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International project management with jobs and salary: 2023 [Updated]
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What is international project management?
International project management(IPM) is the management of projects that involve multi-national resources and teams working together to attain the project goals. With globalization, businesses tend to be no longer confined within their national boundaries. They expand internationally to achieve the basic goals like:
- Increasing their market share
- Reducing the overall cost by leveraging international talents and resources
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Examples of International Projects
- A Singaporean company building a manufacturing unit in India, with a Spanish partner; value chain organizations in Germany and Brazil; and a government agency in Vietnam.
- A Belgian charitable organization providing emergency medical services to people in gulf countries; five other countries outsourcing food and pharmaceuticals; doctors from the US and donations from Asian countries.
- An Italian organization constructing a hospital in Australia with funding from an asian country.
- An Indian IT company launching its platform in a European country, getting architecture provided from Spain and code from Pakistan.
You may, at this point wonder – international projects are after all projects with similar goals. How does involvement of people from different demographics make it any different from the domestic projects?
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For now, I would say that international projects require a specific set of tools and techniques that are not quite the same as the domestic projects.
Read on, to get insights on the international projects and their management.
“The global scale creates an environment of very rapid change. You will most likely have work completed as you are sleeping. The project manager needs to be aware of time zone differences, different holidays around the globe, vacations in different cultures and many other rapid changes on the project” Michael O’Connor, strategy and project management director at Medtronic and instructor of the Global and Cultural Competency course at CSS
Working Challenges for the Countries
Countries in the international projects can experience many differences while working together:
- Accounting Standard
- Local practice
While running an international project, a project manager cannot ignore these aspects of differences for the working teams across the world.
Cultural differences , among these, stand out, as they are the most complex features to deal with in a compound working environment that involves multiple countries.
For example, there is a huge visible cultural polarity between India and America. If a project manager of the project involving these countries slurs over this contrast, he/she may invite considerable risk or failure.
An example of cultural differences in international projects is – countries that value long-term projects(like the Chinese) vs ones that value gig/contract jobs(like the Americans).
And if a project includes both of these countries, certain aspects need to be considered and catered to, on priority, while running the project.
“Culture is a collective programming of the mind that distinguishes one group or category of people from another” Geert Hofstede
Most of the people are so heavily seasoned with their own culture that they fail to empathise or even appreciate the flavours of the other cultures crossing their ways.
This leads to a foul work environment and finally may lead to an overall project failure.
After performing a careful study of several cultures, researchers have come up with some great tools and mechanisms to compare different countries based on cultural similarities and differences.
Of the many frameworks, ‘ Geert Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions’ stands as the most convenient and popular one. Let us study about it more in detail.
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
According to this framework, countries can be ranked based on the below six cultural dimensions. Each of these categories are then scored on the scale of 0 to 120 :
Individualism vs collectivism, masculinity vs femininity, uncertainty avoidance.
- Long vs Short term orientation
Indulgence vs Restraint
Power distance refers to distribution of power among the various sections of the society.
A society with a high power distance index has a visible power gap between the senior stakeholders and rest of the members.
In such society, people usually accept a hierarchical order in which everyone has a place that needs no further justification.
A low index of power distance, on the other hand, means a flat curve for power distribution, and everybody has a say in the project.
A project with a high score on individualism means you need to focus on each individual’s aspirations and needs. Whereas, blurring the individual demands, a high collectivism index signifies an emphasis on group goals and achievements.
In a culture of high individualism, it is important to engage each head into substantial work. In a culture focusing on the latter, you engage only with the key personnels who delegate the work to the rest of the team.
A country with high masculinity has most of the decision-making members that are male. Their decision is welcomed more, compared to the female heads.
In business context, ‘masculinity vs femininity’ is often considered synonymous to ‘tough vs tender’ cultures.
An example of a masculine country is Japan. On the other hand, Scandinavian countries like Norway and Sweden are considered highly feminine.
Uncertainty avoidance refers to making a background such that any kind of uncertainty in business can be avoided.
Rules are set up to avoid uncertainty. A culture with a high degree of uncertainty avoidance parameter refers to lesser acceptance of unorthodox norms. They mostly believe in following the set rules and are less tolerant to changes.
A culture with a lesser uncertainty avoidance score is more flexible to changes and adapts to them if the business demands so.
Long vs Short Term Orientation
Some countries prefer long-term projects with long deadlines and partnership. Asian countries mostly fall under this category.
Short-term projects are favoured by countries like America and Morocco and they do value gig jobs and contract work contrary to their long-term counterparts.
This is a comparatively new one added to the existing Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions. The extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses is related to this dimension.
A greater control means restraint and such culture follows strict social norms, whereas a lesser grip on people’s emotions and gratification of needs is indulgence .
You may at this point ask, all this is fine, but how are the cultural parameters related to international project management. Read on.
How can Cultural Dimensions Help in International Project Management
In the initial phase when you decide on the countries for an international project, cultural analysis of each country helps to choose the most cohesive combination.
Also, choosing any country becomes easier if you base your choice on the cultural score in a particular dimension.
For example, for a short-term project, if you approach China (that values long-term projects more), you may not succeed in getting a conversion of your proposal.
Also, if you are heading to start an international change project, choosing the countries with low uncertainty avoidance score would be wiser as they would be ready for changes.
A Comparison of Few Countries
Let us check out some countries and their cultural dimensions. This will give a clearer picture of how comparisons are done while analysing the cultural front of the participating countries of a project.
As it is evident from the images, both China and France score high on power distance. While Denmark scores low.
