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How to Publish a Research Paper
Last Updated: August 17, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by Matthew Snipp, PhD and by wikiHow staff writer, Christopher M. Osborne, PhD . C. Matthew Snipp is the Burnet C. and Mildred Finley Wohlford Professor of Humanities and Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Stanford University. He is also the Director for the Institute for Research in the Social Science’s Secure Data Center. He has been a Research Fellow at the U.S. Bureau of the Census and a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He has published 3 books and over 70 articles and book chapters on demography, economic development, poverty and unemployment. He is also currently serving on the National Institute of Child Health and Development’s Population Science Subcommittee. He holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin—Madison. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 684,736 times.
Publishing a research paper in a peer-reviewed journal is an important activity within the academic community. It allows you to network with other scholars, get your name and work into circulation, and further refine your ideas and research. Getting published isn’t easy, but you can improve your odds by submitting a technically sound and creative yet straightforward piece of research. It’s also vital to find a suitable academic journal for your topic and writing style, so you can tailor your research paper to it and increase your chances of publication and wider recognition.
Submitting (and Resubmitting) Your Paper
- Have two or three people review your paper. At least one should be a non-expert in the major topic — their “outsider’s perspective” can be particularly valuable, as not all reviewers will be experts on your specific topic.
- Journal articles in the sciences often follow a specific organizational format, such as: Abstract; Introduction; Methods; Results; Discussion; Conclusion; Acknowledgements/References. Those in the arts and humanities are usually less regimented.
- Submit your article to only one journal at a time. Work your way down your list, one at a time, as needed.
- When submitting online, use your university email account. This connects you with a scholarly institution, which adds credibility to your work.
- Accept with Revision — only minor adjustments are needed, based on the provided feedback by the reviewers.
- Revise and Resubmit — more substantial changes (as described) are needed before publication can be considered, but the journal is still very interested in your work.
- Reject and Resubmit — the article is not currently viable for consideration, but substantial alterations and refocusing may be able to change this outcome.
- Reject — the paper isn’t and won’t be suitable for this publication, but that doesn’t mean it might not work for another journal.
- Do not get over-attached to your original submission. Instead, remain flexible and rework the paper in light of the feedback you receive. Use your skills as a researcher and a writer to create a superior paper.
- However, you don’t have to “roll over” and meekly follow reviewer comments that you feel are off the mark. Open a dialogue with the editor and explain your position, respectfully but confidently. Remember, you’re an expert on this specific topic!  X Research source
- Remember, a rejected paper doesn’t necessarily equal a bad paper. Numerous factors, many of them completely out of your control, go into determining which articles are accepted.
- Move on to your second-choice journal for submission. You might even ask for guidance on finding a better fit from the editor of the first journal.
Choosing the Right Journal for Submission
- Read academic journals related to your field of study.
- Search online for published research papers, conference papers, and journal articles.
- Ask a colleague or professor for a suggested reading list.
- “Fit” is critical here — the most renowned journal in your field might not be the one best suited to your specific work. At the same time, though, don’t sell yourself short by assuming your paper could never be good enough for that top-shelf publication.
- However, always prioritize peer-reviewed journals — in which field scholars anonymously review submitted works. This is the basic standard for scholarly publishing.
- You can increase your readership dramatically by publishing in an open access journal. As such, it will be freely available as part of an online repository of peer-reviewed scholarly papers.  X Research source
Strengthening Your Submission
- “This paper explores how George Washington’s experiences as a young officer may have shaped his views during difficult circumstances as a commanding officer.”
- “This paper contends that George Washington’s experiences as a young officer on the 1750s Pennsylvania frontier directly impacted his relationship with his Continental Army troops during the harsh winter at Valley Forge.”
- This is especially true for younger scholars who are breaking into the field. Leave the grand (yet still only 20-30 page) explorations to more established scholars.
- Your abstract should make people eager to start reading the article, but never disappointed when they finish the article.
- Get as many people as you can to read over your abstract and provide feedback before you submit your paper to a journal.
Research Paper Help
- Do not immediately revise your paper if you are upset or frustrated with the journal's requests for change. Set your paper aside for several days, then come back to it with "fresh eyes." The feedback you received will have percolated and settled, and will now find a comfortable place within your article. Remember this is a big project and final refinements will take time. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ https://owl.excelsior.edu/research/revising-and-editing-a-research-paper/
- ↑ http://www.canberra.edu.au/library/start-your-research/research_help/publishing-research
- ↑ http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep02/publish.aspx
- ↑ Matthew Snipp, PhD. Research Fellow, U.S. Bureau of the Census. Expert Interview. 26 March 2020.
- ↑ https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/how-to-get-your-first-research-paper-published/2015485.article#survey-answer
- ↑ https://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20140615095526/http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/briefingpaper/2010/bppublishingresearchpapersv1final.pdf
- ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/abstract
About This Article
To publish a research paper, ask a colleague or professor to review your paper and give you feedback. Once you've revised your work, familiarize yourself with different academic journals so that you can choose the publication that best suits your paper. Make sure to look at the "Author's Guide" so you can format your paper according to the guidelines for that publication. Then, submit your paper and don't get discouraged if it is not accepted right away. You may need to revise your paper and try again. To learn about the different responses you might get from journals, see our reviewer's explanation below. Did this summary help you? Yes No
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How to Write and Publish a Research Paper in 7 Steps
What comes next after you're done with your research? Publishing the results in a journal of course! We tell you how to present your work in the best way possible.
This post is part of a series, which serves to provide hands-on information and resources for authors and editors.
Things have gotten busy in scholarly publishing: These days, a new article gets published in the 50,000 most important peer-reviewed journals every few seconds, while each one takes on average 40 minutes to read. Hundreds of thousands of papers reach the desks of editors and reviewers worldwide each year and 50% of all submissions end up rejected at some stage.
In a nutshell: there is a lot of competition, and the people who decide upon the fate of your manuscript are short on time and overworked. But there are ways to make their lives a little easier and improve your own chances of getting your work published!
Well, it may seem obvious, but before submitting an academic paper, always make sure that it is an excellent reflection of the research you have done and that you present it in the most professional way possible. Incomplete or poorly presented manuscripts can create a great deal of frustration and annoyance for editors who probably won’t even bother wasting the time of the reviewers!
This post will discuss 7 steps to the successful publication of your research paper:
- Check whether your research is publication-ready
- Choose an article type
- Choose a journal
- Construct your paper
- Decide the order of authors
- Check and double-check
- Submit your paper
1. Check Whether Your Research Is Publication-Ready
Should you publish your research at all?
If your work holds academic value – of course – a well-written scholarly article could open doors to your research community. However, if you are not yet sure, whether your research is ready for publication, here are some key questions to ask yourself depending on your field of expertise:
- Have you done or found something new and interesting? Something unique?
- Is the work directly related to a current hot topic?
- Have you checked the latest results or research in the field?
- Have you provided solutions to any difficult problems?
- Have the findings been verified?
- Have the appropriate controls been performed if required?
- Are your findings comprehensive?
If the answers to all relevant questions are “yes”, you need to prepare a good, strong manuscript. Remember, a research paper is only useful if it is clearly understood, reproducible and if it is read and used .
2. Choose An Article Type
The first step is to determine which type of paper is most appropriate for your work and what you want to achieve. The following list contains the most important, usually peer-reviewed article types in the natural sciences:
Full original research papers disseminate completed research findings. On average this type of paper is 8-10 pages long, contains five figures, and 25-30 references. Full original research papers are an important part of the process when developing your career.
Review papers present a critical synthesis of a specific research topic. These papers are usually much longer than original papers and will contain numerous references. More often than not, they will be commissioned by journal editors. Reviews present an excellent way to solidify your research career.
Letters, Rapid or Short Communications are often published for the quick and early communication of significant and original advances. They are much shorter than full articles and usually limited in length by the journal. Journals specifically dedicated to short communications or letters are also published in some fields. In these the authors can present short preliminary findings before developing a full-length paper.
3. Choose a Journal
Are you looking for the right place to publish your paper? Find out here whether a De Gruyter journal might be the right fit.
Submit to journals that you already read, that you have a good feel for. If you do so, you will have a better appreciation of both its culture and the requirements of the editors and reviewers.
Other factors to consider are:
- The specific subject area
- The aims and scope of the journal
- The type of manuscript you have written
- The significance of your work
- The reputation of the journal
- The reputation of the editors within the community
- The editorial/review and production speeds of the journal
- The community served by the journal
- The coverage and distribution
- The accessibility ( open access vs. closed access)
4. Construct Your Paper
Each element of a paper has its purpose, so you should make these sections easy to index and search.
Don’t forget that requirements can differ highly per publication, so always make sure to apply a journal’s specific instructions – or guide – for authors to your manuscript, even to the first draft (text layout, paper citation, nomenclature, figures and table, etc.) It will save you time, and the editor’s.
Also, even in these days of Internet-based publishing, space is still at a premium, so be as concise as possible. As a good journalist would say: “Never use three words when one will do!”
Let’s look at the typical structure of a full research paper, but bear in mind certain subject disciplines may have their own specific requirements so check the instructions for authors on the journal’s home page.
4.1 The Title
It’s important to use the title to tell the reader what your paper is all about! You want to attract their attention, a bit like a newspaper headline does. Be specific and to the point. Keep it informative and concise, and avoid jargon and abbreviations (unless they are universally recognized like DNA, for example).
4.2 The Abstract
This could be termed as the “advertisement” for your article. Make it interesting and easily understood without the reader having to read the whole article. Be accurate and specific, and keep it as brief and concise as possible. Some journals (particularly in the medical fields) will ask you to structure the abstract in distinct, labeled sections, which makes it even more accessible.
A clear abstract will influence whether or not your work is considered and whether an editor should invest more time on it or send it for review.
Keywords are used by abstracting and indexing services, such as PubMed and Web of Science. They are the labels of your manuscript, which make it “searchable” online by other researchers.
Include words or phrases (usually 4-8) that are closely related to your topic but not “too niche” for anyone to find them. Make sure to only use established abbreviations. Think about what scientific terms and its variations your potential readers are likely to use and search for. You can also do a test run of your selected keywords in one of the common academic search engines. Do similar articles to your own appear? Yes? Then that’s a good sign.
This first part of the main text should introduce the problem, as well as any existing solutions you are aware of and the main limitations. Also, state what you hope to achieve with your research.
Do not confuse the introduction with the results, discussion or conclusion.
Every research article should include a detailed Methods section (also referred to as “Materials and Methods”) to provide the reader with enough information to be able to judge whether the study is valid and reproducible.
Include detailed information so that a knowledgeable reader can reproduce the experiment. However, use references and supplementary materials to indicate previously published procedures.
In this section, you will present the essential or primary results of your study. To display them in a comprehensible way, you should use subheadings as well as illustrations such as figures, graphs, tables and photos, as appropriate.
Here you should tell your readers what the results mean .
Do state how the results relate to the study’s aims and hypotheses and how the findings relate to those of other studies. Explain all possible interpretations of your findings and the study’s limitations.
Do not make “grand statements” that are not supported by the data. Also, do not introduce any new results or terms. Moreover, do not ignore work that conflicts or disagrees with your findings. Instead …
Be brave! Address conflicting study results and convince the reader you are the one who is correct.
Your conclusion isn’t just a summary of what you’ve already written. It should take your paper one step further and answer any unresolved questions.
Sum up what you have shown in your study and indicate possible applications and extensions. The main question your conclusion should answer is: What do my results mean for the research field and my community?
4.9 Acknowledgments and Ethical Statements
It is extremely important to acknowledge anyone who has helped you with your paper, including researchers who supplied materials or reagents (e.g. vectors or antibodies); and anyone who helped with the writing or English, or offered critical comments about the content.
Learn more about academic integrity in our blog post “Scholarly Publication Ethics: 4 Common Mistakes You Want To Avoid” .
Remember to state why people have been acknowledged and ask their permission . Ensure that you acknowledge sources of funding, including any grant or reference numbers.
Furthermore, if you have worked with animals or humans, you need to include information about the ethical approval of your study and, if applicable, whether informed consent was given. Also, state whether you have any competing interests regarding the study (e.g. because of financial or personal relationships.)
The end is in sight, but don’t relax just yet!
De facto, there are often more mistakes in the references than in any other part of the manuscript. It is also one of the most annoying and time-consuming problems for editors.
Remember to cite the main scientific publications on which your work is based. But do not inflate the manuscript with too many references. Avoid excessive – and especially unnecessary – self-citations. Also, avoid excessive citations of publications from the same institute or region.
5. Decide the Order of Authors
In the sciences, the most common way to order the names of the authors is by relative contribution.
Generally, the first author conducts and/or supervises the data analysis and the proper presentation and interpretation of the results. They put the paper together and usually submit the paper to the journal.
Co-authors make intellectual contributions to the data analysis and contribute to data interpretation. They review each paper draft. All of them must be able to present the paper and its results, as well as to defend the implications and discuss study limitations.
Do not leave out authors who should be included or add “gift authors”, i.e. authors who did not contribute significantly.
