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An Introduction to Research Methods
Table of Contents
The pursuit of knowledge is directly related to the subject of study, or more specifically, to the reassembling of the evidence that will give rise to an explanation for an observed phenomenon that may initially appear to be problematic. It is extremely human to want to know the truth and quench our curiosity.
Let’s first examine why we conduct research. What exactly is its purpose?
The fundamental goal of the research is to gather information to support an investigation or inquiry into a particular thought or hypothesis and to come to a firm conclusion about it. Research is typically a method for acquiring the knowledge needed to evaluate, publish, explore further, and disseminate data.
It is crucial that the Research is of the highest calibre possible to guarantee that a satisfying experience is provided, and that’s where research methods come to the rescue
What are the Research Methods?
Data collection procedures are known as research methodologies. With the help of this knowledge, you can evaluate current practices or procedures and discover more details about a subject. Professionals employ research techniques to learn about human behaviour, medicine, and other academic subjects. Research methodologies can be divided into two primary categories: qualitative and quantitative.
In quantitative research methodologies, data are measured using numerical values. Using statistical analysis, researchers can discover patterns and significance in the data. Exploration of data and non-numerical information is a component of qualitative research methodology . These research techniques also look at the possible connections between experiences and feelings, and meaning.
An Understanding of Research Design
Can you think about conducting research without a plan? Most probably, your answer will be a big NO. So, when we talk about a method for gathering, analysing, and evaluating data, we mean research design. It solves issues and produces a rational and consistent framework for data analysis.
In other words, a researcher’s framework for selecting the research methods and procedures used in a study is known as the research design. The layout enables researchers to focus on developing research techniques appropriate for the topic and set up their investigations for success.
The Primary Goals of Research Design
Before we go deeper, let’s understand why you need research design first. Here are the main objectives of the research design –
- Making ensuring that the findings reached are supported by the data is the primary objective of the research design. It implies that the theory must be supported or refuted by the investigation.
- The researcher’s topical knowledge should be expanded, and the researcher should become more aware of different environments, demographics, and settings.
- Finally, research design enables the researcher to fully comprehend the subject under study and communicate that understanding to others.
In most cases, it is impossible to achieve all three of these objectives at once, but you can try by employing a multi-stage design, also known as multi-stage sampling, in your study.
The Types of Research Design
Now, you must know different types of research design to comprehend the significance of research design itself. Here they are –
When a researcher wants to look at how different factors interact with one another, they employ an experimental design. The independent variable is changed by the researcher, who then monitors the impact on the dependent variable.
It is frequently used in the social sciences to study human behaviour and gain a better understanding of social psychology.
The method of correlational research is non-experimental. It aids in establishing a connection between two variables that are closely related.
The correlation coefficient has a value that lies between -1 and +1. A positive correlation between the two variables is shown by a correlation coefficient of 1, while a negative connection is indicated by a correlation coefficient of -1.
It uses mathematical computations to establish correlations between acquired data and observations. Statistics can support or refute hypotheses about a phenomenon that occurs in nature. Researchers use qualitative observation research techniques to draw conclusions about “why” a certain theory exists and “what” respondents think about it.
It is for situations when gathering useful insights from statistical results is crucial. Using numbers gives you a clearer perspective while making important business decisions. Any organisation that wishes to expand must use quantitative research techniques. And if you are a business student, this type of research design is going to help you a lot.
Sampling Methods – An Overview
When conducting research on a group of people, it is rarely possible to obtain data from every member of that group. In its place, you pick a sample. The population that will actually take part in the study is the sample.
You must carefully consider how you will choose a sample that is typical of the entire group if you want to make meaningful inferences from your findings. It is referred to as a sampling method. In your research, you can utilise one of two main types of sampling techniques –
- Probability sampling uses random selection, which enables you to draw robust statistical conclusions about the entire group.
- Non-probability sampling entails choosing participants not randomly based on practicality or other factors, making it simple to gather data.
Your paper’s or thesis’ methods section should provide a thorough explanation of how you chose your sample and how you went about reducing research bias.
Different Sampling Techniques
Here are the most common sampling techniques for you –
It is the process of selecting people at random from a population so that each person has an equal probability of being chosen.
With stratified sampling, the categories of people in the population are determined by the study’s unique criteria. For instance, a research project on smoking may require segmenting its participants based on factors like age, race, or financial status.