So if you are dealing with the high scorers, you will find a strong sense of leadership and power among the top position holders in the hierarchy.
The US has a high level of individualism. If you are working with them , you need to be careful about treating each member with equal importance.
Denmark has a low degree of masculinity. This means females take a lead in the decision-making processes. Men have more responsibility at home and quality of life is great here.
Uncertainty avoidance level is high in France, which shows that the French people like to adhere to the rules and norms and are not very flexible to changes.
As stated before, China values long-term bonds and America is more into short-term engagements.
So choose your countries wisely, based on their score on long-term orientation and the project duration.
Making a Career in IPM
International Project Management involves the below –
Executing these items needs a basic IPM skill that can be learned through various courses. We will discuss this in a bit.
Also, there are multiple career options in the IPM field. A career in IPM depends on the candidate’s –
- Educational background
- Professional Experience
Some facts about International Project Management
What do international project managers do.
An international project manager plans, organizes and leads international projects. An example can be with a new franchised shop outlet in a new country.
An international project manager is responsible to handle the in and out of the business while following the monetary and time constraints agreed upon in the agreement.
Additionally, risk analysis and cost estimation are the add-on responsibilities. Also, a great communication is the basic skill needed to do written and verbal communication with the teams and stakeholders.
The following figure shows the ideal brain of an international project manager. Notice the balance needed between the left and right brain.
The right hemisphere is mostly engaged in holistic thinking, creativity and soft skills. Left hemisphere, on the other hand, deals with logic, analytics and hard skills.
An international project manager exhibiting the correct balance between the usage of the two hemispheres of their brain, tend to be more successful.
Implementation of IPM
After identifying the cultural differences, you do the project implementation.
Since it is an international project, you need to put special efforts to handle the cultural differences, country law, finances, politics, language and timezone etc.
IPM has certain steps involved:
- Define the project
- Determine the project leaders
- Set up a hierarchy
- Define the project plan
- Execute the project
Since the project scope is wide and there are several stakeholders involved, a correct view of the project – objectives, roadmap, scope, cost, dependencies, challenges – is a prerequisite before diving into the real project.
As a next step, you determine the leadership positions needed to run the project smoothly at each point.
For each position you pick the best personnel that fit the responsibility. You set up a hierarchy within the management, where everyone does his specific set of jobs.
A well-documented project plan in place is a must to proceed with an effective execution of the project.
There are several certificate and degree programs available for IPM, but these are not very common. The most followed ones are the undergraduate and graduate level programs.
Students/professionals in the below fields can opt for IPM courses:
- Product development
The courses include the below topics on management:
- Global entrepreneurship
- Multinational marketing
- International supply chain management
- International negotiations
Students learn to pursue international business and management while utilizing the latest technology.
Click here to know about project management as a career move.
ASAPM – The American Society for the Advancement of Project Management – promotes the development of project management courses in organizations all over the world.
It provides a background to develop industry publications, recognition and certification.
There are several certifications available, based on the experience level of candidates. You can earn IPM certification as a project management associate.
Later with experience you graduate to the rank of project manager, senior project manager and gradually to a project director.
Click here to know about some of the best project management certifications.
International Project Management Day
Celebrated on the first Thursday in November, IPM day has been celebrated since 2004, to encourage the international-project based organisations with recognition events within their projects.
This is done to demonstrate appreciation for the achievements of project managers and their teams.
In this rapidly changing world, marketing yourself as a global citizen is a wise option to step ahead in your management career.
Increasing your market share to leverage global talents is possible by pursuing international project management courses.
These courses are available as under-graduate and graduate programs, and as online programs.
Handling an international project needs a special skill set that can be learned over time through experience and more, through project management courses.
The people in international projects come from different cultural backgrounds and you need to gauge each culture on the basis of parameters like power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance etc.
Based on these calculations, you get an idea of the coherent countries that go well together.
Implementation of IPM or international project management involves certain steps like defining the project objectives, setting up a leadership hierarchy in the project, planning and finally executing the project.
It is not mandatory to have a prior experience in domestic project management, but having one would add to your management skills. The best way is to take a course to learn about the nuances of international project management .
Remember, the key success factors in the field of management are – communication skills, proper use of software and general management techniques.
Learn these through the management courses and you are ready to fly into the future of management.
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Evidence for this can be seen in the large number of previous articles which have addressed aspects of this issue, and the variety of techniques authors have employed. The earliest study of changes in project management research was conducted by Betts and Lansley (1995), who reviewed publications from 1983 to 1992 in the International Journal of Project Management (IJPM). This study used an a priori classification of publications, and an analysis of how frequently individual authors and institutions contributed to the journal. Thanks, HENRY HARVIN.
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The ultimate guide to managing international projects
- by Adrian Neumeyer
Have you ever experienced handling an international project? Well, if you think that your only problem you will ever encounter here will be the different time zones and occasional out-of-town travels, you’re wrong about that, buddy.
In this article, you will learn about the different factors you should know about how to manage international projects. This article will also help you understand how important these factors are to ensure a job well done.
Hi, I’m Adrian
I’m the founder and CEO of Tactical Project Manager, the only place on the web where you can find practical tips on managing projects. Tips that pay off!
I’ve been managing large IT projects for 10 years, and most of my projects were global projects. So I got to work with all sorts of countries and cultures. As an IT project manager, I also got to travel a lot. I did projects in fascinating places like India, Mexico and Turkey ( read what I learned in my career ).
As you can guess, I have been through all the good and bad of leading international projects.