6. Check and Double-Check
As a final step before submission, ask colleagues to read your work and be constructively critical .
Make sure that the paper is appropriate for the journal – take a last look at their aims and scope. Check if all of the requirements in the instructions for authors are met.
Ensure that the cited literature is balanced. Are the aims, purpose and significance of the results clear?
Conduct a final check for language, either by a native English speaker or an editing service.
7. Submit Your Paper
When you and your co-authors have double-, triple-, quadruple-checked the manuscript: submit it via e-mail or online submission system. Along with your manuscript, submit a cover letter, which highlights the reasons why your paper would appeal to the journal and which ensures that you have received approval of all authors for submission.
It is up to the editors and the peer-reviewers now to provide you with their (ideally constructive and helpful) comments and feedback. Time to take a breather!
If the paper gets rejected, do not despair – it happens to literally everybody. If the journal suggests major or minor revisions, take the chance to provide a thorough response and make improvements as you see fit. If the paper gets accepted, congrats!
It’s now time to get writing and share your hard work – good luck!
If you are interested, check out this related blog post
[Title Image by Nick Morrison via Unsplash]
David Sleeman worked as Senior Journals Manager in the field of Physical Sciences at De Gruyter.
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Ready to submit your paper?
Use this article submission checklist to find out.
By the time you’re ready to submit your paper to a journal, there are a lot of things you’ll need to have checked, understood, and incorporated into your article.
We’ve created this checklist to help you make sure that you don’t miss anything important, both in writing and preparing your paper, and when you’re using a submission system. This can speed up the submission process and avoid potential obstacles in receiving a decision from the journal editor(s).
Follow the steps in the checklists below.
Is your article a good fit for your target journal.
Check by reading the aims and scope of the journal, and look at recently published articles.
Do you know the requirements for your target journal?
Visit Taylor & Francis Online to check the specific submission requirements for your chosen journal.
Have you read the instructions for authors (IFAs)?
The IFAs will tell you everything that the editorial board will be expecting to see in your paper, including word counts and style guides.
What are the open access options?
If you want to publish open access , check that the journal offers the option you want. Our open access cost finder is a useful tool to research what’s on offer. You should also check whether your research funder’s policy requires you to make your work open access.
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The Editorial Policies apply to all Taylor & Francis journals, and all authors should read them before submitting.
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Get the right result
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Have you identified 5-6 appropriate keywords.
Keywords help relevant readers find your article online. Find out how to make your article more discoverable .
Have you written an effective title and abstract?
The title and abstract are your chance to grab a potential reader’s attention. Find out how to make your title and abstract more effective .
Have you written an effective cover letter?
The cover letter is an important way for you to explain to the journal’s editor why your paper is a good fit and should be considered for publication.
Read our guidance and download a cover letter template .
Does your article match the journal’s specified style guides?
Your article should be a good fit and format for the target journal’s style guide. Experts in formatting will make sure your article meets your journal’s Instructions for Authors.
Is your article easy to read?
Check that your article has a logical structure with clear writing and accessible language. This means it meets international scholarly standards .
Did you clearly describe your methodology and approach?
Your study design, research argument strength and positioning should be structured and articulated properly. Check that you have carried out an in-depth technical review of your work .
Do your figures and charts comply with your target journal’s requirements?
Make sure you format your artwork according to the technical artwork guidelines for your target journal.
Have you cited sources appropriately?
Make sure you avoid accidental plagiarism by taking a look at our policy on citations . Also don’t forget to include all references in the reference section.
Did you have another pair of eyes read through your article?
It can be helpful to ask a friend or peer to read through your paper and make suggestions that will improve its clarity.
Make sure your article is revised appropriately to address possible issues before you submit.
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Taylor & Francis Editing Services offers a full range of pre-submission manuscript preparation services to help you improve the quality of your manuscript and submit with confidence.
Get ready to submit
Do you need or want to share research data associated with your article.
Read all about data sharing in our extensive guide.
Do you have written permission for any third-party materials you’ve included?
Read our guidance on when you’ll need to seek written permission for third-party material.
Have you included the name and affiliation of any co-authors?
Read our guide to defining authorship.
Have you included a disclosure statement and declared any competing interests?
It is important to be transparent about any potential competing interests (also known as conflicts of interest).
Find out about the different types of competing interests and how to declare them.
Have you included your ORCiD?
ORCiD is a unique identifier that links together all your published work. Read about how to create an ORCiD and include it with your submission. You can also add ORCiD information for your co-authors.
Do you have the correct files ready to upload?
This can vary depending on what type of peer review is used. For double-blind peer review, an anonymized version of your article will be needed.
To submit your article, you need the following files:
- Your manuscript (including a title page with names of all authors and co-authors)
- A main document file with abstract, keywords, main text and references
- Figure files
- Table files
- Any extra files such as supplemental materials or biographical notes
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Click the button to go to Taylor & Francis Online, find your chosen journal and click the green button to submit your research.
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7 steps to publishing in a scientific journal
Before you hit “submit,” here’s a checklist (and pitfalls to avoid)
As scholars, we strive to do high-quality research that will advance science. We come up with what we believe are unique hypotheses, base our work on robust data and use an appropriate research methodology. As we write up our findings, we aim to provide theoretical insight, and share theoretical and practical implications about our work. Then we submit our manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
In my seven years of research and teaching, I have observed several shortcomings in the manuscript preparation and submission process that often lead to research being rejected for publication. Being aware of these shortcomings will increase your chances of having your manuscript published and also boost your research profile and career progression.
In this article, intended for doctoral students and other young scholars, I identify common pitfalls and offer helpful solutions to prepare more impactful papers. While there are several types of research articles, such as short communications, review papers and so forth, these guidelines focus on preparing a full article (including a literature review), whether based on qualitative or quantitative methodology, from the perspective of the management, education, information sciences and social sciences disciplines.
Writing for academic journals is a highly competitive activity, and it’s important to understand that there could be several reasons behind a rejection. Furthermore, the journal peer-review process is an essential element of publication because no writer could identify and address all potential issues with a manuscript.
1. Do not rush submitting your article for publication.
In my first article for Elsevier Connect – “ Five secrets to surviving (and thriving in) a PhD program ” – I emphasized that scholars should start writing during the early stages of your research or doctoral study career. This secret does not entail submitting your manuscript for publication the moment you have crafted its conclusion. Authors sometimes rely on the fact that they will always have an opportunity to address their work’s shortcomings after the feedback received from the journal editor and reviewers has identified them.
A proactive approach and attitude will reduce the chance of rejection and disappointment. In my opinion, a logical flow of activities dominates every research activity and should be followed for preparing a manuscript as well. Such activities include carefully re-reading your manuscript at different times and perhaps at different places. Re-reading is essential in the research field and helps identify the most common problems and shortcomings in the manuscript, which might otherwise be overlooked. Second, I find it very helpful to share my manuscripts with my colleagues and other researchers in my network and to request their feedback. In doing so, I highlight any sections of the manuscript that I would like reviewers to be absolutely clear on.
2. Select an appropriate publication outlet.
I also ask colleagues about the most appropriate journal to submit my manuscript to; finding the right journal for your article can dramatically improve the chances of acceptance and ensure it reaches your target audience.
Elsevier provides an innovative Journal Finder search facility on its website. Authors enter the article title, a brief abstract and the field of research to get a list of the most appropriate journals for their article. For a full discussion of how to select an appropriate journal see Knight and Steinbach (2008).
Less experienced scholars sometimes choose to submit their research work to two or more journals at the same time. Research ethics and policies of all scholarly journals suggest that authors should submit a manuscript to only one journal at a time. Doing otherwise can cause embarrassment and lead to copyright problems for the author, the university employer and the journals involved.
Learn about publishing at Elsevier
3. Read the aims and scope and author guidelines of your target journal carefully.
Once you have read and re-read your manuscript carefully several times, received feedback from your colleagues, and identified a target journal, the next important step is to read the aims and scope of the journals in your target research area. Doing so will improve the chances of having your manuscript accepted for publishing. Another important step is to download and absorb the author guidelines and ensure your manuscript conforms to them. Some publishers report that one paper in five does not follow the style and format requirements of the target journal, which might specify requirements for figures, tables and references.
Rejection can come at different times and in different formats. For instance, if your research objective is not in line with the aims and scope of the target journal, or if your manuscript is not structured and formatted according to the target journal layout, or if your manuscript does not have a reasonable chance of being able to satisfy the target journal’s publishing expectations, the manuscript can receive a desk rejection from the editor without being sent out for peer review. Desk rejections can be disheartening for authors, making them feel they have wasted valuable time and might even cause them to lose enthusiasm for their research topic. Sun and Linton (2014), Hierons (2016) and Craig (2010) offer useful discussions on the subject of “desk rejections.”
4. Make a good first impression with your title and abstract.
The title and abstract are incredibly important components of a manuscript as they are the first elements a journal editor sees. I have been fortunate to receive advice from editors and reviewers on my submissions, and feedback from many colleagues at academic conferences, and this is what I’ve learned:
- The title should summarize the main theme of the article and reflect your contribution to the theory.
- The abstract should be crafted carefully and encompass the aim and scope of the study; the key problem to be addressed and theory; the method used; the data set; key findings; limitations; and implications for theory and practice.
Dr. Angel Borja goes into detail about these components in “ 11 steps to structuring a science paper editors will take seriously .”
Learn more in Elsevier's free Researcher Academy
5. Have a professional editing firm copy-edit ( not just proofread) your manuscript, including the main text, list of references, tables and figures.
The key characteristic of scientific writing is clarity. Before submitting a manuscript for publication, it is highly advisable to have a professional editing firm copy-edit your manuscript. An article submitted to a peer-reviewed journal will be scrutinized critically by the editorial board before it is selected for peer review. According to a statistic shared by Elsevier , between 30 percent and 50 percent of articles submitted to Elsevier journals are rejected before they even reach the peer-review stage, and one of the top reasons for rejection is poor language. A properly written, edited and presented text will be error free and understandable and will project a professional image that will help ensure your work is taken seriously in the world of publishing. On occasion, the major revisions conducted at the request of a reviewer will necessitate another round of editing.
Authors can facilitate the editing of their manuscripts by taking precautions at their end. These include proofreading their own manuscript for accuracy and wordiness (avoid unnecessary or normative descriptions like “it should be noted here” and “the authors believe) and sending it for editing only when it is complete in all respects and ready for publishing. Professional editing companies charge hefty fees, and it is simply not financially viable to have them conduct multiple rounds of editing on your article. Applications like the spelling and grammar checker in Microsoft Word or Grammarly are certainly worth applying to your article, but the benefits of proper editing are undeniable. For more on the difference between proofreading and editing, see the description in Elsevier’s WebShop.
6. Submit a cover letter with the manuscript.
Never underestimate the importance of a cover letter addressed to the editor or editor-in-chief of the target journal. Last year, I attended a conference in Boston. A “meet the editors” session revealed that many submissions do not include a covering letter, but the editors-in-chief present, who represented renewed and ISI-indexed Elsevier journals, argued that the cover letter gives authors an important opportunity to convince them that their research work is worth reviewing.
Accordingly, the content of the cover letter is also worth spending time on. Some inexperienced scholars paste the article’s abstract into their letter thinking it will be sufficient to make the case for publication; it is a practice best avoided. A good cover letter first outlines the main theme of the paper; second, argues the novelty of the paper; and third, justifies the relevance of the manuscript to the target journal. I would suggest limiting the cover letter to half a page. More importantly, peers and colleagues who read the article and provided feedback before the manuscript’s submission should be acknowledged in the cover letter.
7. Address reviewer comments very carefully.
Editors and editors-in-chief usually couch the acceptance of a manuscript as subject to a “revise and resubmit” based on the recommendations provided by the reviewer or reviewers. These revisions may necessitate either major or minor changes in the manuscript. Inexperienced scholars should understand a few key aspects of the revision process. First, it important to address the revisions diligently; second, is imperative to address all the comments received from the reviewers and avoid oversights; third, the resubmission of the revised manuscript must happen by the deadline provided by the journal; fourth, the revision process might comprise multiple rounds.
The revision process requires two major documents. The first is the revised manuscript highlighting all the modifications made following the recommendations received from the reviewers. The second is a letter listing the authors’ responses illustrating they have addressed all the concerns of the reviewers and editors. These two documents should be drafted carefully. The authors of the manuscript can agree or disagree with the comments of the reviewers (typically agreement is encouraged) and are not always obliged to implement their recommendations, but they should in all cases provide a well-argued justification for their course of action.
Given the ever increasing number of manuscripts submitted for publication, the process of preparing a manuscript well enough to have it accepted by a journal can be daunting. High-impact journals accept less than 10 percent of the articles submitted to them, although the acceptance ratio for special issues or special topics sections is normally over 40 percent. Scholars might have to resign themselves to having their articles rejected and then reworking them to submit them to a different journal before the manuscript is accepted.
The advice offered here is not exhaustive but it’s also not difficult to implement. These recommendations require proper attention, planning and careful implementation; however, following this advice could help doctoral students and other scholars improve the likelihood of getting their work published, and that is key to having a productive, exciting and rewarding academic career.
