Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long as There Isn't Too Much

The study, led by professor Harris Cooper, also shows that the positive correlation is much stronger for secondary students than elementary students

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It turns out that parents are right to nag: To succeed in school, kids should do their homework.

Duke University researchers have reviewed more than 60 research studies on homework between 1987 and 2003 and concluded that homework does have a positive effect on student achievement.

Harris Cooper, a professor of psychology, said the research synthesis that he led showed the positive correlation was much stronger for secondary students --- those in grades 7 through 12 --- than those in elementary school.

READ MORE: Harris Cooper offers tips for teaching children in the next school year in this USA Today op-ed published Monday.

"With only rare exception, the relationship between the amount of homework students do and their achievement outcomes was found to be positive and statistically significant," the researchers report in a paper that appears in the spring 2006 edition of "Review of Educational Research."

Cooper is the lead author; Jorgianne Civey Robinson, a Ph.D. student in psychology, and Erika Patall, a graduate student in psychology, are co-authors. The research was supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Education.

While it's clear that homework is a critical part of the learning process, Cooper said the analysis also showed that too much homework can be counter-productive for students at all levels.

"Even for high school students, overloading them with homework is not associated with higher grades," Cooper said.

Cooper said the research is consistent with the "10-minute rule" suggesting the optimum amount of homework that teachers ought to assign. The "10-minute rule," Cooper said, is a commonly accepted practice in which teachers add 10 minutes of homework as students progress one grade. In other words, a fourth-grader would be assigned 40 minutes of homework a night, while a high school senior would be assigned about two hours. For upper high school students, after about two hours' worth, more homework was not associated with higher achievement.

The authors suggest a number of reasons why older students benefit more from homework than younger students. First, the authors note, younger children are less able than older children to tune out distractions in their environment. Younger children also have less effective study habits.

But the reason also could have to do with why elementary teachers assign homework. Perhaps it is used more often to help young students develop better time management and study skills, not to immediately affect their achievement in particular subject areas.

"Kids burn out," Cooper said. "The bottom line really is all kids should be doing homework, but the amount and type should vary according to their developmental level and home circumstances. Homework for young students should be short, lead to success without much struggle, occasionally involve parents and, when possible, use out-of-school activities that kids enjoy, such as their sports teams or high-interest reading."

Cooper pointed out that there are limitations to current research on homework. For instance, little research has been done to assess whether a student's race, socioeconomic status or ability level affects the importance of homework in his or her achievement.

This is Cooper's second synthesis of homework research. His first was published in 1989 and covered nearly 120 studies in the 20 years before 1987. Cooper's recent paper reconfirms many of the findings from the earlier study.

Cooper is the author of "The Battle over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents" (Corwin Press, 2001).

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Is Homework Good for Kids? Here’s What the Research Says

A s kids return to school, debate is heating up once again over how they should spend their time after they leave the classroom for the day.

The no-homework policy of a second-grade teacher in Texas went viral last week , earning praise from parents across the country who lament the heavy workload often assigned to young students. Brandy Young told parents she would not formally assign any homework this year, asking students instead to eat dinner with their families, play outside and go to bed early.

But the question of how much work children should be doing outside of school remains controversial, and plenty of parents take issue with no-homework policies, worried their kids are losing a potential academic advantage. Here’s what you need to know:

For decades, the homework standard has been a “10-minute rule,” which recommends a daily maximum of 10 minutes of homework per grade level. Second graders, for example, should do about 20 minutes of homework each night. High school seniors should complete about two hours of homework each night. The National PTA and the National Education Association both support that guideline.

But some schools have begun to give their youngest students a break. A Massachusetts elementary school has announced a no-homework pilot program for the coming school year, lengthening the school day by two hours to provide more in-class instruction. “We really want kids to go home at 4 o’clock, tired. We want their brain to be tired,” Kelly Elementary School Principal Jackie Glasheen said in an interview with a local TV station . “We want them to enjoy their families. We want them to go to soccer practice or football practice, and we want them to go to bed. And that’s it.”

A New York City public elementary school implemented a similar policy last year, eliminating traditional homework assignments in favor of family time. The change was quickly met with outrage from some parents, though it earned support from other education leaders.

New solutions and approaches to homework differ by community, and these local debates are complicated by the fact that even education experts disagree about what’s best for kids.