And what you find here is all based on personal experience.
Are you ready? Let’s start.
- Working across timezones
- International traveling
- Legal issues
- Cross-border shipping
5 factors you must consider when you get to lead an international project
Managing a local and international project are generally the same. You need to plan for it and deal with a group of people involved in the said project.
The main difference is that in the latter, you deal with multicultural teams. It is be a global partnership, depending on your contacts’ locations or whether your partners are spread in multiple continents.
Other than being involved with diverse nationalities, here are other important factors involved in managing international projects.
Lost in translation: the language issue
Every project requires constant communication. This includes having effective oral and verbal communication skills. But sometimes, you cannot have the best of both worlds. Some people are great in written communication (ex. E-mails, written reports) but are shy when talking in person, or vice versa.
In an international setting, however, speaking different languages can be a barrier to effective communication. The only way to ensure team members can understand each other is by speaking a common language. Not only the language itself but also the important terminologies related to your industry.
We all know that English is a universal language. So it helps if everyone from your team knows how to communicate in written and spoken English. You might have to hire a translator if necessary.
I once had a Chinese team member who had trouble communicating in English. But we needed her because she was the subject matter expert for a particular area. So we hired a translator who was with from early morning till late at night.
It was challenging because it would take time to translate her thoughts both in verbal discussions and email. But we decided to hire a translator because the person was the absolute subject matter expert and we had no alternative. So, hiring a translation worked out very well!
In some cases, some international team members put the effort into learning your native language. But at the end of the day, as long as all of you understand each other and are able to convey your ideas, then you are good to go.
Pro tip: In case you want to learn the language of the country you’re dealing with: The program that gave me the fasted results and the most confidence speaking a language were the Rosetta Stone online courses. They are expensive but absolutely worth the money!
Culture: Things are quite different over here
Culture is a broad term it can be one of many things. There is no formula for it … it’s like a part of every person’s life. Something that he or she has grown accustomed to and we experience every day whether at work or in your personal life.
Culture can be a lot of things – their language, beliefs, the country’s history, and even how they deal with work . Do they want to be addressed with their first name or their surnames, or even by initials?
In some Asian-run businesses the higher bosses are often referred to by their initials. So, if I was Adrian S. Neumeyer, then I will be known within the company as ASN. Do they also have some kind of hand gestures when they greet a person? How do they communicate with their co-workers? Those kinds of things (by the way, did you know that certain hand gestures are considered rude in some countries? )
Some people are straightforward, while others tend to hold back. In some cultures, being assertive might be interpreted as aggressive or even rude. Such misinterpretations can lead to misunderstandings and even ill feelings toward the other person.
Here’s what happened to me: I once managed an IT project with our Turkish subsidiary. At that time, we were implementing a new IT system for them. As a project manager, I dealt with the top honchos and directly communicate with them in person and through email. And it has always been that way since it is the norm in Germany today.
But when I went directly to the local plant manager there, let’s just say he wasn’t pleased. The incident even reached my manager, saying that what I did was unacceptable… at least in their work culture.
I n my perspective, I believe I didn’t do anything wrong. But I guess I did not do my research back then in terms of dealing with people I work within other countries. I had thought people interacted more or less in the same way as in my home country, Germany.
Like in most European countries, we treat each other at work as equals. We get to talk directly to the executives regardless of where you are on the corporate ladder. On the contrary, some countries — like Turkey and most countries in the Middle East and Asia — are more hierarchical.
That means you have get approvals from your direct supervisor. Rarely do you get to talk to the company executives unless there is a “blessing” from your boss.
Nonetheless, it is a must to have an understanding of the culture that you will be dealing with and adjust to it accordingly. Learning about someone’s culture is crucial in building trust and a good working relationship. And that is exactly what you should do as a good project manager .
If you are a remote worker and dealing with a foreign client, take time to adjust to the latter’s work culture and learn to be assertive. Being assertive can get the results that you want later on.
You might also want to learn about the Hofstede model of national culture to better understand a country’s culture.
Crash course about the Hofstede Model of national culture — a must-know for global project managers
The Hofstede model has six factors that describe the culture of a country:
- Cultural factor 1: Power Distance Index: This factor refers to a society’s acceptance of unequal power distribution, and how it deals with such inequality. Societies with low PDI want a fair distribution of power and seek justification for any inequalities.
- Cultural factor 2: Individualism versus Collectivism: This factor talks about a social framework wherein people are expected to take care of themselves and their loved ones. Collectivism, on the other hand, expects others to look after them in exchange for loyalty.
- Cultural factor 3: Masculinity versus Femininity: This one focuses more on the masculine side’s dominance in society in terms of assertiveness and achievement. Femininity, on the other hand, represents modesty, cooperation, and care.
- Cultural factor 4: Uncertainty Avoidance Index: This factor refers to the society that feels uncertain about the future unknown. So, the question lies: should we let the future happen or control its outcome?
- Cultural factor 5: Long-term versus short-term orientation: This factor depicts societies that are not keen on societal changes and prefer to keep and practice norms and traditions. Meanwhile, some cultures accept these changes as a way to prepare for the inevitable future.
- Cultural factor 6: Indulgence versus restraint: With this model, it is about enjoying life’s pleasures versus suppressing those pleasures through strict social norms.
Knowing one’s culture determines how we interact with people. By knowing a country’s culture, it will be a lot easier to work with people and ensure a successful project.
managing work across multiple time zones will test your coordination IQ
When you work with other people on the other side of the world, you can expect challenges in finishing a project due to time differences. The only means to communicate with your international teammates are via email, phone or your project management of choice.