Systematic sampling involves picking a sample in a structured manner. Look at the target demographic and select every fifth, tenth, or twentieth name based on the sample size requirements.
The Value of Choosing the Correct Sampling Method
Sampling produces important research findings. Sample mistakes, however, can occur due to the variations that can exist between a population and a sample. Therefore, it is crucial to employ the most pertinent and practical sampling strategy.
Here are the top three sample mistakes that students often do but you should avoid –
- When a sample does not accurately represent the details of the population, sampling bias arises.
- Sample frame issues happen when the incorrect sub-population is utilised to choose a sample. This may be the result of racial, ethnic, or economic circumstances.
- When findings from samples and population outcomes diverge greatly, systematic mistakes occur.
The 101 of Data Collection Methods
The techniques and processes used to collect data for research purposes are called data-collecting methods. These techniques might entail both quantitative or qualitative methods of data collection and can range from straightforward self-reported assessments to more intricate experiments.
Surveys, interviews, focus groups, experiments, observations, and secondary data analysis are a few common ways of gathering data. The information gathered using these techniques can subsequently be examined, used to support or disprove research hypotheses, and used to reach judgements regarding the subject matter of the study.
The Importance of Data Collection
The procedures used for gathering data are extremely important since they affect how accurate and of high quality the data will be. Here are some data collection techniques of more significance.
- Evaluates the reliability and accuracy of the data gathered.
- Ensures the accuracy, validity, and relevance of the data.
- Increases the sample’s representativeness while reducing bias.
- Essential for reaching reliable judgements and judgements.
- Supplying precise data facilitates the attainment of study objectives.
- Helps to confirm the accuracy and dependability of study findings.
The significance of data collection techniques cannot be emphasised, as they play an important influence in the total efficacy and inner reliability of the research work.
Data Analysis Techniques
Data analysis involves gathering, modelling, and analysing data using a range of statistical and logical techniques. Businesses rely on analytics procedures and equipment to gather information for operational and strategic decision-making.
The processing of data and the extraction of information can be done using a variety of analytical techniques and procedures. Here are a few of the most widely used techniques.
Regression analysis involves examining the connection between dependent variables to ascertain how changes to one may impact changes to another.
A huge data collection must be reduced to a smaller one for factor analysis. By using this technique, it is hoped to uncover tendencies that might have been harder to spot otherwise.
The practice of segmenting a data collection into groups of related data, frequently segmented by a customer demographic, is known as cohort analysis. This helps data analysts and other data analytics users to delve deeper into the numbers pertaining to a certain subset of data.
Monte Carlo simulations simulate the likelihood that various events will occur. These simulations, which frequently include many values and variables and frequently have better-predicting abilities than other data analytics techniques, are frequently utilised for risk mitigation and loss prevention.
Time series analysis examines data across time and establishes a connection between a data point’s value and its occurrence. This method of data analysis is frequently employed to identify cyclical patterns or to forecast financial outcomes.
Ethical Considerations in Research
A set of rules that direct your study designs and procedures are known as ethical considerations in research. When gathering data from people, scientists and researchers are bound by a set of ethical principles.
Human research frequently aims to comprehend real-world events, explore efficient therapies, examine behaviours, and enhance people’s lives in other ways. Important ethical considerations must be made regarding your research topic and methodology.
These factors contribute to the –
- Safeguard the rights of participants in research.
- Increase the validity of studies.
- Keep your academic or scientific integrity.
Why Do Research Ethics Matter?
For the sake of scientific integrity, respect for human rights and dignity, and cooperation between science and society, research ethics are important. These guidelines guarantee that study subjects’ involvement is free, informed, and secure.
You’ll strike a balance between pursuing significant research goals and employing ethical research techniques and processes. Whether intentional or not, it is always required to protect participants against long-term or extreme harm.
Defying research ethics reduces the credibility of your research since it is difficult for others to believe your data if your techniques are morally dubious.
It doesn’t make it okay to violate the human rights or dignity of your study subjects, even if your research idea is important to society.
Validity and Reliability
Concepts like validity and reliability are used to assess the calibre of research. They demonstrate the accuracy of a methodology, procedure, or test. Validity is concerned with a measure’s correctness, whereas reliability is concerned with its consistency.opt
When developing your research design, selecting your research methodologies, and summarising your findings, reliability and validity should be taken into account, particularly in quantitative research. Failure to do so can result in a variety of research biases, which will negatively impact your study.