I would like to thank Professor Heikki Karjaluoto, Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics for providing valuable feedback on this article.
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Aijaz Shaikh, PhD
Aijaz Shaikh has a PhD in Marketing from the Jyväskylä University School of Business & Economics (AMBA accredited), Finland, an MSc from Hanken School of Economics (AACSB / EQUIS/AMBA accredited), Finland. He is Member-Editorial Review Board of the International Journal of E-Business Research and special issue Guest Editor of the International Journal of E-Business Research. His academic specialty is in Marketing (consumer behaviour), Information Technology Adoption, and Mobile Financial Services.
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There will come a time in most students' careers when they are assigned a research paper. Such an assignment often creates a great deal of unneeded anxiety in the student, which may result in procrastination and a feeling of confusion and inadequacy. This anxiety frequently stems from the fact that many students are unfamiliar and inexperienced with this genre of writing. Never fear—inexperience and unfamiliarity are situations you can change through practice! Writing a research paper is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account of one's anxiety. In fact, the process of writing a research paper can be one of the more rewarding experiences one may encounter in academics. What is more, many students will continue to do research throughout their careers, which is one of the reasons this topic is so important.
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How to Write and Publish a Research Paper for a Peer-Reviewed Journal
- Open access
- Published: 30 April 2020
- volume 36 , pages 909–913 ( 2021 )
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- Clara Busse ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-0178-1000 1 &
- Ella August ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-5151-1036 1 , 2
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Cite this article
Communicating research findings is an essential step in the research process. Often, peer-reviewed journals are the forum for such communication, yet many researchers are never taught how to write a publishable scientific paper. In this article, we explain the basic structure of a scientific paper and describe the information that should be included in each section. We also identify common pitfalls for each section and recommend strategies to avoid them. Further, we give advice about target journal selection and authorship. In the online resource 1 , we provide an example of a high-quality scientific paper, with annotations identifying the elements we describe in this article.
Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.
Writing a scientific paper is an important component of the research process, yet researchers often receive little formal training in scientific writing. This is especially true in low-resource settings. In this article, we explain why choosing a target journal is important, give advice about authorship, provide a basic structure for writing each section of a scientific paper, and describe common pitfalls and recommendations for each section. In the online resource 1 , we also include an annotated journal article that identifies the key elements and writing approaches that we detail here. Before you begin your research, make sure you have ethical clearance from all relevant ethical review boards.
Select a Target Journal Early in the Writing Process
We recommend that you select a “target journal” early in the writing process; a “target journal” is the journal to which you plan to submit your paper. Each journal has a set of core readers and you should tailor your writing to this readership. For example, if you plan to submit a manuscript about vaping during pregnancy to a pregnancy-focused journal, you will need to explain what vaping is because readers of this journal may not have a background in this topic. However, if you were to submit that same article to a tobacco journal, you would not need to provide as much background information about vaping.
Information about a journal’s core readership can be found on its website, usually in a section called “About this journal” or something similar. For example, the Journal of Cancer Education presents such information on the “Aims and Scope” page of its website, which can be found here: https://www.springer.com/journal/13187/aims-and-scope .
Peer reviewer guidelines from your target journal are an additional resource that can help you tailor your writing to the journal and provide additional advice about crafting an effective article [ 1 ]. These are not always available, but it is worth a quick web search to find out.
Identify Author Roles Early in the Process
Early in the writing process, identify authors, determine the order of authors, and discuss the responsibilities of each author. Standard author responsibilities have been identified by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) [ 2 ]. To set clear expectations about each team member’s responsibilities and prevent errors in communication, we also suggest outlining more detailed roles, such as who will draft each section of the manuscript, write the abstract, submit the paper electronically, serve as corresponding author, and write the cover letter. It is best to formalize this agreement in writing after discussing it, circulating the document to the author team for approval. We suggest creating a title page on which all authors are listed in the agreed-upon order. It may be necessary to adjust authorship roles and order during the development of the paper. If a new author order is agreed upon, be sure to update the title page in the manuscript draft.
In the case where multiple papers will result from a single study, authors should discuss who will author each paper. Additionally, authors should agree on a deadline for each paper and the lead author should take responsibility for producing an initial draft by this deadline.
Structure of the Introduction Section
The introduction section should be approximately three to five paragraphs in length. Look at examples from your target journal to decide the appropriate length. This section should include the elements shown in Fig. 1 . Begin with a general context, narrowing to the specific focus of the paper. Include five main elements: why your research is important, what is already known about the topic, the “gap” or what is not yet known about the topic, why it is important to learn the new information that your research adds, and the specific research aim(s) that your paper addresses. Your research aim should address the gap you identified. Be sure to add enough background information to enable readers to understand your study. Table 1 provides common introduction section pitfalls and recommendations for addressing them.
The main elements of the introduction section of an original research article. Often, the elements overlap
The purpose of the methods section is twofold: to explain how the study was done in enough detail to enable its replication and to provide enough contextual detail to enable readers to understand and interpret the results. In general, the essential elements of a methods section are the following: a description of the setting and participants, the study design and timing, the recruitment and sampling, the data collection process, the dataset, the dependent and independent variables, the covariates, the analytic approach for each research objective, and the ethical approval. The hallmark of an exemplary methods section is the justification of why each method was used. Table 2 provides common methods section pitfalls and recommendations for addressing them.
The focus of the results section should be associations, or lack thereof, rather than statistical tests. Two considerations should guide your writing here. First, the results should present answers to each part of the research aim. Second, return to the methods section to ensure that the analysis and variables for each result have been explained.
Begin the results section by describing the number of participants in the final sample and details such as the number who were approached to participate, the proportion who were eligible and who enrolled, and the number of participants who dropped out. The next part of the results should describe the participant characteristics. After that, you may organize your results by the aim or by putting the most exciting results first. Do not forget to report your non-significant associations. These are still findings.
Tables and figures capture the reader’s attention and efficiently communicate your main findings [ 3 ]. Each table and figure should have a clear message and should complement, rather than repeat, the text. Tables and figures should communicate all salient details necessary for a reader to understand the findings without consulting the text. Include information on comparisons and tests, as well as information about the sample and timing of the study in the title, legend, or in a footnote. Note that figures are often more visually interesting than tables, so if it is feasible to make a figure, make a figure. To avoid confusing the reader, either avoid abbreviations in tables and figures, or define them in a footnote. Note that there should not be citations in the results section and you should not interpret results here. Table 3 provides common results section pitfalls and recommendations for addressing them.
Opposite the introduction section, the discussion should take the form of a right-side-up triangle beginning with interpretation of your results and moving to general implications (Fig. 2 ). This section typically begins with a restatement of the main findings, which can usually be accomplished with a few carefully-crafted sentences.
Major elements of the discussion section of an original research article. Often, the elements overlap
Next, interpret the meaning or explain the significance of your results, lifting the reader’s gaze from the study’s specific findings to more general applications. Then, compare these study findings with other research. Are these findings in agreement or disagreement with those from other studies? Does this study impart additional nuance to well-accepted theories? Situate your findings within the broader context of scientific literature, then explain the pathways or mechanisms that might give rise to, or explain, the results.
Journals vary in their approach to strengths and limitations sections: some are embedded paragraphs within the discussion section, while some mandate separate section headings. Keep in mind that every study has strengths and limitations. Candidly reporting yours helps readers to correctly interpret your research findings.
The next element of the discussion is a summary of the potential impacts and applications of the research. Should these results be used to optimally design an intervention? Does the work have implications for clinical protocols or public policy? These considerations will help the reader to further grasp the possible impacts of the presented work.
Finally, the discussion should conclude with specific suggestions for future work. Here, you have an opportunity to illuminate specific gaps in the literature that compel further study. Avoid the phrase “future research is necessary” because the recommendation is too general to be helpful to readers. Instead, provide substantive and specific recommendations for future studies. Table 4 provides common discussion section pitfalls and recommendations for addressing them.
Follow the Journal’s Author Guidelines
After you select a target journal, identify the journal’s author guidelines to guide the formatting of your manuscript and references. Author guidelines will often (but not always) include instructions for titles, cover letters, and other components of a manuscript submission. Read the guidelines carefully. If you do not follow the guidelines, your article will be sent back to you.
Finally, do not submit your paper to more than one journal at a time. Even if this is not explicitly stated in the author guidelines of your target journal, it is considered inappropriate and unprofessional.
Your title should invite readers to continue reading beyond the first page [ 4 , 5 ]. It should be informative and interesting. Consider describing the independent and dependent variables, the population and setting, the study design, the timing, and even the main result in your title. Because the focus of the paper can change as you write and revise, we recommend you wait until you have finished writing your paper before composing the title.
Be sure that the title is useful for potential readers searching for your topic. The keywords you select should complement those in your title to maximize the likelihood that a researcher will find your paper through a database search. Avoid using abbreviations in your title unless they are very well known, such as SNP, because it is more likely that someone will use a complete word rather than an abbreviation as a search term to help readers find your paper.
After you have written a complete draft, use the checklist (Fig. 3 ) below to guide your revisions and editing. Additional resources are available on writing the abstract and citing references [ 5 ]. When you feel that your work is ready, ask a trusted colleague or two to read the work and provide informal feedback. The box below provides a checklist that summarizes the key points offered in this article.
Checklist for manuscript quality
Michalek AM (2014) Down the rabbit hole…advice to reviewers. J Cancer Educ 29:4–5
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International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Defining the role of authors and contributors: who is an author? http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/roles-and-responsibilities/defining-the-role-of-authosrs-and-contributors.html . Accessed 15 January, 2020
Vetto JT (2014) Short and sweet: a short course on concise medical writing. J Cancer Educ 29(1):194–195
Brett M, Kording K (2017) Ten simple rules for structuring papers. PLoS ComputBiol. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005619
Lang TA (2017) Writing a better research article. J Public Health Emerg. https://doi.org/10.21037/jphe.2017.11.06
Ella August is grateful to the Sustainable Sciences Institute for mentoring her in training researchers on writing and publishing their research.
Authors and affiliations.
Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, 135 Dauer Dr, 27599, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Clara Busse & Ella August
Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2029, USA
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Correspondence to Ella August .
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Busse, C., August, E. How to Write and Publish a Research Paper for a Peer-Reviewed Journal. J Canc Educ 36 , 909–913 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-020-01751-z
Published : 30 April 2020
Issue Date : October 2021
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-020-01751-z
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- Research Paper Format | APA, MLA, & Chicago Templates
Research Paper Format | APA, MLA, & Chicago Templates
Published on November 19, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on January 20, 2023.
The formatting of a research paper is different depending on which style guide you’re following. In addition to citations , APA, MLA, and Chicago provide format guidelines for things like font choices, page layout, format of headings and the format of the reference page.
Scribbr offers free Microsoft Word templates for the most common formats. Simply download and get started on your paper.
APA | MLA | Chicago author-date | Chicago notes & bibliography
- Generate an automatic table of contents
- Generate a list of tables and figures
- Ensure consistent paragraph formatting
- Insert page numbering
Table of contents
Formatting an apa paper, formatting an mla paper, formatting a chicago paper, frequently asked questions about research paper formatting.
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in APA Style are as follows:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman or 11 pt Arial.
- Set 1 inch page margins.
- Apply double line spacing.
- If submitting for publication, insert a APA running head on every page.
- Indent every new paragraph ½ inch.
Watch the video below for a quick guide to setting up the format in Google Docs.
The image below shows how to format an APA Style title page for a student paper.
If you are submitting a paper for publication, APA requires you to include a running head on each page. The image below shows you how this should be formatted.
For student papers, no running head is required unless you have been instructed to include one.
APA provides guidelines for formatting up to five levels of heading within your paper. Level 1 headings are the most general, level 5 the most specific.
APA Style citation requires (author-date) APA in-text citations throughout the text and an APA Style reference page at the end. The image below shows how the reference page should be formatted.
Note that the format of reference entries is different depending on the source type. You can easily create your citations and reference list using the free APA Citation Generator.
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The main guidelines for writing an MLA style paper are as follows:
- Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman.
- Use title case capitalization for headings .
Check out the video below to see how to set up the format in Google Docs.
On the first page of an MLA paper, a heading appears above your title, featuring some key information:
- Your full name
- Your instructor’s or supervisor’s name
- The course name or number
- The due date of the assignment
A header appears at the top of each page in your paper, including your surname and the page number.
Works Cited page
MLA in-text citations appear wherever you refer to a source in your text. The MLA Works Cited page appears at the end of your text, listing all the sources used. It is formatted as shown below.
You can easily create your MLA citations and save your Works Cited list with the free MLA Citation Generator.
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The main guidelines for writing a paper in Chicago style (also known as Turabian style) are:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman.
- Use 1 inch margins or larger.
- Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.
Chicago doesn’t require a title page , but if you want to include one, Turabian (based on Chicago) presents some guidelines. Lay out the title page as shown below.
Bibliography or reference list
Chicago offers two citation styles : author-date citations plus a reference list, or footnote citations plus a bibliography. Choose one style or the other and use it consistently.