It is a good idea to have a local project manager in the other country you are working with. That way communication will be streamlined and less confusing. Also, to ensure that the project progress continues despite the time difference.
Also, make sure to set a schedule for project updates. It can be at the end of the day, once a week, once every two weeks, once a month … it’s up to the team’s agreement (see my tips on creating a meeting structure for your project).
What is important is that everyone involved is constantly updated with the project’s progress. At the same time, know whether any issues should be addressed as soon as possible.
Project management apps like Trello, Slack, and Asana can also make communication a lot easier. You can also use these apps as well as Google Drive or Sharepoint to share files within your team.
But sometimes, there might be issues that cannot be simply solved virtually. In this case you may have to meet your international contacts in person. Which leads to this another roadblock…
International traveling: it’s not just about flying business class
Traveling is a great way to explore the world and immerse itself in its diverse cultures. But we won’t talk about traveling on the beach or the like here.
Work-related travels might be less exciting, but might also be necessary to ensure that the project is done. However, preparing for work-related international travel can be challenging.
Everything should be approved by the management, especially the budget . The ticket booking, fixing the entire travel itinerary, and even fixing your errands back home. You would also have to determine who’s traveling with you.
And then there are also other factors you need to consider such as the visa processing , complying with health and safety and legal protocols , and even the fear of flying of people in your team.
So, how are you going to deal with all of these?
To lessen your stress on organizing your work-related travel, get help from a project assistant or intern. He or she will be the one to do the booking for you, arrange hotel accommodation, and all that jazz.
On your part, you should keep track of all expenses. Keep all of your receipts and monitor your costs in a budgeting file ( here’s the budgeting sheet I use ).
More importantly, do your basic research on the place you are going to and make sure to keep your guard up especially in unfamiliar territory.
I had been to Mexico for work purposes. If you are a sucker for drug-crime stories, then you would know that the country is known for such. For one, Mexico is home to one of the world’s notorious drug lords in the world (look up “Joaquin Él Chapo Guzman”) who is currently serving jail time in the US. Some drug cartels are still operating especially near the Mexican border.
Thankfully, it was generally safe the time I went to the country and able to go home in one piece. But for those who only heard about the country, misconceptions about the country’s overall safety is inevitable.
Nonetheless, it is best to exercise extreme caution no matter which country you travel to.
Legal topics: expect to be surprised
You cannot bypass the law, no matter the country you are now. If you are working with people from other countries, you also need to deal with the legalities of the project you are working on.
This includes complying with the following laws:
- accounting rules
- tax regulations
- import/export regulations
- health and safety protocols
- data privacy
To prevent project delays, you should check first if certain legal aspects should be followed. For example, some countries have a mandatory COVID-19 swab test plus completing quarantine protocols. You should include those factors when you are to travel to a country.
You might also only allowed to work certain hours per day as per the local law requirement. Better yet, you can hire help from a local legal advisor or a CPA lawyer.
Cross-border shipping: not as easy as ordering on amazon
If you have a project where you have to ship goods from one country to another, you should be aware of the import and export processes.
These usually involve a lot of paperwork, so you should be prepared for those. You would want to make sure you get everything right the first time to avoid shipment delays. The last thing you want to happen is your shipment getting lost and never to be seen again.
To prevent these hassles, you should partner with trustworthy cargo companies. Better yet, have help from a customs expert familiar with the country you are dealing with.
You should also prepare a timeline, as shipments usually take some time to arrive. You should be aware of the usual lead time if a shipment is delivered through air, sea, or by land.
International project management is no walk in the park. Several factors can challenge how you handle an international project.
For one, communicating with someone who doesn’t speak your language can be a struggle. That is why you should make sure that your international contacts can speak English or your native language. Hiring a translator can also help with those communication gaps.
Learning their culture is also important to avoid miscommunications. Your work culture might be different from the other country’s culture, so make necessary adjustments as needed so you don’t run into the same issues as I did.
Dealing with time differences is another challenge. Some ways to deal with such is creating an organized system to track the project’s progress and send important files in real-time.You might also have to travel overseas for work, and that you should plan for it. Pro tip: hire an assistant who will help you book tickets, hotel accommodations, and all the legwork. Meanwhile, do your part by tracking your expenses and don’t get kidnapped or something!
You also need to know the legal aspects of the projects and avoid possible delays later on. Lastly, make sure to work with trusted cargo companies and a customs expert to ensure the on-time delivery of your shipments to other countries.
Hi! I'm Adrian, former Senior IT Project Manager and founder of Tactical Project Manager. I created the site to help you become an excellent project leader and manage intense projects with success!
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What is International Projects
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Integrated Computer Technologies in Mechanical Engineering pp 437–443 Cite as
Classification Features of International Projects
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- First Online: 03 January 2020
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At the current level of development of various forms of foreign economic activity, an organization of any level of management may be faced with the need for cooperation with foreign entities. In most cases, such cooperation occurs in the form of project activities, has its own characteristics and significant differences, which, in turn, depend on the scope of activities and goals. Therefore, for the successful implementation of a specific project, it is necessary to identify the distinctive features of this type and form of international project, which will allow choosing the right project management approach. In order to identify classifiers that will optimize the methods and tools of specific project management and improve the efficiency of their implementation, the theoretical issues of approaches to the definition of “international project” have been studied in the article. The project classifications had been also analysed, and the main classification features and categories that are most commonly used in the scientific literature and practical activities had been considered. In the course of the study it was found that the presented approaches to the classification of projects do not take into account the specifics of the implementation of international projects. As a result, the authors proposed classification features specific to international projects.
