could eliminate the need to work with a traditional lender, and creditworthiness would not be an issue. But borrowing can be risky, as any unpaid loan balance reduces the amount your beneficiaries receive. Plus, over time, deductions for the cost of insurance and compounding loan interest may negate your cash value and the policy could lapse, so it’s critical to monitor.
- Consider other solutions : You may have other options unrelated to a life insurance policy. For example, you could use the equity in your home as collateral for a loan, but you could lose your home in foreclosure if you can’t make the payments. A co-signer could also help you qualify, although the co-signer takes a significant risk by guaranteeing your loan.
- Life insurance can help you get approved for a loan when you use a collateral assignment.
- If you die, your lender receives the amount you owe, and your beneficiaries get any remaining death benefit.
- With permanent insurance, your lender can cash out your policy to pay down your loan balance.
- An annuity can be used as collateral for a loan but may not be a good idea because of tax consequences.
- Other strategies can help you get approved without putting your life insurance coverage at risk.
NYSBA. " Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts Within and Without Tax Qualified Retirement Plans and Life Insurance Trusts ." Accessed April 12, 2021.
IRS. " Publication 575 (2020), Pension and Annuity Income ." Accessed April 12, 2021.
Practical Law. " Security Interests: Life Insurance Policies ." Accessed April 12, 2021.
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Collateral Assignment of Contract Rights and Proceeds Sample Clauses
- Assignment of Contracts
- Collateral Assignment
- Assignment of Contract
- Assignment of Contracts and Rights
- Assignment of Collateral
- Assignment of Leases
- Assignment of Leases, Rents and Profits
- Grant of Contract Right
- Consent to Collateral Assignment
- Assignment of Leases and Rents
Related to Collateral Assignment of Contract Rights and Proceeds
Assignment of Contracts To the extent the assignment of any insurance policy, Contract, Lease, Permit, commitment or other asset to be assigned by Sellers to Buyers pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement shall require the consent of any other person, this Agreement shall not constitute a contract to assign the same if an attempted assignment would constitute a breach thereof or give rise to any right of acceleration or termination. If any such consent is not obtained prior to Closing, Sellers shall cooperate with Buyers at their request in endeavoring to obtain such consent promptly, and if any such consent is unobtainable, to use its reasonable efforts to secure to Buyers the benefits thereof in some other manner, including enforcement of any and all rights of Sellers against the other party thereto arising out of breach or cancellation thereof by such other party or otherwise (including, to the extent permissible, through a sub-contracting, sub-licensing, sub-participation or sub-leasing arrangement, or an arrangement under which Sellers would enforce such insurance policy, Contract, Lease, Permit, commitment or other asset for the benefit of Buyers, with Buyers, to the extent permissible, assuming Sellers’ executory obligations and any and all rights of Sellers against the other party thereto); provided that nothing herein shall relieve Sellers of their respective obligations under Section 5.2.
Collateral Assignment The Owner may assign this contract as collateral security. The Company is not responsible for the validity or effect of a collateral assignment. The Company will not be responsible to an assignee for any payment or other action taken by the Company before receipt of the assignment in writing at its Home Office. The interest of any beneficiary will be subject to any collateral assignment made either before or after the beneficiary is named. A collateral assignee is not an Owner. A collateral assignment is not a transfer of ownership. Ownership can be transferred only by complying with Section 8.2.
Assignment of Contract A. Unless expressly agreed to elsewhere in the Contract, no assignment by a party hereto of any rights under or interests in the Contract will be binding on another party hereto without the written consent of the party sought to be bound; and, specifically but without limitation, money that may become due and money that is due may not be assigned without such consent (except to the extent that the effect of this restriction may be limited by law), and unless specifically stated to the contrary in any written consent to an assignment, no assignment will release or discharge the assignor from any duty or responsibility under the Contract Documents.