The research

The most comprehensive research on homework to date comes from a 2006 meta-analysis by Duke University psychology professor Harris Cooper, who found evidence of a positive correlation between homework and student achievement, meaning students who did homework performed better in school. The correlation was stronger for older students—in seventh through 12th grade—than for those in younger grades, for whom there was a weak relationship between homework and performance.

Cooper’s analysis focused on how homework impacts academic achievement—test scores, for example. His report noted that homework is also thought to improve study habits, attitudes toward school, self-discipline, inquisitiveness and independent problem solving skills. On the other hand, some studies he examined showed that homework can cause physical and emotional fatigue, fuel negative attitudes about learning and limit leisure time for children. At the end of his analysis, Cooper recommended further study of such potential effects of homework.

Despite the weak correlation between homework and performance for young children, Cooper argues that a small amount of homework is useful for all students. Second-graders should not be doing two hours of homework each night, he said, but they also shouldn’t be doing no homework.

Not all education experts agree entirely with Cooper’s assessment.

Cathy Vatterott, an education professor at the University of Missouri-St. Louis, supports the “10-minute rule” as a maximum, but she thinks there is not sufficient proof that homework is helpful for students in elementary school.

“Correlation is not causation,” she said. “Does homework cause achievement, or do high achievers do more homework?”

Vatterott, the author of Rethinking Homework: Best Practices That Support Diverse Needs , thinks there should be more emphasis on improving the quality of homework tasks, and she supports efforts to eliminate homework for younger kids.

“I have no concerns about students not starting homework until fourth grade or fifth grade,” she said, noting that while the debate over homework will undoubtedly continue, she has noticed a trend toward limiting, if not eliminating, homework in elementary school.

The issue has been debated for decades. A TIME cover in 1999 read: “Too much homework! How it’s hurting our kids, and what parents should do about it.” The accompanying story noted that the launch of Sputnik in 1957 led to a push for better math and science education in the U.S. The ensuing pressure to be competitive on a global scale, plus the increasingly demanding college admissions process, fueled the practice of assigning homework.

“The complaints are cyclical, and we’re in the part of the cycle now where the concern is for too much,” Cooper said. “You can go back to the 1970s, when you’ll find there were concerns that there was too little, when we were concerned about our global competitiveness.”

Cooper acknowledged that some students really are bringing home too much homework, and their parents are right to be concerned.

“A good way to think about homework is the way you think about medications or dietary supplements,” he said. “If you take too little, they’ll have no effect. If you take too much, they can kill you. If you take the right amount, you’ll get better.”