- International project
- International cooperation
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Department of Management, Faculty of Software Engineering and Business, National Aerospace University Kharkiv Aviation Institute, Kharkiv, 61070, Ukraine
Bondarieva Tetiana & Sariieva Anastasiia
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Tetiana, B., Anastasiia, S. (2020). Classification Features of International Projects. In: Nechyporuk, M., Pavlikov, V., Kritskiy, D. (eds) Integrated Computer Technologies in Mechanical Engineering. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1113. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37618-5_37
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37618-5_37
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Why International Project Management
International project management can be defined as the management of projects internationally or across borders and cultures, thus the management of international project require a specific set of skills in order to ensure success when managing international projects. The importance of cultural awareness plays in international projects. Global project management emphasizes the need for company leaders to identify the cultural implications of mixing skilled workers from many nations, along with the tactical steps required for teams to collaborate efficiently.
In today’s business world, international project management is becoming increasingly essential as businesses are continuing to expand into new countries and markets, either to increase their market share or to reduce costs by utilising more efficient resources found in other countries. International project management requires unique tools and techniques to give international projects greater chances of success.
The concept of globalization suggests that information, knowledge and opportunity are decentralized and shared. The concept of growth of economic integration with globalization means that more enterprises are taking on international projects. Therefore managing these projects successfully often indicates understanding and working with critical cultural differences. Remote management and managing projects on global scale have been enabled due to economic globalization and availability of technological tools. In which case the companies tend to save money by building global teams, without fully understanding the consequences of shifting work across multiple cultures and countries.
In the last 20 years, the world of work has been reduced significantly and it is now very common to be working with overseas partners on projects. It could be as part of an outsourcing arrangement, or through the offshoring model, which is common in organizations that require ‘follow the sun’ financial transaction processing or telephone support. Now for the project managers, this indicates that there are different types of stakeholders involved in projects. A project to deploy new financial software may touch in-house staff in a number of countries plus several third party suppliers who provide niche services. The process of managing international projects can be interesting as well as rewarding, together with some challenge.
Glitches in International Projects
- Language : In case you are working across borders, it is unlikely that your project team will all speak the same language. The problem of a common language is far greater if you are working with colleagues who do not routinely work in your language. Therefore, at the beginning of a project it is worth specifying what will be the main working language of your project. The projects led from an English speaking country does not necessarily have to be in English for everything. The enterprise project management tool may have interfaces in several languages. The team abroad can enter their timesheet data and interact with menus in their own language while keeping the ‘official’ language of project documents as English. It is therefore suggested to minimize jargon, and make your spoken and written language clear.
- Time : Since different cultures have different interpretations of time, like for some, milestones are just a guide, where you may value punctuality, but other team members may not have the same view of when a meeting is supposed to start. So the only way to manage this is to have an open conversations with everyone involved, spelling out what the potential challenges might be and asking for collaborative solutions to dealing with them. It is better to have these discussions at early stages rather than spending a lot of time waiting for the others to turn up.
- Roles and Responsibilities : The role of the project manager might be very well respected in your home country, but your role may not be understood elsewhere. Colleagues in countries where companies have very hierarchical structures may not take direction from you because they may not see your role as very important. Equally, they may not have received much guidance about how their project responsibilities fit with their day job. It is therefore suggested to talk to your own manager, and colleagues who have experience in working with the overseas team. You could also engage the local managers who can help set expectations with their teams about the project, their role and your role in it.
- Tools : It is always suggested to optimize the use of software available to you. Some tools have instant messaging capabilities, this type of technology means that you can be connected to your team members even if you aren’t working in the same room as them. However, they work best when the time difference is not more than a couple of hours. Working with someone who is 10 or 12 hours behind you can be far more of a challenge. Tools like blogs and wikis that enable asynchronous working are valuable in these situations. You can also record presentations or conference calls and make these available later.
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KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNATIONAL PROJECT MANAGERS: A LITERATURE REVIEW
by Vo Minh Hung Nguyen
International project management is an attractive topic of various scholars in the field. However, in most of the project management standards, selecting a manager for international project is not included as they start with initiating stage of project. This paper reviews relevant literatures in order to provide a framework of selecting international project manager following the listed environments in ISO 21500: 2012 Guidance on project management. Four primary characteristics of international project managers are revealed in association with contextual, organizational, and project environments, as well as personality. This paper also complements to the article “Managing the HR dimension of international project operations” of Welch et al. (2008) in the step of selecting project and bidding teams.
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This paper is aimed to critically review the publication by Dr.Tony Jewels and Dr.Rozz Albon, in “Implications of Cultural Differences in International Projects” where by the research was conducted based on project management student’s feedback, the students were made aware about a Case study and later asked open-ended questions for evaluating factors that imply cultural differences on international projects. The outcomes of the research were ten different themes identified, which are further discussed in this critique review. In addition to the arguments, further research and appropriate categorization of the factors is proposed, and important factors are emphasized.
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The global expansion of the contemporary business have caused the internationalization of projects and project management as well. Parallel, project management is not considered a technique for planning and execution of projects any more, but becomes a sophisticated tool for ...
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Challenges and Best Practices in International Projects
Practical and theoretical approach, seminar paper, 2010, 32 pages, grade: 1,3, julia wimmers (author), table of content, executive summary, list of abbreviations, list of figures, 1 introduction, 2 problem definition, 3 objectives.