Assignment of Contracts and Rights Anything in this Agreement to the contrary notwithstanding, this Agreement shall not constitute an agreement to assign any Asset or any claim or right or any benefit arising thereunder or resulting therefrom if an attempted assignment thereof, without the consent of a third party thereto, would constitute a breach or other contravention thereof, be ineffective with respect to any party thereto or in any way adversely affect the rights of Seller or, upon transfer, Purchaser thereunder. Seller agrees that it will use its best efforts to obtain the necessary consents to the assignment of each Seller Contract or other Seller Asset which by its terms requires the consent of any of the other contracting parties thereto to an assignment thereof to Purchaser. If such consent is not obtained with respect to any such Contract or other Asset, Seller and Purchaser will cooperate in an arrangement reasonably satisfactory to Purchaser and Seller under which Purchaser shall obtain, to the extent practicable, the claims, rights and benefits and assume the corresponding obligations thereunder in accordance with this Agreement, including subcontracting, sub-licensing or sub-leasing to Purchaser, or under which Seller shall enforce for the benefit of Purchaser, with Purchaser assuming Seller’s obligations, any and all claims, rights and benefits of Seller against a third party thereto. Seller will promptly pay to Purchaser when received all monies received by Seller under any Contract or other Asset or any claim, right or benefit arising thereunder not transferred to Purchaser pursuant to this Section 8(j). Purchaser agrees to perform at its sole expense all of the obligations of Seller to be performed after the Acquisition Date under any such Contract or other Asset the benefits of which Purchaser is receiving pursuant to the provisions of this Section 8(g).
Assignment of Collateral There is no material collateral securing any Mortgage Loan that has not been assigned to the Purchaser.
Assignment of Leases The Assignment of Leases creates a valid assignment of, or a valid security interest in, certain rights under the Leases, subject only to a license granted to Borrower to exercise certain rights and to perform certain obligations of the lessor under the Leases, including the right to operate the Property. No Person other than Lender has any interest in or assignment of the Leases or any portion of the Rents due and payable or to become due and payable thereunder.
Assignment of Leases, Rents and Profits There exists as part of the related Mortgage File an Assignment of Leases, Rents and Profits (either as a separate instrument or incorporated into the related Mortgage). Subject to the Permitted Encumbrances and the Title Exceptions (and, in the case of a Mortgage Loan that is part of a Whole Loan, subject to the related Assignment of Leases, Rents and Profits constituting security for the entire Whole Loan), each related Assignment of Leases, Rents and Profits creates a valid first-priority collateral assignment of, or a valid first-priority lien or security interest in, rents and certain rights under the related lease or leases, subject only to a license granted to the related Borrower to exercise certain rights and to perform certain obligations of the lessor under such lease or leases, including the right to operate the related leased property, except as the enforcement thereof may be limited by the Standard Qualifications. The related Mortgage or related Assignment of Leases, Rents and Profits, subject to applicable law, provides that, upon an event of default under the Mortgage Loan, a receiver is permitted to be appointed for the collection of rents or for the related mortgagee to enter into possession to collect the rents or for rents to be paid directly to the mortgagee.
Grant of Contract Right In connection with the sale of the Initial Loans, VL Funding hereby assigns to Funding all of its rights (but none of its obligations) under, in and to the Conveyance Agreement with respect to the Initial Loans, including all rights of VL Funding to proceed against the Master Depositor with respect to breaches of representations, warranties and covenants with respect to the Initial Loans.
Consent to Collateral Assignment Subject to the provisions of this Section 9.05, Seller may (but is not obligated to) assign this Agreement as collateral to a Lender for any financing or refinancing of the Generating Facility, including a Sale-Leaseback Transaction or Equity Investment and, in connection therewith, Buyer shall in good faith work with Seller and Lender to agree upon a consent to a collateral assignment of this Agreement or to a Sale-Leaseback Transaction or Equity Investment, as applicable (“Collateral Assignment Agreement”). The Collateral Assignment Agreement shall be in form and substance reasonably agreed to by Xxxxx, Seller and Lender, and shall include, among others, the following provisions (together with such other commercially reasonable provisions required by any Lender that are reasonably acceptable to Buyer):
Assignment of Leases and Rents There exists as part of the related Mortgage File an Assignment of Leases (either as a separate instrument or incorporated into the related Mortgage). Subject to the Permitted Encumbrances and Title Exceptions (and, in the case of a Mortgage Loan that is part of a Whole Loan, subject to the related Assignment of Leases constituting security for the entire Whole Loan), each related Assignment of Leases creates a valid first-priority collateral assignment of, or a valid first-priority lien or security interest in, rents and certain rights under the related lease or leases, subject only to a license granted to the related Mortgagor to exercise certain rights and to perform certain obligations of the lessor under such lease or leases, including the right to operate the related leased property, except as the enforcement thereof may be limited by the Standard Qualifications. The related Mortgage or related Assignment of Leases, subject to applicable law and the Standard Qualifications, provides that, upon an event of default under the Mortgage Loan, a receiver may be appointed for the collection of rents or for the related Mortgagee to enter into possession to collect the rents or for rents to be paid directly to the Mortgagee.