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Harris Cooper

Harris Cooper

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Harris Cooper received his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from the University of Connecticut in 1975. From 1977 to 2003, he was on the faculty at the University of Missouri. In 2003, he moved to Duke University where he is a professor in the Department of Psychology & Neuroscience and served as Director of the Program in Education from 2003 to 2008. Dr. Cooper has been a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, the University of Oregon, and the Russell Sage Foundation. Dr. Cooper's research interests follow two paths. The first concerns research synthesis and research methodology. His book, Synthesizing Research: A Guide for Literature Reviews (1998), is in revision for its 4th edition. He is the co-editor of the Handbook of Research Synthesis (1994), a volume that is currently being prepared for a 2nd edition. Dr. Cooper and his students have published over two dozen research syntheses, many of which appeared in varied prestigious journals including Psychological Bulletin, Review of Educational Research, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the Journal of Marketing Research, and Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. In 2007, Dr. Cooper was the recipient of the Frederick Mosteller Award for Contributions to Research Synthesis Methodology given by the Campbell Collaboration and in 2008 he received the Ingram Olkin Award for Distinguished Lifetime Contribution to Research Synthesis from the Society for Research Synthesis Methodology. In 2007, Dr. Cooper was appointed to membership on the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Social Science Evidence in Use. This committee gives sustained attention to issues and actions aimed at promoting high quality social science research with an eye toward improving evidence used in public policy decision-making. He is also a member of the NAS Committee on Advancing Social Science Theory: The Importance of Common Metrics. In 2007-08, he chaired the Journal Article Reporting Standards Working Group that developed guidelines for what information about research should be included in manuscripts submitted to journals published by the American Psychological Association (American Psychologist, in press). Dr. Cooper authored the chapter on “Research Questions and Research Design” in the Handbook of Research in Educational Psychology. He is co-author of the Study Design and Implementation Assessment Device (DIAD), an instrument for assessing the correspondence between the features and conduct of social science research and its ability to draw inferences about causal relationships (Psychological Methods, 2008). He recently agreed to be the editor of the American Psychological Association’s three-volume Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology. Dr. Cooper is also interested in the application of social and developmental psychology to educational policy issues. In particular, he studies how the activities that children and adolescents engage in when they are not in school influence their academic achievement. His research synthesis titled Homework (1989) was published as a monograph and provided the evidence base for a guide to policy and practice (The Battle over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents, 3rd edition, 2007). He and his students recently updated the synthesis of homework research (Review of Educational Research, 2006) and the resulting article received the 2007 Outstanding Review of Research Award from the American Educational Research Association. Dr. Cooper ´s research on homework has had an impact on policies and practices nationwide. In addition to working directly with schools and school districts, his work has been highlighted frequently in national media. Dr. Cooper has been a guest on NBC Dateline, CBS This Morning, ABC Nightly News and Good Morning America, CNN Headline News, Nickelodeon Nick News, and The Oprah Winfrey Show. On radio, he has appeared on The Larry King Show, NPR’s Talk of the Nation and the Mitch Ablom Show. Coverage of his work has also appeared in the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Newsweek, Time, Readers´ Digest, and USA Today Weekend, as well as every major metropolitan newspaper. More specialized publications also have provided coverage of his work, including Parents, Parenting, and Child magazines, NEA Today, and The American Teacher. Dr. Cooper and his students also study the impact of school calendars and calendar variations on students and their families. Their research syntheses on summer learning loss (1996) and modified school calendars (2003) were published in Review of Educational Research. In 2000, their monograph entitled Making the Most of Summer School was published by the Society for Research on Child Development. This monograph reported a synthesis of over 90 evaluations of the effectiveness of summer school. Dr. Cooper and his students are currently working on syntheses of research regarding the effects of all-day kindergarten, extending the school year, and lengthening the school day on students’ academic achievement and related outcomes. In 2003, Dr. Cooper became Editor for the Psychological Bulletin and will serve through mid-2009. The Institute for Scientific Information (2006) ranked the Psychological Bulletin 1st among all multidisciplinary psychology journals with regard to both the number of times it is cited and the impact of articles on the field. It ranked 5th among all social science journals (n=1768) in total citations and 3rd in impact factor. He has been Associate Editor of Social Psychology of Education, and an Advisory Editor for the Journal of Educational Psychology, the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, the Elementary School Journal, Journal of Experimental Education, and the American Educational Research Journal. Dr. Cooper is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association Divisions 3 and 15, the American Psychological Society, and the American Educational Research Association. His research grants include three awards from the National Science Foundation, five from the Department of Education, two from the Russell Sage Foundation, two from the Smith Richardson Foundation, and one each from the Spencer Foundation, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. In 1984, Dr. Cooper received the first Raymond B. Cattell Early Career Award for Programmatic Research from the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Dr. Cooper served a three-year term as the Chair of the Department of Psychological Sciences at the University of Missouri. This academic unit had over 30 regular faculty members and 20 non-regular faculty members and trained over 70 graduate students and 800 undergraduate majors each year. As Director of Duke University’s Program in Education, he oversaw teacher licensure programs at both the elementary and secondary level. From 1992 to 1998, he served as an elected member of the Columbia, MO, Board of Education, a school district with a $100 million budget serving 16,000 students. In 1997, he won the AERA Award for Interpretive Scholarship for his article “Speaking Power to Truth: Reflections of an Educational Researcher after Four Years of School Board Service.” Dr. Cooper served for six years (1999-2005) as the chair of the methods groups for the Campbell Collaboration and as their representative on the Campbell Collaboration International Steering Committee. His national service includes sitting on two committees on afterschool programs for the C.S. Mott Foundation and on the Steering Committee of the National Partnership for Quality Afterschool Programs. He was the Chair of the APA Council of Editors in 2006 and is a member of its committee revising the APA Publication Manual. He is on the Steering Committee of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness and on the Governing Board of the Regional Educational Laboratory serving the Appalachian region.