5. Main part 5.1 Definition of international projects 5.2 Challenges in international projects 5.2.1 Seven main issues in IPs according to LIENTZ & REA (2003) 5.2.2 The five Dimensions of IPs according to BINDER et al (2010) 5.3 Best Practices (JW) 5.3.1 A model of success factors for global PM 184.108.40.206 Global teams 220.127.116.11 Global communication 18.104.22.168 Global organizations 22.214.171.124 Collaborative tools and techniques 126.96.36.199 Global Risk Factors 5.3.2 Practical examples (JW)
In this assignment the authors will look into the subject of challenges and best practices in international projects. A single examination of all the various challenges in the world of global project management like multicultural communication, geographical distance or asynchronous interactions - resulting from multiple systems happening and taking place in more than one location and are requiring different technological knowledge for e.g. - is confronted to a broad presentation, examination and evaluation of best practices: namely concrete business orientated solutions like global teams, collaborative tools or global project organizations. The theoretical introductory part exposes lack of sensitivity to local cultures, the general issue of complexity which arises in lack of control, variety of regulations and rules, different time zones and also the “treatment of the international project as a standard project” as main challenges for and reasons for failure of many international projects. All these rather impeding and logically challenging findings are visibly summarized in the “Five Dimensions of IP” figure, concluding that there are five dimensions which will affect every project in a different manner and in different decrees of intensity. Next, there is the description and visualization of new, interesting international PM tools like the risk register, quality gates. Additionally the authors come up with general rules and advice as the agreement on binding communication rules, templates and one language for successfully working global project team. In the last part the uneven challenges and best practices couples are kind of “married” by presenting two successful international projects: The SWAP project from the leading central European energy supply company OMV, where the superior project manager Barbara Krappinger succeeded in overcoming many cultural and geographical challenges and a major event management project from the Siemens
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Figure 1 – Comparison standard project and international project
Figure 2 – Seven main challenges in IPs according to LIENTZ & REA (2003)
Figure 3 – Five dimensions in IPs according to BINDER et al (2010)
Figure 4 – Cultural dependable expectations towards the project manager
Figure 5 – Overview of “Best Practices” for international PM
Figure 6 – Hall and Hall´s Modell: High-Context vs. Low-Context Cultures
Figure 7 – Occurrence of the Success Factors in the Literature
Figure 8 – Evaluation of Best Practice Tools and Techniques for IPM
Figure 9 – Portfolio of selected global risk factors in international projects
Figure 10 – Major phases of a general risk management cycle
Figure 11 – Challenges & Best Practices for “SWAP” (OMV Group)
Figure 12 – Challenges & Best Practices for “EURO 2008” (Siemens AG)
Screening the web it can be read many similar headlines and stories as:
- “The World Bank's Land Management and Administrative project failed to protect the people of Beoung Kak lake in northern Phnom Penh”  (2010) - “University of Illinois Global Campus project failed”  (2009) - The “Virtual File project” of Science Application International to provide the FBI with better IT solutions failed” (2005)
The latter project was a loss of five years of development and the total sum of $US 170 million in cost.  The failure of public projects often are more revealed by the press as people getting upset when their taxes are wasted. But many international projects fail across all sectors. It is estimated that 50% of all international projects either fail, are not completed or do not deliver the expected targets.  A project failure means a waste of time, money and other resources for all the involved parties. The questions in this context are: “Why do so many international projects fail?” and “What do successful international project managers differently?” This assignment seeks to answer these two questions.
In contrast to standard projects the difference of an international project is grounded in co-working processes of people, teams, groups and companies from different cultural backgrounds and countries often across borders. Besides the challenges from standard projects these multicultural interferences impose additional challenges to the project management and therefore must be treated with special knowledge, sensitivity and additional methods.
The title of this assignment already formulates the crucial tasks of the main part, namely to oppose the accumulating challenges which imply most of international projects to best practices providing solutions, hints and ideas to overcome these challenges in the best possible way. The focus of the examination is directed towards “international” and “global” issues.
To provide an overview of the topic the authors screened several expert literature on IPM and searched the websites of IPMA for sound information. In addition, the authors interviewed Barbara Krappinger, the Austrian PM of the year 2009, for insights on a concrete example. Own experience and group discussions complete the sources.
5. Main part
5.1 definition of international projects.
The PMBOK® Guide 2008 defines the project as a "a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result." Important is its limited character in labor, schedule and budget. Whereas a standard project in general takes place within a single organization and a single country, an international project involves people from various countries, can be conducted in different countries, locations, and involves different entities, business units and cultures.  For a more detailed description of main differences please compare figure 1 below.
As can be seen above from figure 1, international projects are defined through plural nouns and adjectives such as multiple , varied , variations or more complex . Whereas standard projects can be seen within one single company, with one single company culture, and regulations and self-interest are more easily understood. Projects that are conducted internationally are way more complex and culturally diversified. Of course, the whole issue of complexity and also cultures applies too for national big projects. On the one hand, huge national projects also can involve different company cultures and are therefore also very multifaceted, too. On the other hand, huge national projects are seldom “national” any longer. Big companies operate across borders, employ people from different nationalities or involve foreign experts. A clear distinction would rather be very artificial. Anyhow, the paper likes to stress challenges and later on best practices that differ from other projects by highlighting issues that derive from the fact that international projects - in contrast to standard projects - involve people from different cultural backgrounds and cultures.