The reference list or bibliography appears at the end of the paper. Both styles present this page similarly in terms of formatting, as shown below.
To format a paper in APA Style , follow these guidelines:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman or 11 pt Arial
- Set 1 inch page margins
- Apply double line spacing
- Include a title page
- If submitting for publication, insert a running head on every page
- Indent every new paragraph ½ inch
- Apply APA heading styles
- Cite your sources with APA in-text citations
- List all sources cited on a reference page at the end
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style are as follows:
- Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman
- Include a four-line MLA heading on the first page
- Center the paper’s title
- Use title case capitalization for headings
- Cite your sources with MLA in-text citations
- List all sources cited on a Works Cited page at the end
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in Chicago style are to:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman
- Use 1 inch margins or larger
- Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center
- Cite your sources with author-date citations or Chicago footnotes
- Include a bibliography or reference list
To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .
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Caulfield, J. (2023, January 20). Research Paper Format | APA, MLA, & Chicago Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved November 2, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/research-paper/research-paper-format/
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Home » How to Publish a Research Paper – Step by Step Guide
How to Publish a Research Paper – Step by Step Guide
Table of Contents
Publishing a research paper is an important step for researchers to disseminate their findings to a wider audience and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their field. Whether you are a graduate student, a postdoctoral fellow, or an established researcher, publishing a paper requires careful planning, rigorous research, and clear writing. In this process, you will need to identify a research question , conduct a thorough literature review , design a methodology, analyze data, and draw conclusions. Additionally, you will need to consider the appropriate journals or conferences to submit your work to and adhere to their guidelines for formatting and submission. In this article, we will discuss some ways to publish your Research Paper.
How to Publish a Research Paper
To Publish a Research Paper follow the guide below:
- Conduct original research : Conduct thorough research on a specific topic or problem. Collect data, analyze it, and draw conclusions based on your findings.
- Write the paper : Write a detailed paper describing your research. It should include an abstract, introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion.
- Choose a suitable journal or conference : Look for a journal or conference that specializes in your research area. You can check their submission guidelines to ensure your paper meets their requirements.
- Prepare your submission: Follow the guidelines and prepare your submission, including the paper, abstract, cover letter, and any other required documents.
- Submit the paper: Submit your paper online through the journal or conference website. Make sure you meet the submission deadline.
- Peer-review process : Your paper will be reviewed by experts in the field who will provide feedback on the quality of your research, methodology, and conclusions.
- Revisions : Based on the feedback you receive, revise your paper and resubmit it.
- Acceptance : Once your paper is accepted, you will receive a notification from the journal or conference. You may need to make final revisions before the paper is published.
- Publication : Your paper will be published online or in print. You can also promote your work through social media or other channels to increase its visibility.
How to Choose Journal for Research Paper Publication
Here are some steps to follow to help you select an appropriate journal:
- Identify your research topic and audience : Your research topic and intended audience should guide your choice of journal. Identify the key journals in your field of research and read the scope and aim of the journal to determine if your paper is a good fit.
- Analyze the journal’s impact and reputation : Check the impact factor and ranking of the journal, as well as its acceptance rate and citation frequency. A high-impact journal can give your paper more visibility and credibility.
- Consider the journal’s publication policies : Look for the journal’s publication policies such as the word count limit, formatting requirements, open access options, and submission fees. Make sure that you can comply with the requirements and that the journal is in line with your publication goals.
- Look at recent publications : Review recent issues of the journal to evaluate whether your paper would fit in with the journal’s current content and style.
- Seek advice from colleagues and mentors: Ask for recommendations and suggestions from your colleagues and mentors in your field, especially those who have experience publishing in the same or similar journals.
- Be prepared to make changes : Be prepared to revise your paper according to the requirements and guidelines of the chosen journal. It is also important to be open to feedback from the editor and reviewers.
List of Journals for Research Paper Publications
There are thousands of academic journals covering various fields of research. Here are some of the most popular ones, categorized by field:
- Nature: https://www.nature.com/
- Science: https://www.sciencemag.org/
- PLOS ONE: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS): https://www.pnas.org/
- The Lancet: https://www.thelancet.com/
- JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association): https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama
- Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/psp
- Journal of Consumer Research: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/journals/jcr
- Journal of Educational Psychology: https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/edu
- Journal of Applied Psychology: https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/apl
- Journal of Communication: https://academic.oup.com/joc
- American Journal of Political Science: https://ajps.org/
- Journal of International Business Studies: https://www.jibs.net/
- Journal of Marketing Research: https://www.ama.org/journal-of-marketing-research/
- Journal of Biological Chemistry: https://www.jbc.org/
- Cell: https://www.cell.com/
- Science Advances: https://advances.sciencemag.org/
- Chemical Reviews: https://pubs.acs.org/journal/chreay
- Angewandte Chemie: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/15213765
- Physical Review Letters: https://journals.aps.org/prl/
- Journal of Geophysical Research: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/2156531X
- Journal of High Energy Physics: https://link.springer.com/journal/13130
- IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5962385
- IEEE Transactions on Power Systems: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=59
- IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=42
- IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=87
- Journal of Engineering Mechanics: https://ascelibrary.org/journal/jenmdt
- Journal of Materials Science: https://www.springer.com/journal/10853
- Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jcej
- Journal of Mechanical Design: https://asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/mechanicaldesign
- New England Journal of Medicine: https://www.nejm.org/
- The BMJ (formerly British Medical Journal): https://www.bmj.com/
- Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA): https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama
- Annals of Internal Medicine: https://www.acpjournals.org/journal/aim
- American Journal of Epidemiology: https://academic.oup.com/aje
- Journal of Clinical Oncology: https://ascopubs.org/journal/jco
- Journal of Infectious Diseases: https://academic.oup.com/jid
List of Conferences for Research Paper Publications
There are many conferences that accept research papers for publication. The specific conferences you should consider will depend on your field of research. Here are some suggestions for conferences in a few different fields:
Computer Science and Information Technology:
- IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM): https://www.ieee-infocom.org/
- ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Data Communication: https://conferences.sigcomm.org/sigcomm/
- IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP): https://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP/
- ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS): https://www.sigsac.org/ccs/
- ACM Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (CHI): https://chi2022.acm.org/
- IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA): https://www.ieee-icra.org/
- International Conference on Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ICMAE): http://www.icmae.org/
- International Conference on Civil and Environmental Engineering (ICCEE): http://www.iccee.org/
- International Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (ICMSE): http://www.icmse.org/
- International Conference on Energy and Power Engineering (ICEPE): http://www.icepe.org/
- American Chemical Society National Meeting & Exposition: https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/meetings/national-meeting.html
- American Physical Society March Meeting: https://www.aps.org/meetings/march/
- International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (ICEST): http://www.icest.org/
- International Conference on Natural Science and Environment (ICNSE): http://www.icnse.org/
- International Conference on Life Science and Biological Engineering (LSBE): http://www.lsbe.org/
- Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association (ASA): https://www.asanet.org/annual-meeting-2022
- International Conference on Social Science and Humanities (ICSSH): http://www.icssh.org/
- International Conference on Psychology and Behavioral Sciences (ICPBS): http://www.icpbs.org/
- International Conference on Education and Social Science (ICESS): http://www.icess.org/
- International Conference on Management and Information Science (ICMIS): http://www.icmis.org/
How to Publish a Research Paper in Journal
Publishing a research paper in a journal is a crucial step in disseminating scientific knowledge and contributing to the field. Here are the general steps to follow:
- Choose a research topic : Select a topic of your interest and identify a research question or problem that you want to investigate. Conduct a literature review to identify the gaps in the existing knowledge that your research will address.
- Conduct research : Develop a research plan and methodology to collect data and conduct experiments. Collect and analyze data to draw conclusions that address the research question.
- Write a paper: Organize your findings into a well-structured paper with clear and concise language. Your paper should include an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Use academic language and provide references for your sources.
- Choose a journal: Choose a journal that is relevant to your research topic and audience. Consider factors such as impact factor, acceptance rate, and the reputation of the journal.
- Follow journal guidelines : Review the submission guidelines and formatting requirements of the journal. Follow the guidelines carefully to ensure that your paper meets the journal’s requirements.
- Submit your paper : Submit your paper to the journal through the online submission system or by email. Include a cover letter that briefly explains the significance of your research and why it is suitable for the journal.
- Wait for reviews: Your paper will be reviewed by experts in the field. Be prepared to address their comments and make revisions to your paper.
- Revise and resubmit: Make revisions to your paper based on the reviewers’ comments and resubmit it to the journal. If your paper is accepted, congratulations! If not, consider revising and submitting it to another journal.
- Address reviewer comments : Reviewers may provide comments and suggestions for revisions to your paper. Address these comments carefully and thoughtfully to improve the quality of your paper.
- Submit the final version: Once your revisions are complete, submit the final version of your paper to the journal. Be sure to follow any additional formatting guidelines and requirements provided by the journal.
- Publication : If your paper is accepted, it will be published in the journal. Some journals provide online publication while others may publish a print version. Be sure to cite your published paper in future research and communicate your findings to the scientific community.
How to Publish a Research Paper for Students
Here are some steps you can follow to publish a research paper as an Under Graduate or a High School Student:
- Select a topic: Choose a topic that is relevant and interesting to you, and that you have a good understanding of.
- Conduct research : Gather information and data on your chosen topic through research, experiments, surveys, or other means.
- Write the paper : Start with an outline, then write the introduction, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion sections of the paper. Be sure to follow any guidelines provided by your instructor or the journal you plan to submit to.
- Edit and revise: Review your paper for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Ask a peer or mentor to review your paper and provide feedback for improvement.
- Choose a journal : Look for journals that publish papers in your field of study and that are appropriate for your level of research. Some popular journals for students include PLOS ONE, Nature, and Science.
- Submit the paper: Follow the submission guidelines for the journal you choose, which typically include a cover letter, abstract, and formatting requirements. Be prepared to wait several weeks to months for a response.
- Address feedback : If your paper is accepted with revisions, address the feedback from the reviewers and resubmit your paper. If your paper is rejected, review the feedback and consider revising and resubmitting to a different journal.
How to Publish a Research Paper for Free
Publishing a research paper for free can be challenging, but it is possible. Here are some steps you can take to publish your research paper for free:
- Choose a suitable open-access journal: Look for open-access journals that are relevant to your research area. Open-access journals allow readers to access your paper without charge, so your work will be more widely available.
- Check the journal’s reputation : Before submitting your paper, ensure that the journal is reputable by checking its impact factor, publication history, and editorial board.
- Follow the submission guidelines : Every journal has specific guidelines for submitting papers. Make sure to follow these guidelines carefully to increase the chances of acceptance.
- Submit your paper : Once you have completed your research paper, submit it to the journal following their submission guidelines.
- Wait for the review process: Your paper will undergo a peer-review process, where experts in your field will evaluate your work. Be patient during this process, as it can take several weeks or even months.
- Revise your paper : If your paper is rejected, don’t be discouraged. Revise your paper based on the feedback you receive from the reviewers and submit it to another open-access journal.
- Promote your research: Once your paper is published, promote it on social media and other online platforms. This will increase the visibility of your work and help it reach a wider audience.
Journals and Conferences for Free Research Paper publications
Here are the websites of the open-access journals and conferences mentioned:
- PLOS ONE – https://journals.plos.org/plosone/
- BMC Research Notes – https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/
- Frontiers in… – https://www.frontiersin.org/
- Journal of Open Research Software – https://openresearchsoftware.metajnl.com/
- PeerJ – https://peerj.com/
- IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) – https://globecom2022.ieee-globecom.org/
- IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM) – https://infocom2022.ieee-infocom.org/
- IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM) – https://www.ieee-icdm.org/
- ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Data Communication (SIGCOMM) – https://conferences.sigcomm.org/sigcomm/
- ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS) – https://www.sigsac.org/ccs/CCS2022/
Importance of Research Paper Publication
Research paper publication is important for several reasons, both for individual researchers and for the scientific community as a whole. Here are some reasons why:
- Advancing scientific knowledge : Research papers provide a platform for researchers to present their findings and contribute to the body of knowledge in their field. These papers often contain novel ideas, experimental data, and analyses that can help to advance scientific understanding.
- Building a research career : Publishing research papers is an essential component of building a successful research career. Researchers are often evaluated based on the number and quality of their publications, and having a strong publication record can increase one’s chances of securing funding, tenure, or a promotion.
- Peer review and quality control: Publication in a peer-reviewed journal means that the research has been scrutinized by other experts in the field. This peer review process helps to ensure the quality and validity of the research findings.
- Recognition and visibility : Publishing a research paper can bring recognition and visibility to the researchers and their work. It can lead to invitations to speak at conferences, collaborations with other researchers, and media coverage.
- Impact on society : Research papers can have a significant impact on society by informing policy decisions, guiding clinical practice, and advancing technological innovation.
Advantages of Research Paper Publication
There are several advantages to publishing a research paper, including:
- Recognition: Publishing a research paper allows researchers to gain recognition for their work, both within their field and in the academic community as a whole. This can lead to new collaborations, invitations to conferences, and other opportunities to share their research with a wider audience.