Primary Interests:

  • Applied Social Psychology
  • Causal Attribution
  • Motivation, Goal Setting
  • Research Methods, Assessment
  • Social Cognition

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  • Cooper, H. (2007). The battle over homework: Common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Cooper, H. (2010). Reporting research in psychology: How to meet journal article reporting standards. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Cooper, H. (2009). Research synthesis and meta-analysis: A step by step approach (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Cooper, H. (Ed.). (2012). APA handbook of research methods in psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Cooper, H., Hedges, L. V., & Valentine, J. C. (Eds.). (2009). The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Journal Articles:

  • Anderson, K., Cooper, H. M., & Okamura, L. (1997). Individual differences and attitudes toward rape: A metaanalytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 295-315.
  • Conn, V. S., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2002). Interventions to increase physical activity among aging adults: A meta-analysis. Annals of Behavior Medicine, 24, 190-200.
  • Cooper, H., DeNeve, K., & Charlton, K. (1997). Finding the missing science: The fate of studies submitted for review by a human subjects committee. Psychological Methods, 2, 447-452.
  • Cooper, H. M., & Patall, E. A. (2009). The relative benefits of meta-analysis using individual participant data and aggregate data. Psychological Methods, 14, 165-176.
  • Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76, 1-62.
  • Cooper, H., Valentine, J. C., Charleton, K., & Barnett, A. (2003). The effects of modified school calendars on student achievement and school community attitudes: A research synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 73, 1-52.
  • DeNeve, K. M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 143 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 197-229.
  • DePaulo, B. M., Charleton, K., Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., & Muhlenbruck, L. (1997). The accuracy-confidence correlation in the detection of deception. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1, 346-357.
  • DePaulo, B. M., Lindsay, J. J., Malone, B. E., Muhlenbruck, L., Charlton, K., & Cooper, H. (2003). Cues to deception. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 74-118.
  • DuBois, D. L., Holloway, B. E., Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2002). Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 157-197.
  • Journal Article Reporting Standards Working Group. (2008). Reporting standards for research in psychology: Why do we need them? What might they be? American Psychologist, 63(9), 839-851.
  • Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Robinson, J. C. (2008). The effects of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes: A meta-analysis of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 270-300.
  • Valentine, J. C., DuBois, D. L., & Cooper, H. (2004). The relations between self-beliefs and academic achievement: A systematic review. Educational Psychologist, 39, 111-133.

Other Publications:

  • Wynn, S., & Cooper, H. (2007). Bob Dylan. In G. L. Anderson & K. Herr, (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice (pp. 489-492). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Courses Taught:

  • Research Design
  • Research Methods (graduate)
  • Research Methods in Psychological Science (undergraduate)
  • Research Synthesis

Harris Cooper Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Box 90086 Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708 United States of America

  • Work: (919) 660-5664
  • Home: (919) 401-5550
  • Fax: (919) 660-5726

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September 9, 2012 (12:22 pm EST)

How Much Homework Is Too Much?

APA Lecture: How to Review (and Write) Meta-Analysis for Publication

How to Review a Manuscript (APA Lecture)

Do Homework Assignments Benefit Young Students?

2 men plead guilty, sentenced 30 years after veteran dies following Hyde Park carjacking attempt

Then-teens accused of beating 73-year-old, causing him to have a fatal heart attack

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CHICAGO (WLS) -- Two men charged in a violent 2021 attempted carjacking that ended with the death of a Vietnam War veteran pleaded guilty and have been sentenced.

Dushawn Williams, who was 17 at the time of the incident and is now 19, pleaded guilty to aggravated robbery with a firearm Friday. He was sentenced to 30 years in prison.

ABC7 Chicago is now streaming 24/7. Click here to watch

Frank Harris, who was 18 at the time of the crime and is now 21, pleaded guilty in January to the same charge in exchange for a 30-year sentence, as well.

Police said Williams and Harris were responsible for the beating that led to Keith Cooper's death.

A Marine veteran to his core, Cooper's family said he had his final arrangements already planned out.

"This is the place where he was last seen alive, living his life, so I want to celebrate his life here," Cooper's daughter Keimika Carlton said at the time.

Carlton had raced to a Hyde Park shopping center after her father was essentially beaten to death by two teenagers trying to steal his SUV, according to police.