5.2 Challenges in international projects
In addition to the challenges of standard projects, IPs impose – due to the different countries and cultures involved - additional challenges to PMs. For the presentation the authors relied on the findings of Lientz & Rea (2003). Which will be shown in 5.2.1. Within the scope of class feedback and later on group discussion the authors looked for a more sound model to describe the differences and will therefore be presenting the 5 dimensions of Jean Binder, a PM with many years of IPM experience.
5.2.1 Seven main issues in IPs according to LIENTZ & REA (2003)
Lientz & Rea (2003) stress out seven main issues why international projects fail. The findings of can be seen in figure 2.
Source: Compare Lientz, B & Rea, K. (2003), p.13
Reviewing the list, it can be stated that at least five of the seven listed factors are applicable as well for bigger projects. Even for smaller projects some points are applicable, e.g. lack of measurement or micromanagement can pose a problem to every projects.
Only two factors are valid to differ in international projects: “Lack of sensitivity to the local culture” and “the treatment of the IP as a standard project” . The findings of Lientz & Rea (2003) seem to be incomplete and not stressing on real differences, the authors therefore would like to present different findings in the next chapter and go into a bit more detail.
5.2.2 The five Dimensions of IPs according to BINDER et al (2010)
According to Jean Binder (2010), a very experienced expert in IPM that publishes articles as well for the IMPA, there are mainly five dimensions  that cause major problems in managing international projects.  Please compare figure 3 on the following page.
Figure 3 - Five dimensions in IPs according to BINDER et al (2010)
Source: Own graph. Five dimensions derived from Binder et al (2010), p.4-7
This model is not yet published and was first presented by Binder, J., Gardiner, P.D., and Ritchie, J.M. in 2009 at the PMI Global Congress 2009 EMEA – Conference in Amsterdam. The model in mentioned in an article of the annual publication of the IMPA.  A model of success factors for Global Project Management. These five dimensions will affect every project in a different manner and in different decrees of intensity, but it is certain that they will affect every IP in the one way or another. In the following the five dimensions are explained in a more detail.
 http://www1.voanews.com/khmer-english/news/economy-business/a-40-2010-03-19-voa6-90235572.html [accessed April 2010]
 http://www.tonybates.ca/2009/09/03/why-the-university-of-illinois-global-campus-project-failed/ [accessed April 2010]
 http://www.projectperfect.com.au/info_it_projects_fail.php [accessed April 2010]
 Lientz, B., Rea, K. (2003), p.13
 Compare Lientz, B. & Rea, K. (2003), p.11
 Binder et al (2010) “A model of success factors for Global Project Management”, in IPMA – Project Perspectives 2010, 4-9, accessed: http://www.ipma.com [April 7th, 2009]
 Binder makes a distinction between international and global projects. The authors find the differentiation rather artificial when talking about challenges and best practices and therefore will neglect the fact. For further reading compare Binder (2007), p.18
 Binder et al (2010) “A model of success factors for Global Project Management”, in IPMA – Project Perspectives 2010, 4-9, accessed: http://www.ipma.com [April 7th, 2010]
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Read BBA, BMS, B.Com Syllabus wise Notes
Managing International Projects and Teams Meaning
International project management (IPM) is the management of projects that involve multi-national resources and teams working together to attain the project goals.
International project management is the management of projects internationally or across borders and cultures, therefore international project management requires a specific set of skills to ensure success when managing international projects. In particular, the importance cultural awareness plays in international projects and how the Hofstede 5-D model can be used in an international project management framework.
With globalization, businesses tend to be no longer confined within their national boundaries. They expand internationally to achieve the basic goals like:
- Increasing their market share.
- Reducing the overall cost by leveraging international talents and resources.
Project Team Roles
The project manager plays the chief part in the project and is responsible for its success and quality. His job is to make sure that the project proceeds and completes within the specified time frame and the ascertained budget, and accomplishing its goals at the same time. Project managers ensure that resources are sufficient for the project and maintain relationships with contributors and stakeholders.
A project manager is entrusted with various duties and responsibilities like:
- Managing deliverables according to the decided plan
- Developing a project plan
- Leading and managing the team
- Deciding the methodology used in the project
- Establishing a project schedule and determining each phase
- Providing regular updates to upper management
- Assigning tasks to team members
The project sponsor is the driver and in-house champion of the project. He has a vested interest in the successful outcome of the project. They are typically members of senior management those with a stake in the project’s outcome. Project sponsors work closely with the project manager. They legitimize the project’s objectives and participate in high-level project planning. Also, they often help resolve conflicts and remove obstacles that occur throughout the project, and they sign off on approvals needed to advance each phase.
Project sponsor duties:
- Make key business decisions for the project
- Approve the project budget
- Ensure availability of resources
- Communicate the project’s goals throughout the organization
Project Team Member
Project team members are mainly the people who work on various phases of the project. They could be in-house staff or external consultants and maybe working on a full-time or part-time basis. Their roles can differ according to each project.
The responsibilities of the members can be summed up as the following:
- Provide expertise
- Contribute to overall project objectives
- Complete individual deliverables
- Work with users to determine and meet business needs
- Document the process
Composition of Project Teams
The project team’s compositions may differ based on the organization’s culture, scope, and location. Some of the examples of the team compositions are given below:
This is the simplest structure for a project manager. In this composition, all or most of the members are appointed to work full-time on the project. The project team has to report directly to the project manager, and the lines of authority are well-defined so team members can concentrate on the project’s objectives. Dedicated project teams are usually seen in organizations, where most of the resources of the organization are involved in project work, and project managers have independence and power.