- Career advancement : A strong publication record can be an important factor in career advancement, particularly in academia. Publishing research papers can help researchers secure funding, grants, and promotions.
- Dissemination of knowledge : Research papers are an important way to share new findings and ideas with the broader scientific community. By publishing their research, scientists can contribute to the collective body of knowledge in their field and help advance scientific understanding.
- Feedback and peer review : Publishing a research paper allows other experts in the field to provide feedback on the research, which can help improve the quality of the work and identify potential flaws or limitations. Peer review also helps ensure that research is accurate and reliable.
- Citation and impact : Published research papers can be cited by other researchers, which can help increase the impact and visibility of the research. High citation rates can also help establish a researcher’s reputation and credibility within their field.
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Guide to Getting Published in Journals
- Why publish in journals?
- Identifying potential journals
- Creating a journal comparison spreadsheet
- Aims & Scope
- Editorial Board
- How different journals approach peer review
- Different open access models
- Interpreting traditional metrics like the Impact Factor
- Alternative metrics
- Ethics and malpractice statements
- Recognising and avoiding predatory journals
- Instructions for authors
- Submitting your paper
You have worked through your list of journals, investigating all your criteria and found the journal that is best suited to your paper and the goals you have for it. It is now time for you to submit!
In this section, we will prepare you for what to expect when submitting to a journal, give some insights into the peer review process, how to respond to requests for revisions and resubmit a paper, and what steps to take should you receive a rejection decision.
Submitting a paper
Make sure you have prepared your paper according to the instructions for authors . Double-check the journal’s requirements with your article to be certain.
If you need to include a cover letter with your submission, you should address the editor by formal name (e.g. Dear Professor Name---) and include the name of the journal but make sure you use the correct one (especially if this is your second-choice journal)!
In the letter, explain why your article is suitable for that journal and how your paper will contribute to furthering its aims & scope. Pitch the value of your article, describing the main theme, the contribution your paper makes to existing knowledge, and its relationship to any relevant articles published in the journal. You should not repeat the abstract in the letter. Include information not typically mentioned in a manuscript.
You may also be requested by the journal to suggest some reviewers for your paper. Good sources for these include authors cited in your references and editorial board members from the journal, or from other journals in the field. You should not suggest anyone that you would have a conflict of interest with, such as co-workers.
You should also make some formal declarations regarding the originality of your work, that you have no conflicts of interest, and that all co-authors (if you have any) agree to the submission.
The review process
As we discussed in the earlier module on peer review , there are a wide range of timeframes over which your review process may be conducted.
It may take several months for the journal to complete the review process, which typically involves:
- Reading the article and deciding whether to send it for review.
- Acquiring sufficient reviewers and receiving all feedback.
- Assessing the reviews and rendering a decision on the paper.
Acquiring reviewers and then receiving those reviews back is the longest part of the process. It is very much dependent on the availability of academics, and is not an especially predictable process.
Journals which use web-based reviewing platforms often feature a status for each submission that authors can check. If this status has not changed for some time, in most cases, you will be able to send the journal administrator or editor an email. Some journals make their review times publicly available, giving you a good idea of how long their process might take, and when it may be appropriate to ask for an update. If you do not know what to expect, we suggest waiting around 2 months before asking for an update.
Hopefully you will have submitted your article to the perfect journal, exactly as they have requested, and your article will be sent for reviewing. However, some papers are rejected without being sent for peer review – this is commonly known as a desk reject – and of course, you want to avoid this happening to your paper.
To help you understand and minimise the risk, here are some of the most common reasons for desk rejection:
- Language or writing issues which make it too hard for the editor to understand the paper.
- Similarity checking revealing a large amount of exact matching or plagiarised content.
- Formatting is not in the journal style
- Word count is too high
- Figures & Tables are incomplete or difficult to read
- References are incomplete
AIMS & SCOPE AND CONTENT
- Outside Aims & Scope.
- Hypothesis or purpose is not sufficiently clear.
- Methods are unclear or flawed.
- Results do not support conclusions.
- Incremental addition to knowledge.
- References miss key or recent literature.
Similarity (plagarism) checking
Many journals conduct some form of checking of article text to go alongside the reviewing of papers. Software such as iThenticate, Turnitin, PlagScan, among many others, are used either to look for similarities in text between the submitted article and published material available online.
These platforms cannot, by themselves, determine whether text has been plagiarised, only provide a score of how similar passages of text are to existing material. For this reason, these programs tend to be referred to as ‘similarity checker’, not ‘plagiarism checker’.
Papers which are processed and return high scores are likely to be investigated to determine whether the similarity does appear to be deliberate plagiarism. How a journal deals with such a paper depends on their own policies and procedures, and the extent of the plagiarism detected.
Many journals will refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Guidelines and Flowchart for dealing with “Suspected plagiarism in a submitted manuscript”. See our module on Ethics and Malpractice Statements for more detail on COPE and journal ethics.
These similarity checking programs may be used at different stages of the process, depending on journal policy and situation. Some journals may screen all papers on submission, some only when some concerns are raised by the editor on first read or by referees during review.
Receiving a decision after peer review
Once the editor has received all comments, feedback and recommendations from the reviewers, they will make a decision on the paper. These decisions may be called by different terms, but will usually fit into one of four categories:
- Accept – it is very rare than a first submission will be accepted outright, without any changes being requested.
- Revisions likely to result in acceptance – This can be a ‘minor revisions’ decision, or a more major revision, but in both cases the editor shows positivity towards a final acceptance.
- Revisions with an uncertain outcome – Often referred to as ‘major revisions’, or ‘reject, revise and resubmit’, these decisions request extensive revisions, reinterpretations of information, or deeper, more thorough explanations of details, which ultimately may not be acceptable for the journal even when responses to all reviewer comments have been provided.
- Reject – The paper is unsuitable and/or unacceptable for the journal in this form, or any alternate version. With a reject decision, a revision is not invited, and should an author resubmit the paper as a new version, it may be immediately rejected.
If you are invited to revise your paper, make sure you are methodical in your approach to tackling the revisions requested by the editor.
- Read the letter and put it aside for a day or two. However well-framed the reviewer’s comments and criticisms of your paper, there is always a chance you may feel protective over the original paper you spent so much time writing. It is not always easy to receive criticism, so don’t rush to take action immediately. Give yourself a few days to digest the reviewer comments before taking the next steps with your revision.
- In most cases, it is likely that you will be able to follow the recommendations of the reviewers.
- Organising the reviewer comments by ease of response or your ability to complete. For example, on a spectrum of requested revisions, spelling and grammar corrections would be at the easiest end, through to conducting extra experiments at the more difficult (or impossible) end.
- Numbering each of the comments from each reviewer.
- Taking a structured approach to revisions will also make it easier to respond. You will need to include a point-by-point response letter, detailing how you have addressed each reviewer point. You do not need to perform every change requested of the reviewers, but you should provide a response as to why you have not done so. It may be that reviewers request conflicting things, or the additional experiments they suggest are not possible.
- If you disagree with a comment made by one of the reviewers, try to provide an evidence-based explanation in your response.
- Try to complete your revisions by the requested deadline. If you think you will need longer, let the journal know. They will probably be happy to grant you the extension, and it is courteous to keep them updated. In addition, some online review platforms may prevent you from submitting your revision once the due date expires, so asking for an extension will avoid this problem too.
- Once your revisions are complete and you have detailed all your responses in your letter, check with any co-authors that they are all happy with the final versions before re-submitting to the journal.
- For journals with online submission forms, be sure to submit as the revision of your original article so that it is easy for the editorial office and Editor to follow. Amend any relevant fields (such as title, abstract) that have changed during your revision process, provide related cover letters, revised manuscript files and reviewer response letter in the appropriate places in the forms.
- Revisions may be sent to the previous reviewers to re-assess, or the Editor may make a decision independently. In some cases, new reviewers may be sought. As with the first submission, once all reviews have been submitted, the Editor will make a decision from the same set of categories and hopefully your paper will be accepted in just one or two rounds of resubmission. Some very strict journals will not invite a second speculative revision, but others may be more lenient and continue to invite revisions until the editor is satisfied of a decision to either Accept or Reject.
Having a submission rejected from your first-choice journal is something of an inevitability - every researcher has been rejected at some point in their careers. Even some of what we now consider ground-breaking and foundational studies were rejected from their first-choice journals. Hans Krebs' paper on citric acid cycle - the Krebs cycle – was rejected from Nature in 1937, and Kary Mullis’ first paper on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was rejected from Science in 1993, before going on to win the Nobel Prize. Rejection happens, quite literally, to the best of us.
If this should happen to you, try not be too disappointed. It does not mean there is no future for your paper. As with our revision recommendation, set aside the letter once you have read it and give yourself some time before tackling it.
When you are ready to proceed with your paper, consider the following steps:
- From your shortlist of suitable journals for your paper, you might now consider your second-choice journal.
- Another option to consider may be ‘Cascade Journals’. Some publishers now offer a chance to publish in a ‘Cascade journal’. These are usually open access titles, published by the same organisation. Some Cascade journals will require payment of an Article Processing Charge (APC). You may or may not be offered a reduced rate as part of the transfer to the related title. It is likely that the journal will transfer the reviews received at your first-choice journal to the ‘cascade journal’. This is intended to speed up the review process, or may mean the editor does not have to conduct any reviewing at all, but it does not guarantee acceptance at this journal. The editor will still need to make a decision as to whether your paper is suitable for the journal.
- Firstly, it is likely that the comments the reviewers provided will help you improve aspects of your paper such as focusing the aims and purpose of your paper, sharpening the inferences made from your results, fine tuning the message you wish to convey, or improving the readability among many other positive edits.
- Secondly, even in reasonably large research fields, there is a chance that the same reviewers who saw your paper at the first journal will be asked to review it at the new journal. It will not reflect favourably on you if you have not acknowledged or considered any of their comments from the first round of reviews.
When submitting the new version of your paper to your second journal, there is no need to include a letter responding to the original reviewers’ comments.
- Check that the format of your paper meets the submission criteria of the new journal and make the appropriate amendments (remember, failure to comply with a journals Instructions For Authors is one of the most common causes of immediate rejection).
- If you wish, write a cover letter to the new journal, explaining the relevance of your paper to the journal, and be sure to address the correct journal editor and journal name.
- Complete your new submission to the journal.
After acceptance, you will usually be required to sign copyright or licensing documents, to give the publisher the rights to publish your article. Be sure to read these documents thoroughly to understand what you are signing.
If you would like to publish your article Open Access, Article Processing Charges are usually requested at this stage, and go hand-in-hand with the license you select, if such options are available.
Accepted papers are usually sent to a production team to format into journal style. Some have dedicated professional typesetters, copyeditors and proof-readers. For some journals, the Editors may contribute to these roles.
Some journals publish the Accepted version online within just a few days, to make it officially available before the final ‘Version of Record’ journal-styled PDF is made available.
Some journals publish articles online as soon as they are ready, into a queue of early publication manuscripts. Other journals hold all articles offline until each issue is full and publish each issue according to a defined schedule (for example, 4 times per year).
There are many different ways in which publishers and journals manage their post-acceptance stages and publication schedules. If the information about your article is not provided to you, you may contact the journal office for an update.
These are some of the more common processes and procedures that you will encounter and come to rely on throughout your research publishing career, but there may be many more variations to deal with. The submission process can be a time-consuming, frustrating experience, but with these tips, and building up your own repertoire of tools, resources and techniques, you will soon master the arts of submission and peer review.
Good luck with all your future submissions!
Hervé Stolowy (2017) Letter from the Editor: Why Are Papers Desk Rejected at European Accounting Review? , European Accounting Review, 26:3, 411-418
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- Research Process
How to Choose a Journal to Submit an Article
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Table of Contents
After so much effort bringing together the perfect article, finding the best scientific journal to submit it to becomes the next big challenge. Which one will bring the deserved awareness to your research? Which one will enhance the visibility of your work? Which one is the benchmark in your investigation field? Choosing the right journal for publication might end up being more complicated than you think.
Article publishing. Why is it important?
The saying “publish or perish” might sound familiar to you – since a researcher’s recognition and career often depend on article publishing. But that doesn’t mean diving into the first chance that comes along. From aims to scope, values and ethical practice, there are many things to take into account before choosing a journal to submit an article. If you’re submitting a paper instead of an article, it is equally important to find the right journal for your paper .
Choosing a Journal for Publication
Elsevier offers a wide range of distinguished journals, and choosing the best one to publish your research paper is much easier with our support and guidance. Using the JournalFinder , you can match your manuscript and learn more about each journal available. Powered by the Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™, JournalFinder uses smart search technology and field-of-research specific vocabularies to match your paper to the most appropriate scientific journals in a few simple steps:
1) Enter the title and abstract of your paper
2) Find journals that are best suited for your publication
3) Ultimately, the editor will decide on how well your article matches the journal
To Find Out More About a Journal
In article publishing, choosing a journal for publication is a strategically important step to give your work the opportunity to shine and attract the attention of the right people. Thus, it is not a decision to make without spending some time researching the best available publications out there. Make sure to follow these tips to get even closer to the perfect journal for you:
- Read the journal’s aims and scope to make sure it is a match.