Harris was initially charged with murder and vehicular hijacking, and Williams was charged with first-degree murder in Cooper's death.

"I'm grateful that the justice system is moving forward," Carlton said.

SEE ALSO: 2 teens charged after Vietnam vet dies in Hyde Park carjacking attempt: police

Both were arrested shortly after police said they tried to carjack the 73-year-old Cooper, a Vietnam veteran who stopped for groceries in Hyde Park on his way to his daughter's house.

Williams targeted Cooper right after he got out of his car to go into a drug store at a South Side strip mall, investigators said.

They said the then-teen first approached Cooper from behind, snatching his keys out of his hand. When the fob fell to the ground and Harris picked it up, Cooper started screaming for help and demanded his keys back.

Prosecutors said security camera video shows Harris walking up behind the veteran and punching him in the head. Cooper can be seen writhing in pain.

Williams then shoved Cooper in the chest before the pair ran away without the car.

Carlton said the beating caused her father to have a heart attack and die.

"Out of frustration because they couldn't get into the car, I kind of wish they just would have gave up and left," she said.

Witnesses who fought the two suspects helped police track them down. They were caught about a half-mile away after a witness flagged down a University of Chicago police squad.

Prosecutors said Harris allegedly committed the crime while on probation. He pleaded guilty in May of 2021 to a previous carjacking, in which he used a replica gun to rob his victim.

Harris' public defender said her client, who she said was shot the month before the incident, was a senior in an alternative summer school and had a paid position with the anti-violence group Good Kids Mad City.

"We, unfortunately, lost contact with Frank for the most part. We wish there were more resources out here so we could have given him more opportunities so situations like this won't happen," said Kofi Ademola, an adult advisor for Good Kids Mad City.

The video in the player above is from an earlier report.

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What Matters

What happens if a presidential candidate dies or has to leave the race?

A presidential candidate's podium is seen on the stage in 2016.

A version of this story appeared in CNN’s What Matters newsletter. To get it in your inbox, sign up for free  here .

While the 2024 presidential race seems set in stone as a rematch between President Joe Biden and former President Donald Trump, it’s also true that things happen.

Back in November 1872, for instance, the newspaper publisher and Democratic presidential candidate Horace Greeley died after Election Day but before the casting of Electoral College votes. While it did not affect the outcome – President Ulysses S. Grant easily won reelection – Greeley’s death created the difficult question of what to do with the 66 Electoral College votes he had won.

Most electors, meeting in state capitols, did not cast votes for the deceased Greeley, but rather split them among four other candidates . Congress did not count the three votes that were cast for a dead man.

Pictured is American abolitionist, journalist and politician Horace Greeley, who edited the New York Tribune.

In the more than 150 years since Greeley’s death, there have been two constitutional amendments related to presidential succession, but there is still some gray area when it comes to an unforeseen event that strikes a presidential nominee or candidate.

Today, polling suggests voters are worried that both Trump and Biden are too old for the job. Trump will be 78 on Election Day in November, and Biden will turn 82 later that month. Without being macabre, it’s worth knowing what would happen if, for whatever reason, either man was unable to continue with the race.

Replacing either man on the ballot – not that anyone is seriously talking about it – would be a messy and chaotic process that would uncover divisions and disagreements within the political parties. No one knows for sure what would happen if a candidate died or for some reason needed to withdraw from the race.

Here’s a look at the rules for Republicans and Democrats as they currently stand.

What happens if a candidate cannot continue his or her campaign?

The process of replacing a presidential candidate very much depends on when the vacancy occurs – during the primary process and before the party convention; during the convention or after the convention; or before or after people vote in November.

What happens if a vacancy occurs during the primary process?

While Trump and Biden are in total command of the respective races to be the Republican and Democratic presidential candidates, that process will play out between now and June as states conduct primaries and caucuses and assign delegates based on the results.

If a vacancy on either side happens before most of those primaries were to occur, it’s possible that another candidate could emerge and rack up some delegates. But since filing deadlines have already passed for many primaries, it’s unlikely any single candidate, other than Trump or Biden, could rack up enough delegates to win the nomination before party conventions this summer.