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A BankUnited Company
COLLATERAL ASSIGNMENT OF FRANCHISE AGREEMENTS , MANAGEMENT AGRE E MENT
AND PARTNERSHIP INTERESTS
THIS COLLATERAL ASSIGNMENT OF FRANCHISE AGREEMENTS , MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT and PARTNERSHIP INTERESTS AGREEMENT (this "Assignment"), dated as of Ju ly _, 201 4 is made by and between GOOD TIMES DRIVE THRU INC. , a Colorado c orporation (the "Assignor"), and UNITED CAPITAL BUSINESS LENDING, INC . , a Delaware corporation, (hereinafter referred to as "Assignee").
WHEREAS, Assignor is the franchisor under certa in Franchise Agreements for Good Times Burgers & Frozen Custard restaurant l ocations set forth on Exhibit A ( the Franchise Agreements );
WHEREAS, Assignor is the General Partner of Fast Restaurants Co-Development Limited Partnership, a Colorado l imited p artnership (the Limited Partnership );
WHEREAS, Assignor is the Manager of the restaurants owned by the Limited Partnership pursuant to the terms and conditions of a Management Agreement by and between the Assignor and the Limited Partnership dated May 1, 1993 (the Management Agreement );
WHEREAS, by the execution of this Assignment, Assignor desires to induce Assignee to extend certain financial accommodations to Assignor (the "Loan") pursuant to that certain Development Line Loan and Security Agreement dated of even date he rewith, by and between Assignee and , and A ssignor as Lender (as hereafter amended, supplemented, modified and/or restated from time to time, the " Development Line Agreement "); and
WHEREAS, Assignee is unwilling to execute, deliver or perform under the Development Line Agreement or other Loan Documents (as defined in the Development Line Agreement ) unless the Assignor collaterally assigns its rights under the Franchise Agreements , the Management Agreement and the Assignor s partnership interest in the Limited Partnership t o secure the Loan and all of the Assignor s Obligations, as that term is defined in the Development Line Agreement , thereunder .
NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises herein contained and other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, the parties hereto, intending to be legally bound, agree as follows:
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1. As additional collateral security for all debts, liabilities, or obligations of Assignor now existing or hereafter arising under the Loan Documents, Assignor hereby assigns, transfers and sets over to Assignee all of its rights, but not its obligations, as the General Partner under the Limited Partnership Agreement of the Limited Partnership (the Limited Partnership Agreement ) , its rights under the Management Agreement and the Franchise Agreements . The Assignor understands and agrees that notwithstanding this assignment, its General Partnership Interest in the Limited Partnership and its rights under the Management Agreement and the Franchise Agreements are included in Collateral as that term is defined in the Development Line Agreement and are subject to the terms and conditions of the Development Line Agreement . The Assignor and Assignee acknowledge and agree that i f there is a conflict between the terms and condit ions of this Assignment and the Development Line Agreement , the terms of this A ssignment shall control. The Assignor and Assignee further agree that Exhibit A of this Assignment shall be amended to include any franchise agreement s for a Good Times Burgers & Frozen Custard l ocation entered into by the Assignor and a franchisee after the date of this Assignment and that any future franchise agreements shall become subject to the terms and conditions of this Assignment upon their execution by the Assignor .
2. Assignee shall have no obligation or duty to perform any of the obligations of the Assignor under the Limited Partnership Agreement , the Management Agreement or the Franchise Agreements , all of which shall remain the sole and exclusive duty and obligation of the Assignor .