- Check whether you can submit an article – some journals are invitation-only.
- CiteScore metrics – helps to measure journal citation impact. Free, comprehensive, transparent and current metrics calculated using data from Scopus®, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature.
- SJR – or SCImago Journal Rank, is based on the concept of a transfer of prestige between journals via their citation links.
- SNIP – or Source Normalized Impact per Paper, is a sophisticated metric that accounts for field-specific differences in citation practices.
- JIF – or Journal Impact Factor is calculated by Clarivate Analytics as the average of the sum of the citations received in a given year to a journal’s previous two years of publications, divided by the sum of “citable” publications in the previous two years.
- H-index – Although originally conceived as an author-level metric, the H-index has been being applied to higher-order aggregations of research publications, including journals.
- Impact: Number of times an average paper in this journal is cited.
- Speed: The average number of weeks it takes for an article to be reviewed. Essentially, the average number of weeks it takes for an article to reach key publication points in the production process.
- Reach: The number of downloads at the country/regional level over the last five full years available. The number of primary corresponding authors at the country/regional level, over the last five full years available.
Language Editing Services by Elsevier Author Services
Through our L anguage Editing Services , we correct proofreading errors, check for grammar and syntax to make your paper sound natural and professional. So that editors and reviewers can understand the science behind your manuscript. With more than a hundred years of experience in publishing, Elsevier today is trusted by millions of authors around the world.
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In this article you will learn what a research paper is, its structure and how to produce one. Check out our tips 😉
Table of contents :
What is a research paper?
Why is it important to write research papers.
- How to write a research paper — step by step — Defining the core elements of a scientific research — Bibliographic review and empirical investigation — Choose a journal or a scientific event to submit your research paper — Structure your research paper — Don’t forget to review the whole paper
Format your research paper in APA style with Mettzer
The research paper is one of the main types of academic papers, mostly made by postgraduate students and scientists.
Through the publication of these papers, scientific knowledge is build.
Writing a research paper is an important step of a scientific career. To make this path more enjoyable we have selected the best tips for you.
One of the central characteristics of a research paper is its originality. That is, it must be the result of a scientifically grounded authorial research — plagiarism in no way!
Publishing papers is a central step towards a scientific career, but also a good research exercise for undergraduate students.
The publication of research papers enables the circulation and debate between different ideas, which must be organized within the standards of science. That is, with theoretical rigor and scientific methodology.
In order for this scientific rigor to be certified, a research paper will only be published after peer review, i.e. the reading and approval of other researchers.
Therefore, the publication of research papers is carried out by academic journals or scientific events and congresses. In these journals, the paper must go through a revision process, in which suggestions or changes may be requested until it reaches its final version – ready for publication!
Now that you know what it is and what its importance is for the academic world, let’s move on to a practical guide on how to write one.
How to write a research paper — step by step
Do you have to write a research paper and don’t know how to start?
Check out this step-by-step that we have prepared for you.
1. Defining the core elements of a scientific research
Before starting the research you need to define what will be the theme studied. It is important to choose something that arouses your curiosity and mobilizes the research process 🙂
After choosing the theme, you must delineate the scope of the research, that is, formulate the research problem, objectives and methodology.
This is a central step, because it is the moment when you define the bases that will structure the entire research.
2. Bibliographic review and empirical investigation
After defining the basic structure of the research it is time to collect the data – theoretical and empirical.
You have already chosen the theme and what you seek with the research (research problem), now is the time to select bibliographic references and read a lot about the research theme.
Take care to select reliable theoretical and bibliographical references . For this, choose to search in reliable portals such as Google Scholar.
If your research has empirical data collection, this is when you go to the field or laboratory to apply the methodology you have chosen – conducting tests and observations or applying interviews, questionnaires, etc.
That’s quite a lot, isn’t it? Doing research is a complex and detailed work.
Now that you have done the research, collected the data, and immersed yourself in the theoretical framework, it is time to organize all of this in the format of a research paper.
3. Choose a journal or a scientific event to submit your research paper
Before you start writing the article you need to decide where you want to publish it. This decision is crucial because each journal or scientific event has specific submission requirements.
Defining this before you start writing saves you time and optimizes the development of the paper. This is because, by directing your writing from the journal or event rules requirements, you do not need to go back and change it after you have everything ready. Great tip, right?!
4. Structure your research paper
Typically, the length of a research paper varies between 15 and 25 pages. Its structure is composed of: title, abstract, keywords, introduction, methodology, discussion and results, conclusion, and references.
In the title you can use creativity to instigate the reading of the paper, but do not run away from the theme and scientific rigor. The title should be consistent with the research content and written objectively.
The abstract should present the structure of the research and its main results in a concise way.
Keywords are words that summarize your research. That is, central concepts or ideas worked on in the paper.
In this part, you present in an orderly way what will be developed in-depth along the paper. It is the moment to contextualize the research for the person who will read the paper – talking about the theme, objectives, problem, and methodology and also the importance of the research.
In this part of the paper, you should detail how the research was conducted. Which methods were used? What are the main theoretical references? How was the data collected?
Discussion and results
How do you interpret the data you have collected through the methodology applied? The results presented must always be in dialog with the bibliographic references on the subject. In this way, you demonstrate you are updated on the subject and bring new interpretations to the debate.
To conclude you must briefly review what was presented throughout the article, highlighting the main results obtained and the contributions of the research to science. It is also interesting to point out possible gaps in the study and questions that remain open and can be answered in future research.
Reference all documents used to produce the research according to the required scientific standards — in most cases APA style.
5. Don’t forget to review the whole paper
With the paper already written according to the structure and standards of the journal you have chosen, the last step is the review. It is a very important step, ok?!
The revision – both the spelling and the content of the paper – is essential to make the text cohesive and check for possible errors.
This is the time to carefully read the whole paper, string the argumentation and format the text according to the required scientific standards – in most cases, the APA standard is used.
You can ask a colleague or teacher to support you in this process. A look from another person may be able to verify errors that go unnoticed by our reading.
Science is a collective practice! We produce and publicize it for the scientific community and society as a whole 🙂
Correctly formatting references ensures your paper is respecting academic standards.
In fact, formatting is not a very simple step. But Mettzer can help you with it 🙂
Mettzer is the first and only digital platform that integrates – in one place the entire cycle of academic work . From planning your research, formatting in APA style to plagiarism checking.
Mettzer’s text editor formats any academic work in APA style . It automatically generates citations and bibliographical references for you.
Besides automatically citations and references, Mettzer’s text editor has a Plagiarism Checker to ensure the originality of your academic works.
You can even start your academic paper from a pre-ready template !
With Mettzer’s technology you save time to focus exclusively on what matters, which is the content of your research.
Check out this powerful tool!
You can take a free trial for 7 days 🙂
Doutoranda em Sociologia pela UFSC. Acredita no poder transformador das trocas e afetos que circulam no ambiente científico. Comprometida com a construção de uma ciência mais plural, humana e socialmente justa.
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How to Write a Research Paper: 11-Step Guide
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- Don't let yourself get overwhelmed when writing a research paper — start with a plan.
- Research your topic using credible sources, like peer-reviewed articles.
- Know what's expected of you and what you'll need to earn a high grade.
You've been assigned a research paper for a college class — but where do you begin? How do you start writing a research paper? What kind of research do you need to do? And how should you set up and format your essay?
Below, we introduce 11 steps to teach you how to write a research paper that's bound to impress your professor.
Step 1: Read the Rubric
Before you start your research paper, make sure to read the syllabus or rubric first. Know what to expect from this assignment. You should be able to answer the following questions:
- When is the research paper due? Is there a specific time it needs to be turned in by?
- How long does your paper need to be?
- Is there a minimum number of sources you need to cite?
- What type of citation style do you need to use (e.g., MLA, APA, Chicago)?
- Does your research paper need to address a specific question or topic?
If you often feel your paper needs to be perfect before turning it in, it's time for a mindset shift. Nobody — not even your professor — expects you to write a perfect research paper. Having said that, don't wait until the last minute to get started.
Step 2: Organize Your Schedule
Once you've read the rubric, note in your planner or on your calendar when your research paper is due. Then, make a schedule so that you can accomplish this task in small steps rather than over the course of one (likely stressful) night. Having a plan in place can help you feel better and write a stronger research paper.
It's best to schedule two days for each step of the process. Getting your research paper done in a timely, efficient manner usually takes about two weeks, depending on the length of the essay.
Step 3: Choose a Research Paper Topic
Your professor may give you specific research paper topics to write about. Or, your research paper may need to answer a certain question.
Before you begin, make sure you know what's expected of you regarding the topic. Are you clear on the question? Is it divided into parts? Do you understand each part? Go back to the rubric or syllabus to make sure you understand the parameters of the assignment.
If you're free to choose your own research paper topic, try to write about what you already know or something that genuinely interests you from the class or homework.
Step 4: Create a Research Paper Outline
Outlining is a key part of crafting an effective essay. Your research paper outline should include a rough introduction to the topic , a thesis statement , supporting details for each main idea, and a brief conclusion .
You can outline in whatever way feels most comfortable for you. Some students choose to use bullet points and sub-bullets for related ideas, while others may prefer flowcharts or visual representations of their topic.
Step 5: Research Your Topic
Start by collecting a variety of resources that discuss your topic. Look for credible sources such as textbooks, videos, newspaper articles, primary documents, and peer-reviewed journals.
The campus library is one of the best sources for writing research papers. Make an appointment with a librarian to learn how to utilize your school's online databases. You can sort and filter content using search tools like EBSCO host to find peer-reviewed articles, data, and journals.
As you read the sources you've collected, be sure to highlight and add notes as needed. You might also keep a running document of potential quotations and data points to use in your paper.
Step 6: Start Writing
To start writing, simply incorporate content from your outline into your research paper. Don't forget to include citations, or where you got your information from. You can use tools like Mendeley , Citation Machine , and Cite This for Me to help with this.
As you write, don't worry about editing yet — just focus on getting your ideas down. If you're a better talker than you are a typist, you might consider using tools like dictation to type out the text as you speak.
Step 7: Do Your First Round of Edits
Once you've completed the first draft of your research paper, it's time to start editing it. Besides using the spell checker function, it's important that you take time to read through your paper.
One trick is to read it aloud to yourself. When you read your paper aloud, you can hear the words as they were written. Doing this can help you find typos and identify areas that may be confusing or sound awkward.
Next, create your bibliography. Make sure you've cited all your sources properly, both within the text and in the works cited or bibliography section at the end.
Step 8: Get Feedback
It's critical that you get outside help when writing a research paper. For example, a peer can read over your paper and offer feedback. You could also set up an appointment at your campus's writing or tutoring center.
Another option is to talk to your professor . A professor or teaching assistant can offer you feedback on a paper before you turn it in for a grade.
That said, don't ask for feedback the night before the essay is due. Always give professors at least a week to give you notes on your draft.
Step 9: Complete a Second Round of Edits
After you get feedback on your research paper, you'll need to revise it accordingly. Review the rubric one more time and make sure you understand the requirements. You should also check that you've met each requirement.
Finally, be sure your in-text citations, bibliography, and research paper format comply with the assignment instructions.
Step 10: Submit Your Research Paper
By now you've finalized your paper and are ready to turn it in. Before you do that, though, check to see how you're supposed to submit it.
Does it have to be submitted through an online portal or emailed directly to your professor ? Did you upload the file and click submit before the deadline? Do you need to print or bind the document in a certain way? Is it necessary to print and place it in a folder outside the professor's office?
Confirm that you know the specifics of how, when, and where to turn in your paper.
Step 11: Reflect on the Process
When you eventually receive feedback and a grade on your research paper, don't just stash it away in your backpack and forget about it. Go through your professor's comments and try to learn from them.
Feel free to ask your professor any questions you have about the feedback they gave you. You can also use this information in the future when writing other research papers.
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How To Submit
Journal of Student Research (JSR) is a Multidisciplinary and Faculty-reviewed journal devoted to the Rapid Dissemination of current student research. The journal seeks papers that are novel, integrative, and written in a way that is accessible to a wide audience which includes an array of disciplines. The content of the journal ranges from Applied research to Theoretical research. In general, papers are welcomed from all topics.
The first author of the submission must be an Undergraduate or Graduate student currently enrolled or graduated from an accredited academic institution. In both cases, advisor's information must be listed at submission.
Students who have already graduated must submit a letter as a supplementary file from their advisor testifying of their attendance at the university and conducting the research at the time. Submitted manuscripts will not be eligible for publication without the advisor information listed as such during submission.
Only 5 authors including advisors are free of charge per manuscript submission. For additional author charges, see Article Processing Charge (APC) section.
High School Student Submissions: Please use the journal's High School Student Portal ( www.jsr.org/hs ) to submit.
We accept Manuscript Submissions of the Following Types:
- Research Articles : Submissions of a manuscript that is your original research.