It is, however, possible that states could decide to delay their primaries,  according to Elaine Kamarck , a member of the Democratic National Committee rules committee and a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution who has studied the issue. Republicans will hold their convention in Milwaukee in July, and Democrats will hold theirs just to the south in Chicago in August.

Most delegates will have been awarded by the end of March. Biden has not faced serious opposition in the Democratic primary, has won every delegate at stake so far and needs to win at least 1,968 of 3,934 to secure the nomination on the first ballot of voting.

On the Republican side, Trump has won every contest so far and ultimately needs 1,215 of 2,429 delegates. His top rival, former South Carolina Gov. Nikki Haley, is far behind Trump in the delegate race.

What if a vacancy occurs after the primaries and before or during the convention?

If the leading candidate was to drop out of the campaign after most primaries or even during the convention, individual delegates would likely decide the party’s nominee on the convention floor.

That would shine a spotlight on the normally niche question of who those actual delegates are.

There would be a messy political battle in every state over who would get to be a delegate (if the vacancy happened before many of those people were chosen) and then who they would ultimately support. Even people who did not run primary campaigns could ultimately be considered.

You can assume, for instance, that Vice President Kamala Harris would be a top contender to be on the ballot if, for some reason, Biden left the race. At the same time, given Haley’s weakness in primaries, it seems unlikely that Republicans would coalesce around her if Trump was unable to run.

On the Democratic side, there would also be another group to consider: the “superdelegates,” a group of about 700 senior party leaders and elected officials who are automatically delegates to the convention based on their position. Under normal party rules, they can’t vote on the first ballot if they could swing the nomination, but they’re free to vote on subsequent ballots.

Has anything like this ever happened before?

The modern primary and caucus system evolved only in recent generations as voters demanded more involvement in the nominating process.

The election that sparked change was in 1968, when President Lyndon B. Johnson decided not to run after an embarrassing finish in New Hampshire’s primary. Johnson won, but just barely.

When he dropped out of the presidential race, it set off a chaotic dash to replace him. One candidate who jumped in the race, Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, was assassinated in Los Angeles just after winning the California primary, creating the difficult question of who his delegates should support.

The ultimate Democratic winner that year, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, amassed his delegates in states that did not conduct primaries, securing enough support to win the nomination.

Violence on the streets of Chicago around the convention marred the event and helped inspire the system of primaries and caucuses we have today where voters pick presidential candidates through delegates bound to support a specific candidate.

What if a candidate left the race after the convention?

It would take a drastic event for a candidate to leave the race in the few months between a party’s nominating convention in the summer and the general election in November.

Democrats and Republicans have slightly different methods of dealing with this possibility. You can imagine the end result would probably be that the running mate stepped up to be on the general election ballot, but that is not necessarily guaranteed.

Democrats – The Democratic National Committee is empowered to fill a vacancy on the national ticket after the convention under party rules, after the party chair consults with Democratic governors and congressional leadership.

Republicans – If a vacancy occurs on the Republican side, the Republican National Committee can either reconvene the national convention or select a new candidate itself.

Would the running mate automatically become the nominee?

An in-depth Congressional Research Service memo also notes that if an incumbent president becomes incapacitated after winning the party’s nomination, the 25th Amendment would elevate the vice president to the presidency, but party rules would determine who rises to become the party’s nominee.

Neither party, according to CRS, requires that the presidential candidate’s running mate be elevated to the top of the ticket, but that would obviously be the most likely scenario.

Has a candidate ever left the race after the convention?

In modern times, per CRS, the Democrat running for vice president in 1972, Sen. Thomas Eagleton, was forced to step aside after the convention after it was discovered that he was treated for mental illness (1972 was a very different time! Today, thankfully, there is not nearly the stigma attached to mental health).

The DNC actually needed to convene a meeting to affirm Sargent Shriver as Democratic nominee George McGovern’s second-choice running mate.

What if a president-elect was incapacitated after the election?

If a president-elect was to die, timing is again important.

Under the Constitution, it is electors meeting in state capitols who technically cast votes for the presidency. While some states require that they vote for the winner of the election in their state, in others they have leeway.

The CRS memo, which cites several congressional hearings on the subject, suggests it would clearly make sense for a vice president-elect to simply assume the role of president-elect, but the law itself is murky.

Under the 20th Amendment, if a president-elect dies, his or her running mate, the vice president-elect, becomes president.