3. The rights assigned hereunder include, and are not limited to, any and all rights of payment and enforcement regarding warranties, representations, covenants and indemnities made by the Limited Partnership under the Limited Partnership Agreement or the Management Agreement or the Franchisees under the Franchise Agreement s , and all rights, claims or causes of action against the Limited Partner or Franchisees for any breach or violation by the Limited Partnership or Limited Partners under the Limited Partnership or the Management Agreement or the Franchisees of the provisions of the Franchise Agreement s ; provided, however , that so long as there exists no payme nt default under Section 5 .1 of the Development Line Agreement which remains uncured for a period of 30 days, Assignor may collect all payments due and owing under the Limited Partnership Agreement , the Management Agreement and/or the Franchise Agreement s and enforce all of the rights, claims or causes of action which Assignor may have under the Limited Partnership Agreement , Management Agreement or the Franchise Agreement s , but only to the extent such enforcement is not inconsistent with Assignee's interest under this Assignment or the Development Line Agreement .
4. Upon the occurrence and during the continuance of a payment default under Section 5 .1 of the Development Line Agreement which remains uncured for a period of 30 days , Assignee may direct (i) the Franchisee s and the Limited Partnership to remit all payments due and owing to Assignor directly to Assignee ; (ii) the Assignor to deliver the original Franchise Agreements to the Assignee within five (5) days of demand by the Assignee; and (ii i ) Assignee may enforce, at the cost and expense of Assignor, either in its own name or in the name of Assignor, all rights of Assignor under the Limited Partnership Agreement, Management Agreement or the Franchise Agreement, including, without limitation, to ( a ) bring suit to enforce any rights under the Limited Partnershi p Agreement, Management Agreement or the Franchise Agreement, ( b ) compromise or settle any disputed claims as to rights under the Limited Partnership Agreement, Management Agreement or the Franchise Agreement, ( c ) give releases
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or acquaintances of rights under this A ssignment , and/or ( d ) do any and all things necessary, convenient, desirable or proper to fully and completely effectuate the collateral assignment of the rights under th is A ssignment .
5. Assignor hereby constitutes and appoints the Assignee or the Assignee's designee as Assignor's attorney-in-fact with full power in Assignor's name, place and stead to, upon the occurrence and during the continuance of a payment default under Section 5 .1 of the Development Line Agreement , do or accomplish any of the aforementioned undertakings and to execute such documents or instruments in the name or stead of Assignor as may be necessary, convenient, desirable or proper in the Assignee's sole and exclusive discretion. The aforementioned power of attorney shall be a power of attorney coupled with an interest and irrevocable. In the event any action is brought by the Assignee to enforce any rights under th is A ssignment , Assignor agrees to fully cooperate with and assist the Assignee in the prosecution thereof.
6. The Limited Partnership and e ach Franchisee is hereby authorized to recognize Assignee's claims and rights hereunder without investigating any reason for any action taken by Assignee or the validity or the amount of the obligations under the Loan Documents or existence of any default thereunder. Assignor shall provide Assignee with a copy of the written notice sent to the Limited Partnership or Franchisee informing the Limited Partnership or Franchisee of this Assignment and the rights of the Assignee hereunder.
7. This A ssignment and all rights and obligations hereunder, including matters of construction, validity, and performance, shall be governed by the law s of the State of Maryland.
8. This Assignment may be executed by facsimile in one or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed to be an original, but all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same instrument.
9. This Assignment shall be binding upon Assignor and Assignor's successors and assigns and shall benefit the Assignee and the Assignee's successors and assigns, pro vided that (a) Assignor may not, without the Assignor s prior written consent, assign or transfer any of this rights under the Loan Documents or its rights or obligations under this Assignment or any interest herein or delegate its duties hereunder, and (b) Assignee shall have the right to assign its rights hereunder and under the Agreement under the conditions provided in the Development Line Agreement with respect to Loan Documents.
10. This Assignment may only be amended by a writing executed by Assignor and Assignee.
11. Except as set forth in the Development Line Agreement, t his Assignment constitutes the final and entire agreement with respect to the collateral assignment of rights under the A ssignment from the Assignor to the Assignee and any term, covenant or provision not set forth herein shall not be considered a part of this Assignment.
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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each of the parties has duly executed this Assignment as of the date first written above.
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