- Review Articles : Original review or analysis on a topic of your choice.
- Other Articles (Non-Peer Reviewed) : Manuscripts that are Research Project, Analysis, Short Essay, Opinion, or an update on Current Affairs. These submissions will not be refereed by our faculty reviewers but will be subject to review by the editorial board before publication.
- If you have any questions or concerns, please email us: technical @jsr.org
- Professionalism is extremely important to us. Please be courteous in all your communication with the JSR staff.
- First and Last Name
- Name of your affiliated Institution (High School, College, or University)
- Current Grade Level , or Educational status
- How or Where did you find out about the Journal
- Your Question or Concern
Table of Contents
Indexing & Metadata
To create a new account, please click on Register and follow the instructions. Once Logged in using your username and password, the portal dashboard will open where you will see the Active Submissions queue. This page lists the submissions currently in the editorial process and has access to past submissions that have been made to the journal under the "Archives" Tab. The authors can submit a new article by clicking the appropriate link for " New Submission ".
The submission process for the Authors is broken down into five steps, with guidance provided at each step. Authors do not need to complete the five steps in one session but can return to what will be listed as on the submissions queue as " Incomplete ".
Authors must read and acknowledge that they have completed and are compliant with the requirements:
- Download the Submission Word Template (Dotx file) which will help you to get started: Template Link
- The manuscript text is single-spaced ; Page size 8.5" x 11" inches (Letter); 20 pages maximum , uses T imes New Roman Size 10-point black font text with 1-inch margins on all sides.
- Article Title : Font Bolded and Size 18
- Heading Level 1 : Font Bolded and Size 14
- Heading Level 2 : Size 12
- Heading Level 3: Font italicized and Size 12
- Heading Level 4 : Text underlines and Size 10
- Article Title can have a maximum length of 100 characters, including spaces.
- Manuscript Abstract can have a maximum length of 250 words .
- All illustrations, figures, graphs, charts, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points with their respective title and legend, rather than at the end of the manuscript. They must be all centered appropriately.
- All illustrations, figures, graphs, and charts should be inserted as image files in the word document (Only PNG and JPEG are acceptable) and must be individually uploaded as "Image File" during Step 2 of the submission along with the manuscript and other supplemental files. The title must be placed under the figure/graphs/charts.
- All image files uploaded must be named appropriately such as Fig1.png, Fig2.png, etc. Figures can only be labeled as whole numbers such as Fig 1, Fig 2, Fig 3, and NOT Fig 1a, Fig 1b, and so on.
- Multi-panel figures must be a single image file . Each panel must be labeled such as (1a), (1b), (1c), etc in the image; this figure must be labeled as Figure 1 and all individual panels described appropriately in the legend.
- Tables must be created in the word document. Do not insert and label an image as a table in the word document. All text color must be black, and the heading rows/columns must be shaded with light gray colors. The title must be placed over the Table.
- Equations must be created in the word document using the Insert Equation tool, and cannot be an inserted image file.
- Make use of the Bulleted and Numbered lists very minimally.
- We recommend the authors use the APA style guide for references, but you can use a discipline-specific reference style guide. References must be included at the end of the manuscript . Please leave one line spacing between each new reference and start on a new line .
- Where available, URLs or DOIs links for the references MUST be provided.
- The paper itself should only include the topic and the write up of the topic. All author/teacher/adviser names, email addresses, affiliations should be submitted in the Metadata (see below in the indexing and metadata section).
- Documentation of Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval or exemption, if required, was secured by the authors prior to submitting the manuscript and must be uploaded during Step 2 of the submission process.
- Supplemental files such as a copy of the images, appendix, forms, surveys, etc. must be uploaded during Step 2 of the submission process.
- The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor). Despite the Plagiarism check that we do, if later there are any complaints of plagiarism with proof, the submission will immediately be removed.
Metadata Elements to include during submission
Title : Enter the topic of the paper (100 characters with spaces).
Abstract : Summary of your research/review from Intro to conclusion
List of Contributors : Main author’s name and email address and for each additional author click on add contributor and include their names and email addresses. Include your faculty/teacher/advisor name and email address here as well.
Categories : Select a grade classification of the first author (Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior).
Discipline : What area of study the paper belongs to (psychology, mathematics, microbiology, chemistry, physics, etc.) Press Enter to separate each individual item in the text box.
Keywords : Keywords give your paper additional visibility when readers are searching for similar topics. If your topic is “AI in the high school classroom setting” Your keywords should say “artificial intelligence, high school, classroom setting” Press Enter to separate each individual item in the text box.
Supporting Agencies : Write the name of your University or College along with any other institution that had supported the authors in conducting their research/review. Press Enter to separate each individual item in the text box.
References or Bibliography : Please copy and insert all the citations for the manuscript in the text-box.
Advantages of indexing
Authors are encouraged to complete the indexing of their submission in Step 3 of the Submission process and will have the opportunity to review and revise the metadata as part of the editorial process. The metadata for this journal will be "harvested" by a number of research-dedicated search engines that create, in effect, a research index or guide. Work that is well indexed will be that much more easily found by those who need it and are more likely to cite it. While there are limits to the number of terms by which a work is indexed, Authors are encouraged to think about how their work is positioned and found by virtue of this detailed indexing.
The Author(s) will be contacted by the editors with their decision once the review process is completed.
Reviewers are selected by the Editorial Staff at the Journal of Student Research and the estimated time for the review process is 12-24 weeks. JSR follows the double-blinded closed reviewing policy where the identity of the author is not revealed to the reviewer and vice versa.
Following are the items that the referees evaluate as they review the manuscript:
- Are the main claims of the paper novel? If not, please specify papers that weaken the claims to the originality of this one.
- Do the results support the claims? If not, what other evidence is required, and will this additional information improve the paper?
- Does the paper offer enough details of its methodology that its experiments or its analyses could be reproduced?
- If the paper is considered unsuitable for publication in its present form, does the study itself show sufficient potential that the authors should be encouraged to resubmit a revised version?
- Is the manuscript clearly enough written so that it is understandable to non-specialists? If not, how could it be improved?
- Have the authors cited the previous literature appropriately?
- Referees rate the Significance, Originality, Quality, and Clarity of the manuscript.
Scholarly feedback upon reviewing the manuscript by the referees will be provided to the author. This feedback will not only help authors identify areas of improvement to their submission but help them better understand the process in order to be successful at publication.
If a submission is accepted, it will then proceed to the Editing stage of the editorial process.
Resubmit for Review . If the Section Editor's decision is that the submission should be revised and then resubmitted for peer review, the Author should first indicate their willingness to undertake the revisions, using the Editor/Author Correspondence. Then, when the revisions have been completed, the Author uploads the version for the second round of reviews. The Section Editor will submit it to the same Reviewers or to one or more new Reviewers, and notify the Author when a decision has been reached in a similar manner to the initial review.
Article Processing Charge (APC)
Journal of Student Research utilizes an Open Access Model where all published articles are made freely available to anyone to read/download. We provide our authors and readers with high-quality services, such as editorial triaging of submissions, facilitating a collaborative faculty provided peer-review, plagiarism checks, quality assurance of articles, management of production services (i.e. copyediting, layout editing, and quality control checks), indexing, archiving, and long term preservation of published articles via professional preservation networks and the journal platform. To continue to provide these services the authors are required to pay the Article Processing Charge (APC).
The APC for Manuscripts is paid in Two Phases (additional service fee applicable):
- Pre-review APC: USD 50 for all students at submission.
- USD 250 for undergraduate and graduate Students.
ALL ARTICLE PROCESSING CHARGES AND JSR FEES ARE STRICTLY NON-REFUNDABLE
Additional Author Charge :
Only 5 authors (including advisors) per submission are allowed to be included. To include any additional author/advisor to the manuscript's contributor list will cost a fee of $25 per individual. The authors will pay this fee only when accepted for publication.
FAST TRACK REVIEW
- Fast track review option allows us to expedite the publication process (5-6 weeks).
- If accepted for publication by the editorial board, the manuscript will be published in our current issue of the journal after necessary revisions are made if requested by the reviewers.
- Any fees associated with the Fast Track Review are strictly NON-REFUNDABLE .
Call for papers: volume 13 issue 1.
If you are an undergraduate or graduate student at a college or university aspiring to publish, we are accepting submissions. Submit Your Article Now!
Deadline: 11:59 p.m. November 30, 2023
Deadline Extended: Call for Proposals Thinking Gender 2024
Deadline extended: call for proposals, thinking gender 2024: “dystopian realities, feminist utopias”, february 28–march 1, 2024.
Call for Proposals Deadline Extended: Sunday, November 5, 2023, at 11:59 PM PDT
The UCLA Center for the Study of Women|Barbra Streisand Center invites proposals for our 34th annual Thinking Gender Graduate Student Research Conference (TG24).
This year’s conference theme, “ Dystopian Realities, Feminist Utopias ,” considers what it means to live in the cataclysmic wake of racial capitalism, settler colonialism, and neoliberalism. At the same time, the theme celebrates how feminist, queer, and BIPOC scholarship, activism, and art enact utopias by imagining alternatives to hegemonic structures.
Prophesying the state of society and politics in the 2020s in her dystopian novel Parable of the Sower , Octavia Butler describes a world that is eerily similar to our current reality: society is crumbling under the weight of environmental disasters, capitalism, and social inequity. However desolate, the dystopia in Parable of the Sower is also filled with change and transformation, demonstrating the urgent need for us to imagine and create new possibilities for our future. Echoing this sentiment, José Muñoz proposes that futurity can be born of utopian imagination. In his book Cruising Utopia: The Then and There of Queer Futurity , Muñoz argues that queer world-making is utopic in its refusal to accept a bleak future. Reading Butler and Muñoz together, therefore, inspires the theme for Thinking Gender 2024: “Dystopian Realities, Feminist Utopias.” The theme seeks to explore how dystopianism serves as an apt metaphor to explore and critique social and political issues related to gender, race, class, and sexuality and how utopianism is an ethical mandate to imagine a better present and future.
Possible questions for engagement include:
- What are historical and contemporary examples of worldmaking practices amid catastrophes?
- How does the state contribute to ongoing privation and crisis for marginalized communities and how do those communities respond?
- How is the impact of anti-Blackness, colonization, and racial capitalism felt similarly and differently around the globe?
- How have coalitions and acts of solidarity enacted utopia historically and contemporarily? What are some potential opportunities for solidarities that have yet to be explored?
- How does feminist thought, activism, and art critique resist hegemonic structures?
- How can we use Black, Indigenous, trans/queer freedom dreams to map an ethical future?
- How do we enact or perform utopia in our lives, politics, and art?
- What strategies and tactics have historical and contemporary movements for justice utilized?
- What practices, movements, or aesthetics undermine state power and how?
- What epistemologies or cosmologies help us envision a just future?
We encourage applicants to think within, alongside, beyond, and perhaps against the following topics as they consider the shape and content of their participation in TG24:
- Climate crisis, environment, and sustainability
- Indigenous modes of survivance in the aftermath of apocalypse
- Black feminist thought, fugitivity
- Afrofuturism and Indigenous futurisms
- Technology, new media, and digital culture
- Anti-Blackness, White supremacy, and White nationalism
- Political repression, fascism, and global authoritarianism
- Film, media, music, cultural production, and performance
- Historical and contemporary activism and organizing, social movements
- Incarceration, punishment, and abolition
- Social institutions of control (i.e., education, foster care, mental health, housing, health care, elder care, workplaces)
- Health, illness, and wellness
- Disability and crip futurity
- Displacement, dispossession, and gentrification
- Social reproduction
- Reproductive justice and reproductive futurity
- Citizenship, migration, asylum, and deportation
- Comics, manga, and anime
- Policing and surveillance
- Policy and governance
Graduate students have three ways to participate in this conference:
1. Virtual workshops for works-in-progress on February 28, 2024
2. In-person workshops for work-in-progress on February 29, 2024
3. In-person presentations of finished projects on March 1, 2024
We welcome a range of submission formats from graduate students, including scholarly papers, works in hybrid critical/creative genres (e.g., multimedia projects, performance, experimental forms of academic writing), and film/mixed media. While submissions are not limited to these, some media formats that might work particularly well for this year’s call include short films and videos, soundscapes, digital and alternative archives or cartographies, and interactive works.
- Virtual graduate student participants will workshop works-in-progress in closed online sessions on February 28, 2024. Each workshop will include four to five graduate students, a faculty moderator, and up to four participants from other workshops, who will read and provide detailed feedback and questions for each submission. All participants will be asked to read or view each other’s submissions in advance. Participants will then convene in a Zoom session with a faculty moderator who will offer constructive feedback and facilitate discussion around each submission.
- Graduate student participants who submit for the in-person works-in-progress workshop will attend a closed session at the UCLA campus on February 29, 2024. Each workshop will include four to five graduate students, a faculty moderator, and up to four participants from other workshops, who will read and provide detailed feedback and questions for each submission. All participants will be asked to read or view each other’s submissions in advance. Participants will then convene in an in-person session with a faculty moderator who will offer constructive feedback and facilitate discussion around each submission.