There could be some question, for instance, about when exactly a person becomes president-elect. Is it after the electors meet in December, or after Congress meets to count Electoral College votes on January 6?


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19th Edition of Global Conference on Catalysis, Chemical Engineering & Technology

Victor Mukhin

  • Scientific Program

Victor Mukhin, Speaker at Chemical Engineering Conferences

Title : Active carbons as nanoporous materials for solving of environmental problems

However, up to now, the main carriers of catalytic additives have been mineral sorbents: silica gels, alumogels. This is obviously due to the fact that they consist of pure homogeneous components SiO2 and Al2O3, respectively. It is generally known that impurities, especially the ash elements, are catalytic poisons that reduce the effectiveness of the catalyst. Therefore, carbon sorbents with 5-15% by weight of ash elements in their composition are not used in the above mentioned technologies. However, in such an important field as a gas-mask technique, carbon sorbents (active carbons) are carriers of catalytic additives, providing effective protection of a person against any types of potent poisonous substances (PPS). In ESPE “JSC "Neorganika" there has been developed the technology of unique ashless spherical carbon carrier-catalysts by the method of liquid forming of furfural copolymers with subsequent gas-vapor activation, brand PAC. Active carbons PAC have 100% qualitative characteristics of the three main properties of carbon sorbents: strength - 100%, the proportion of sorbing pores in the pore space – 100%, purity - 100% (ash content is close to zero). A particularly outstanding feature of active PAC carbons is their uniquely high mechanical compressive strength of 740 ± 40 MPa, which is 3-7 times larger than that of  such materials as granite, quartzite, electric coal, and is comparable to the value for cast iron - 400-1000 MPa. This allows the PAC to operate under severe conditions in moving and fluidized beds.  Obviously, it is time to actively develop catalysts based on PAC sorbents for oil refining, petrochemicals, gas processing and various technologies of organic synthesis.

Victor M. Mukhin was born in 1946 in the town of Orsk, Russia. In 1970 he graduated the Technological Institute in Leningrad. Victor M. Mukhin was directed to work to the scientific-industrial organization "Neorganika" (Elektrostal, Moscow region) where he is working during 47 years, at present as the head of the laboratory of carbon sorbents.     Victor M. Mukhin defended a Ph. D. thesis and a doctoral thesis at the Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (in 1979 and 1997 accordingly). Professor of Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia. Scientific interests: production, investigation and application of active carbons, technological and ecological carbon-adsorptive processes, environmental protection, production of ecologically clean food.   

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Moscow Metro

The Moscow Metro Tour is included in most guided tours’ itineraries. Opened in 1935, under Stalin’s regime, the metro was not only meant to solve transport problems, but also was hailed as “a people’s palace”. Every station you will see during your Moscow metro tour looks like a palace room. There are bright paintings, mosaics, stained glass, bronze statues… Our Moscow metro tour includes the most impressive stations best architects and designers worked at - Ploshchad Revolutsii, Mayakovskaya, Komsomolskaya, Kievskaya, Novoslobodskaya and some others.

What is the kremlin in russia?

The guide will not only help you navigate the metro, but will also provide you with fascinating background tales for the images you see and a history of each station.

And there some stories to be told during the Moscow metro tour! The deepest station - Park Pobedy - is 84 metres under the ground with the world longest escalator of 140 meters. Parts of the so-called Metro-2, a secret strategic system of underground tunnels, was used for its construction.

During the Second World War the metro itself became a strategic asset: it was turned into the city's biggest bomb-shelter and one of the stations even became a library. 217 children were born here in 1941-1942! The metro is the most effective means of transport in the capital.

There are almost 200 stations 196 at the moment and trains run every 90 seconds! The guide of your Moscow metro tour can explain to you how to buy tickets and find your way if you plan to get around by yourself.


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  1. Homework by Harris M. Cooper

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  1. Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long as There

    Duke University researchers have reviewed more than 60 research studies on homework between 1987 and 2003 and concluded that homework does have a positive effect on student achievement. Harris Cooper, a professor of psychology, said the research synthesis that he led showed the positive correlation was much stronger for secondary students ...

  2. Is Homework Good for Kids? Here's What the Research Says

    The most comprehensive research on homework to date comes from a 2006 meta-analysis by Duke University psychology professor Harris Cooper, who found evidence of a positive correlation between ...