How are Validity and Reliability Evaluated?
When evaluating reliability, we want to determine if the test result can be reproduced. To make certain that this test is valid, we would need to alter a few factors, the most crucial of which being time, items, and spectators.
A test-retest reliability evaluation is carried out when time is the key variable that is altered during the reliability test.
However, you are conducting an internal consistency analysis if you are modifying any of the components. It indicates that you are using a single instrument to measure several things.
Finally, an inter-rater reliability test is carried out when the same item is measured with the same instrument but by different observers or judges.
How Will You Choose a Research Methodology?
Your study aims, and objectives will have a significant impact on the research approach, as you have presumably realised by this point. Therefore, before making technique decisions, sit back and consider the overall context of your research as a beginning point for constructing your research approach. Which type of research—exploratory or confirmatory—does your study fall under? is the first thing you should determine.
Your research will probably be qualitative if your main goals and objectives are exploratory. Thus, you may want to think about qualitative data gathering and analysis techniques like qualitative content analysis.
On the other hand, if your research’s goals and objectives are confirmatory—that is, they attempt to measure or test something—then your study will probably be quantitative in character, and you might think about using quantitative data collection techniques (such as surveys) and analyses (such as statistical analysis) to gather and analyse your data.
The most important lesson to remember right now is that your research’s goals, objectives, and research questions should always come first (also known as the “golden thread”). Each methodological decision you make must be in accordance with these three criteria.
Before drawing any judgements about your study, review your goals. Keep in mind how the procedures you followed and the information you acquired helped to resolve your questions. Consider whether what your analysis reveals makes it easier to identify your conclusions and suggestions.
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Assignment of research methods
Define research Objectives of research Motivation of research Types of research Conclusion 2 | P a g e
According to Mugenda & Mugenda (2010), research is process of carrying out a diligent inquiry or a critical examination of a given phenomenonexhaustive study that follows some logical sequence. Mouly defines research as a process of arriving at effective solutions to problems through systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Research also involves a critical analysis of existing conclusions or theories with regard to newly discovered facts Research is the continued search for knowledge and understanding of the world around us. Clifford Woody argues that research is the process of designing and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypothesis.
Research is any original and systematic investigation undertaken to increase knowledge and understanding and to establish facts and principles. It comprises the creation of ideas and generation of new knowledge that lead to new and improved insights and the development of new material, devices, products and processes. The word " research " perhaps originates from the old French word recerchier that meant to 'search again'. It implicitly assumes that the earlier search was not exhaustive and complete and hence a repeated search is called for.
Dr. Usman Bappi
WILBERT M G A N G A MTESSIGWA
Gene Marie Sumaculob
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (Basis in the Management and Business Process)
MD Ashikur Rahman
DURGESH SINGH RATHORE
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A Comprehensive Guide To Research Methods, Types & Examples
Author : Administrator
Research methods or research methodology refers to the processes behind the research. The systematic methods used by a researcher in compiling a research paper or report and the reliable results with conclusive evidence comprises research. A dissertation, thesis, research paper and even an academic journal requires extensive research. A good research method is one where the researcher highlights the research methods used and why the method is relevant.
Many latest and surprisingly more in-depth exploration areas anticipate the consideration of devoted researchers and curious journalists. Research is instrumental in building and further developing information and supporting existing information with certain realities to enhance learning.
The research method used in conducting specific research entails the profundity of the results, and it also determines the result, conclusion and discussions raised by the research. Abiding by good research methodology regulates the quality of the data and the reliability of the conclusive evidence. Following are the four key points that researchers used for choosing their research method:
- Firstly, the researchers decide on what data to collect? The relevancy of the data to the research topic or requirement.
- Next, they decide on the data source. The originality of data decides the quality of the research.
- After deciding the process and source of data collection, the researcher collected the required data. This step is time-consuming; it may take days, months or years.
- Lastly, the collected data is analysed to draw conclusions and recommendations.
What Are the Various Types of Research Methodologies?
Research is the building block of any enterprise, be it marketing research, scientific research, or analysis of the latest innovation. Every innovation and idea is a result of a previous research conclusion. Thriving for a newer and better version of basically everything is human nature, and researching helps us attain that. As it is ingrained in our veins to get better and better with time, we have done a comprehensive study of research methods . Hence here are a few of the most prominent research methods used in various sectors:
A quantitative research method is one where the results are presented in 'quantities' or numerical form. Data collected by researchers in quantitative research can be represented in statistical form, but there are exceptions.