- In-person graduate student participants who submit a proposal for work that will be completed a month before the conference date will give a public presentation of their finished projects at a panel on the UCLA campus on March 1, 2024. In addition, participants will take advantage of other in-person activities offered at the conference, including speaker-led interactive sessions, a performance and art gallery, and networking opportunities.
We hope that the papers and gatherings can help us imagine, perform, and enact the utopia we are musing about. Let us use this platform to not only discuss, but also to actively work towards a more just and equitable future.
Eligibility Registered graduate students from any institution are eligible to submit proposals for scholarly papers, works in hybrid critical/creative genres (e.g., multimedia projects, performance, experimental forms of academic writing), or film/mixed media to present or workshop. Applicants cannot submit multiple proposals and must choose if they will present completed works or works-in-progress. Only one submission per applicant will be considered.
Submissions of works that are collaborative or co-authored with other students are welcomed.
Unpublished submissions are preferred. Recently published and forthcoming articles will be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Submissions that are not directly related to the theme, “Dystopian Realities, Feminist Utopias” will not be considered.
Deadline for Proposal Submissions
Deadline for Proposal Submissions: Sunday, October 29, 2023, at 11:59 PM PDT
Applicants whose submissions are accepted will be notified by December 15, 2023.
All workshop participants (both virtual and in-person) will be required to submit the final version of their work-in-progress (not to exceed 20–25 double-spaced pages) by February 1, 2024.
All participants who will present their finalized work in person, will be required to submit their final paper (not to exceed 20-25 doubled-spaced pages) by February 1, 2024, for pre-circulation among their co-participants and faculty moderator. Please decide on submission proposals in anticipation of having final drafts that can be circulated ready by this date.
All proposals must be submitted here .
Only complete submissions received by the deadline will be considered.
Scholarly Paper, Dissertation or Thesis Chapter, or Article Draft Application Requirements:
1. Proposal (2–3 double-spaced pages maximum) of work to be presented / workshopped that includes:(1) a thesis/research question, (2) discussion of methodology and theoretical framework, (3) explanation of your argument and supporting data, and (4) conclusions or anticipated conclusions.
2. Works Cited or References List (1 page maximum)
3. CV (2 pages maximum)
Film/Mixed Media or Hybrid Critical/Creative Genres Application Requirements:
1. Film/Media Synopsis (2 double-spaced pages maximum) of work to be presented/workshopped that includes: (1) a research question or argument, (2) description of format, (3) discussion of framework, methodology and process, (4) explanation of your argument and evidence, and (5) conclusions or anticipated conclusions. If your piece is co-created with other students, please make this clear.
2. CV (2 pages maximum) 3. Link (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) where Film or Mixed Media can be viewed. Total run-time should not exceed 20 minutes. Note: while links are preferred, smaller files may also be uploaded in jpg, png, pdf, or mp3/mp4 format on the application platform.
All materials must be submitted using the online application form .
Deadline for Abstract/Synopsis/Proposal Submissions: Sunday, October 29, 2023, at 11:59PM PDT
Contact Thinking Gender Coordinator Lynette Dixon at [email protected] .
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Limited Submission Opportunity: Mellon Foundation Higher Learning Program Call for Concepts 2024–Exploring Democracy, Environmental Justice and Social Justice
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Applications due Nov. 9
Vanderbilt University may submit up to three concept papers to the Mellon Foundation Higher Learning Program: 2024 Call for Concepts .
In the interest of maintaining a grant-making portfolio that supports inquiry into issues of vital social, cultural and historical import, the Higher Learning program at the Mellon Foundation invites ideas for research and/or curricular projects focused on any of the following three areas:
- Cultures of U.S. democracy
- Environmental justice studies
- Social justice and disciplinary knowledge
Cultures of U.S. democracy: Extending well beyond a discrete set of governmental practices, democracy additionally encompasses the circumstantial conditions that enable those practices to flourish, including a generalized capacity for thoughtful deliberation; broad respect for, acceptance of, engagement with and, even, fostering of difference; and a prevailing ethic of reciprocity. Humanities scholars are especially well-equipped to consider how such conditions—which are specifically cultural functions rather than properly political matters—can best be achieved, nurtured and sustained within the increasingly complex and fractured society that is the United States. Work in this vein might explore what a democratic ethos is and how it comes to be; trace the manifestation of that ethos in certain artistic and cultural (or countercultural) practices (e.g., collective jazz improvisation); review imaginative strategies for negotiating demographic pluralism (e.g., speculative fiction, in either literary or cinematic form); or consider methods for promoting habits of intensive individual or collective reflection (e.g., contemplative retreat), among numerous other possibilities. The foundation welcomes submissions from scholars working in all areas of the humanities, particularly those seemingly far removed from questions of political philosophy and democratic theory.
Environmental justice studies: Rapidly accelerating environmental degradation is the paramount existential threat of our time, and its differential effects make it an urgent social justice concern. Recognizing that the social, cultural and ethical dimensions of this crisis demand deep and sustained attention from humanities thinkers, Mellon’s Higher Learning program seeks to support the most vital humanities-based environmental justice work currently underway at colleges and universities across the country. Understanding “environment” to encompass everything with which humans interrelate, the foundation invites ideas from scholars engaged in elaborating and promoting just outcomes for populations rendered environmentally vulnerable through factors of race, class, gender, ability, geography and their intersection. Given that questions of environmental justice touch nearly all aspects of life today, the foundation welcomes humanities-grounded projects that focus on specific systems (such as food, water or health), ones that engage interrelated systems in a given community/locale, and ones that come at this topic through discrete analytical or disciplinary lenses (such as disability studies, literary studies, art-historical approaches, etc.). The strongest applications will center the co-creation of advanced humanities knowledge by academic constituencies and partner cohorts from affected communities.
Social justice and disciplinary knowledge: Scholarly fields and disciplines are never merely “academic,” in that they aim to illuminate aspects of the world at large, well beyond the academy itself. Inasmuch as that larger world has always been characterized by various forms of division and inequity, even the most seemingly hermetic fields of inquiry must inevitably confront considerations of social justice in their respective areas of focus, manifest not only in the objects, ideas, methods and communities they engage, but also in their sense of disciplinary mission and cultural norms. The foundation seeks ideas for projects that best exemplify how specific disciplinary or interdisciplinary fields of study are equipped to reckon with issues of social justice given the particular investigative and analytical methods they deploy. While the foundation welcomes submissions from across the humanities, it is especially interested in applications grounded in long-standing fields such as art history, classics, history, languages and literatures, musicology, philosophy and religious studies. Preference will be given to projects that reflect explicitly on the relevant discipline’s or inter-discipline’s particular capacity for social justice analysis as well as its limits in this regard, and that propose concrete pedagogical, research and/or community-engaged efforts that have transformative potential for the institution and the wider field.
Eligibility: The principal investigator (PI) should be a faculty member or dean in a program or department in the humanities or humanistic social sciences, or the institution’s provost, and should have the support of the institution’s senior academic leadership. For eligible fields of study, see pg. 9 of the guidelines .
Award information: $250,000–$500,000 for up to three years. No indirect costs are allowed. Mellon anticipates allocating up to $10 million for this call for concepts.
Allowed expenditures: Grant awards may be used for purposes such as (but not limited to):
- Course releases for participating faculty (alternatively, faculty stipends or salary supplements will be considered on a case-by-case basis)
- Course development funds
- Funds for the implementation of experimental projects
- Funds to support costs associated with workshops and reading, discussion and/or action groups
- Postdoctoral fellowships
- Travel and convening expenses, such as speaker honoraria, catering and child care and elder care expenses
- Undergraduate research fellowships/stipends
- Equipment necessary to the undertaking (see “Disallowed Expenditures” in guidelines for exceptions)
- Up to 10 percent of funds to program operational administrative and occupancy costs directly tied to the grant-funded activities
Timeline: The selected nominees must submit a Mellon registration form by Nov. 30, 2023. The deadline for submission of concepts is Feb. 15, 2024. The Mellon Higher Learning team will review all submissions and invite a small number of the most promising ones to be developed into full proposals for potential grant funding. Full proposal invitations will be issued during summer 2024.
See the guidelines for more information.
Internal submission instructions
Interested faculty should visit https://vanderbilt.infoready4.com/#competitionDetail/1921333 to submit an application for the internal LSO competition and to find additional information about the opportunity. The deadline for the internal competition is Nov. 9, 2023.
Any questions about this opportunity or the LSO process may be directed to [email protected] .
Limited Submission Opportunity: 2023 Mellon Foundation Sawyer Seminars
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Title: little giants: exploring the potential of small llms as evaluation metrics in summarization in the eval4nlp 2023 shared task.
Abstract: This paper describes and analyzes our participation in the 2023 Eval4NLP shared task, which focuses on assessing the effectiveness of prompt-based techniques to empower Large Language Models to handle the task of quality estimation, particularly in the context of evaluating machine translations and summaries. We conducted systematic experiments with various prompting techniques, including standard prompting, prompts informed by annotator instructions, and innovative chain-of-thought prompting. In addition, we integrated these approaches with zero-shot and one-shot learning methods to maximize the efficacy of our evaluation procedures. Our work reveals that combining these approaches using a "small", open source model (orca_mini_v3_7B) yields competitive results.
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arXivLabs is a framework that allows collaborators to develop and share new arXiv features directly on our website.
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Cornell student Patrick Dai visited one of the places he threatened to shoot up, prosecutor says
- Updated: Nov. 01, 2023, 4:51 p.m. |
- Published: Nov. 01, 2023, 3:24 p.m.
Patrick Dai, 21, of Pittsford, was charged Tuesday, Oct. 31, 2023 with making threats of violence against Jewish students at Cornell University. Broome County Sheriff's Office
- Jon Moss | [email protected]
Syracuse, N.Y. — A 21-year-old Cornell University student who admitted to making threats of violence against Jewish students at the university was ordered held in jail during a federal court appearance in Syracuse Wednesday afternoon.
Patrick Dai, a junior engineering student, appeared in court in an orange jumpsuit handcuffed at the waist. He was represented by assistant federal public defender Gabrielle DiBella. His mother and a family friend sat in the courtroom gallery.
Geoffrey Brown, an assistant U.S. attorney, asked that Dai be held in jail without bail, saying he is a danger to others and a flight risk.
Brown said during the court appearance that Dai had visited the campus dining facility that he threatened in his posts to attack.
“He knew exactly what it was,” he said after court.
Dai waived his right to a timely bail hearing, and U.S. Magistrate Judge Thérèse Wiley Dancks ordered him to remain in jail. He has been held at the Broome County jail since he was arrested.
Dai, of Pittsford in Monroe County, was charged late Tuesday with a single count of threatening to kill or injure another person using interstate communications.
He is accused of making several posts on a discussion website threatening to kill Jewish students and described how he would do it, such as shooting up the 104West! building on Cornell’s campus. The facility houses a multicultural dining room serving food that meets Kosher, Halal and other religious guidelines.
In one of the posts made Sunday afternoon, prosecutors said Dai threatened to “stab” and “slit the throat” of any Jewish men he sees on campus, to rape and throw off a cliff any Jewish women, and to behead any Jewish babies. He threatened in the same post to “bring an assault rifle to campus and shoot all you pig jews,” prosecutors said.
An FBI agent said in court papers that Dai admitted writing the threatening posts.
If convicted, Dai faces a maximum sentence of five years in prison, a fine of up to $250,000 and up to three years of supervised release.
Dai is scheduled to next appear in court on Nov. 15 for a probable cause hearing.
Multiple law enforcement agencies, from the university police department to the FBI, were involved in searching for the person who made the online posts. They located Dai by tracing the IP address used when creating the posts to a person and residence affiliated with him.
There has been an “enhanced” law enforcement presence on campus in the wake of the threats, Cornell police said, including more patrols and extra security for Jewish students and organizations.
Cornell officials said Friday would be a “community day” on campus, with classes cancelled and non-essential faculty and staff excused from work.
During a visit earlier this week to the Cornell campus in Ithaca, Gov. Kathy Hochul denounced the threats and pledged to keep “any kind of hatred” away from universities.
“No one should be afraid to walk from their dorm or their dining hall to a classroom,” she said. “That is a basic right that every New Yorker has outside of campus, but particularly on a campus because these are young people who are in an environment that is intended to protect them as well, and their parents need to know this.”
The Cornell threats came amid a dramatic increase in antisemitism and Islamophobia following the Oct. 7 surprise attack by fighters from the extremist group Hamas and other organizations on southern Israel. The attackers killed an estimated 1,300 people and took roughly 200 hostage. Israel has fought back by bombing Gaza, resulting in about 8,000 deaths.
Other universities around the state and country are seeing an increase in tensions on campus.
Syracuse University officials said Tuesday that they would not allow a planned talk by a Middle East studies scholar to proceed in an on-campus building because they could not “confidently ensure the safety” of attendees and the wider community. Organizers ultimately went forward with the event at an off-campus location.
Staff writer Jon Moss covers breaking news, crime and public safety. He can be reached at [email protected] or @mossjon7 .