  3. Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of Research

    HARRIS COOPER is a Professor of Psychology and Director of the Program in Education, Box 90739, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0739; e-mail [email protected] His research interests include how academic activities outside the school day (such as homework, after school programs, and summer school) affect the achievement of children and adolescents; he also studies techniques for improving ...

  4. The battle over homework: Common ground for administrators, teachers

    Cooper, H. (2007). The battle over homework: Common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents (3rd ed.). Corwin Press. https:// ... What is the connection between homework and achievement? Harris Cooper provides educators with terms, definitions, and updated research to hold constructive conversations with students, their families, and ...

  5. Homework

    Homework. Harris M. Cooper. Longman, 1989 - Homework - 218 pages. "Homework has been a popular topic among education critics and would-be school reformers in recent years. Comparisons of American schooling practices with those of Europe or Japan frequently conclude that American students do not do enough homework, and calls for more homework ...

  6. PDF Synthesis of Research on Homework

    HARRIS COOPER Synthesis of Research on Homework Grade level has a dramatic influence on homework's effectiveness. In the 1950 edition of the Kncyclo- pedia of Educational Research, H J Oito wrote, "compulsory homework does not result in suffi ciently improved academic accom ... Harris Cooper. EFFECTIVE ...

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    Harris Cooper, Jorgianne Civey Robinson, and Erika A. Patall Duke University In this article, research conducted in the United States since 1987 on the effects of homework is summarized. Studies are grouped intofour research designs. ... Homework can be defined as any task assigned by schoolteachers intended for

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    Harris Cooper received his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from the University of Connecticut in 1975. From 1977 to 2003, he was on the faculty at the University of Missouri. ... His research synthesis titled Homework (1989) was published as a monograph and provided the evidence base for a guide to policy and practice (The Battle over Homework ...

  9. PDF Increasing the Effectiveness of Homework for All Learners in the ...

    Homework is often a hot-button issue for schools and is thus a frequent top - ic of educational research. Harris Cooper, a leading expert on the relationship between homework and achievement, defines homework as "tasks assigned by school teachers that are meant to be carried out during noninstructional time" (Bembenutty, 2011b, p. 185).

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    According to Harris Cooper in The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents, "correlational studies suggest the homework-achievement link for children on broader measures of achievement appears to be weak; in fact, it borders on trivial." The belief that we, as a society, have in the effectiveness of ...

  11. The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers

    Harris Cooper is the leader in homework research. He discusses research, pros & cons, common problems & troubleshooting and does it all in a way that is easy to read. Every other book or article I've read about homework had some reference to, or quote from, Harris Cooper. He is funny & intelligent-an enjoyable, quick read.

  12. ‪Harris Cooper‬

    Harris Cooper. Duke University. Verified email at duke.edu. psychology. Articles Cited by Public access. Title. ... Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987-2003. H Cooper, JC Robinson, EA Patall ... H Cooper, B Nye, K Charlton, J Lindsay, S Greathouse. Review of educational research 66 (3), 227-268, 1996. 1822:

  13. Harris Cooper

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  15. PDF Homework Research and Policy

    Homework Research and Policy: A Review of the Literature. by Harris Cooper, Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia. Data show that homework accounts for about 20 percent of the ...

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    Title : Active carbons as nanoporous materials for solving of environmental problems Abstract: However, up to now, the main carriers of catalytic additives have been mineral sorbents: silica gels, alumogels. This is obviously due to the fact that they consist of pure homogeneous components SiO2 and Al2O3, respectively.

  19. PDF Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of Research

    Cooper, Harris;Jorgianne Civey Robinson;Patall, Erika A Review ofEducational Research; Spring 2006; 76, 1; ProQuest pg. 1 Review of Educational Research Spring 2006, Vol. 76, No. 1, pp. 1-62 Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of Research, 1987-2003 Harris Cooper, Jorgianne Civey Robinson, and Erika A. Patall Duke University

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  21. Moscow metro tour

    The Moscow Metro Tour is included in most guided tours' itineraries. Opened in 1935, under Stalin's regime, the metro was not only meant to solve transport problems, but also was hailed as "a people's palace". Every station you will see during your Moscow metro tour looks like a palace room. There are bright paintings, mosaics ...

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