An example of quantitative research is when a company conducts customer satisfaction rating surveys. For such a survey, the company uses a questionnaire template to collect data based on various parameters like quality, price, satisfaction, customer experience about their goods and services.
Did you know Australian organisations lose $720 per bad client experience, and just 31% of professional firms reward their representatives across the organisation for further developing customer satisfaction?
This research method is useful to determine people's views on various topics. The data collected in such a research method is non-numerical and is useful for recuse. These research methods include ethnography , grounded theory, narrative research, and event-based research. Such research is useful in determining the core issues of a situation or developing new ideas.
Some topics for qualitative research are:
- How do children of different age groups work on their homework?
- Why is it important to address social issues in school curriculums?
- What are the various factors triggering anxiety in individuals of different ages?
- Is social media a boon or bane?
A recent study conducted phone interviews with 40 Australian grown-ups in mid-2020 regarding their encounters with the COVID-19 emergency. There was significant interest in COVID-19 data as individuals faced vulnerability, tension, and feeling overpowered. Certain critical occasions or encounters made individuals aware that the episode compromised Australia and themselves conceivably.
For analytical research methods, pre-existing facts and knowledge are used to evaluate a given data or theme. Quantitative research is also useful for conducting analytical research. The basic reason for conducting analytical research is to determine the 'why?' behind any problem or situation. It is different from descriptive research as there is no comparative analysis or classification of the research. It is to be used to establish the cause-effect relationship among the variables.
An example of analytical research is determining the effects of covid on the finance and public health sectors. The quantitative analysis of the supporting data is descriptive, but review effects caused by covid are analytical.
Marketing Analytics has removed the barrier of working with information and examination across all channels. Businesses currently have improved lucidity about product execution. Advertising Analytics was successful in changing the Marketing dynamic.
Fundamental research is used to develop theories or hypotheses based on previous research and are purely new and original. This research method is often used by an enterprise's research and development operations. It is useful yet strenuous and time-consuming.
The various flavours developed by a food company, the advanced and entirely innovations introduced by tech companies, and the latest covid information we receive every other day result from fundamental research carried out by researchers.
Australia's spending on science-based R&D, as a level of GDP, has diminished throughout recent years, albeit throughout recent many years it has expanded, notwithstanding falling government support.
As the name suggests, conclusive research is useful for providing analysis and conclusion for a research project that has a standard research methodology and format. A pre-existing research structure helps attain a required conclusion and draw a hypothesis. Scientists often use such methods to reach various problems or find better medicine for certain diseases.
Laboratory research conducted in a controlled environment to reach a desired or required result is considered conclusive research. The researchers control some variables and manipulate the others to measure the effect of such variables on the result. The development of various medicines or vaccines is an example of conclusive research.
Learn how to acknowledge any source of information using the APA 7th style .
How Do You Write the Research Methodology in an Assignment?
Here’s a sample to help you understand research methods better for your assignments:
Research is important to determine the course of action, gather information, and develop theories in the field. It helps build knowledge and understand the issues regarding research as a tool for analysing their profit-loss per cent and determining future scope. Since it is very important, it has to be presented properly. The following are the steps to write research:
- First, write the introduction or the aim of the research (or the experiment in case of conclusive research).
- Next, you need to write the methodology used in conducting the research.
- List the methods used for data collection and sources.
- Describe your data analysis method and support your analysis method concerning the requirement of the research theme.
- Add all the supportive arguments for your research and the relevancy of your data. The observations made throughout the research and the quantitative research results can also be added to this section.
- Lastly, write the conclusions and further recommendations for the research.
Researching is crucial to devising the required theories, results, or hypotheses for various fields of study. It is used in schools, universities, marketing operations, scientific research, data analysis and more. Every professional field or field of study requires minor or major research. Researching helps verify the relevancy of the data and attain needed lots.
In the marketing sector, researching is what makes the business keep running. The newer, better products and technologies are a result of research. Each of those is considered researching, from googling a query to jotting down the various progressive data of a lab experiment. We hope this blog helped in clearing most of your doubts regarding research methodologies. Our assignment help experts know that research methods are an integral component of college assignments and thus, are always there to assist students via online one-to-one guided sessions. Get all your queries resolved by availing our academic assistance today!
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