Some projects are assigned to a team as additional temporary work, with the rest of the organization’s members carrying out their regular functions. The functional managers have control over the team members and the resources assigned to the project. On the other hand, the project manager continues with other management duties. Also, Part-time team members can be assigned to more than one project at one time. Part-time project teams are mostly seen within functional organizations. Matrix organizations use both dedicated and part-time project teams.
Some compositions vary based on organizational structure, like a partnership-based project where one lead organization appoints a project manager to coordinate the efforts of the partners. Some vary based on the geographic location of their members, like virtual teams. Virtual teams fulfill the needs for projects where resources are situated onsite or offsite or both, depending on the activities.
The success of a project cannot be accredited to a single person. It is the contribution of every member of the team and people associated from outside. It is imperative to keep an account of how many people are related to your project and which role should be assigned to each one of them. A proper training and thorough knowledge of the subject can guide you with the same.
International Project Management and Cultural Dimensions
The application of Hofstede’s 5-D model was originally used for International Business and Marketing applications, because it is quite effective in understanding a country’s cultural differences and social norms and gaining insights into the subtle differences and needs of different cultures, we can quickly see the value in its application in international project management, particular from an engagement perspective.
International Project Management Uses for Cultural Dimensions
The model could be used to select the most aligned countries when evaluating and considering which countries should be involved in the project, for example if you are embarking on an international change project, it might be unwise to start with a country with a high Uncertainty Avoidance score, it might make your life as an international project manager easier and the project more successful to start in a country that is open and embraces change. Then move in some senior managers to the countries with high Uncertainty Avoidance to show confidence in the change project.
But quite often, you may not have the luxury of selecting which countries will be part of the project, in this situation analysing the country’s cultural dimensions will give you great insight into how best to manage within this culture for the greatest change of success.
From an international project management perspective, let’s consider an international project that includes Australia and China. A quick comparison using the 5-D model highlights the areas of close alignment and the areas of stark difference.
Close Alignment : We can see quite quickly that the Masculinity of both countries are pretty close, masculinity is slightly more important in China than Australia, but not by much. We can infer that both country’s consider masculinity slightly important and it is probably wise to not lead with talking about your feelings and it is safe to say that males would dominate the workforce and generally competitive in nature.
Reasonable Variances : It is also clear that Uncertainty Avoidance scores differ, but not but a great amount. Interestingly we note that China has a lower score and is less concerned with uncertainty. This might suggest that there are slightly more informal business rules, possibly based more on personal relationships and in the case of China short term changes are of less concern as long as the long term strategy is the key focus. It might be wise to relate how the changes this project will help to enable the long term goals.
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diaspora: the dispersion of any people from their original homeland.
We are living in unprecedented times. Through migration, people who previously had no access to the gospel are living among us. This gives us a unique opportunity to share the Good News of Jesus with them and share the hope of salvation with the nations. We do this through short, mid, and long-term missions opportunities, church planting, and missionary training programs.
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The looming threat of deep-sea mining
On 5 March, the world reached what could well be a turning point for protection of the world's oceans.
With almost one in 10 species at risk of extinction , and the growing pressure from climate change, the treaty provides a framework for setting up protected areas in the high seas, sometimes known as international waters. It's been seen as crucial for supporting the aim to protect 30% of the oceans by the year 2030 . At the moment, we protect just a little more than 1% of the high seas .
The treaty, known as the BBNJ ( Marine Biodiversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction ), had been some 40 years in the making, culminating in fraught marathon negotiations that ran through the night. But now, "the ship has reached the shore", as Rena Lee, president of the Intergovernmental Conference on Marine Biodiversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, put it in her emotional conclusion to the talks .
The treaty extends not just to the water column but, at depths of more than 200m (656ft), to the seafloor itself. The treaty could help to protect the oceans from potential environmental damage caused by mining the seabed for metals such as cobalt, manganese and nickel.
So what do these momentous developments for the ocean mean for the seafloor?
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Deep-sea mining has been proposed – and rigorously opposed – for decades. While some argue the minerals found in the seafloor are a promising source of metals needed for technologies such as mobile phones and wind turbines, scientists have argued we don't know enough about the ecosystems of the seafloor to guarantee that mining won't cause irreparable harm.
Since 2001, 31 permits to explore the ocean floor with a view to exploitation have been granted by the International Seabed Authority (the United Nations body responsible for regulating deep-sea mining). In 2021, the Pacific nation of Nauru in Micronesia took one big step closer to deep-sea mining, announcing its intention to begin commercial exploitation of the seabed. That triggered an obscure "two-year rule" that gave the ISA a deadline to finalise its rulebook for environmental regulation.
That deadline is July 2023 – after this point, theoretically, the deep sea could be mined without environmental regulation in place (debates on whether this is a truly "hard" deadline, however, are ongoing ).
The new High Seas Treaty could eventually have an important overarching influence in protecting the seabed, but it will take many months to be ratified and implemented. It's the looming July deadline that matters most for deep-sea mining, says Minna Epps, head of the oceans team at the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). "That's our window," she says. "And it's closing."
A spokesperson for the ISA tells BBC Future that the authority shares the objectives of the High Seas Treaty, and "stands ready" to collaborate and implement its ambitious goals, though it is too early to say how the treaty will affect the deep-sea mining rulebook due in July.
As the ISA begins new round of talks to inch forward its rulebook in Kingston, Jamaica , on 16 March, just how much is at stake?
Deep-sea mining has been opposed by environmentalists, scientists, policy groups and parts of the tech and automobile industries (Credit: Getty Images)
Much of the interest in deep-sea mining has focused on polymetallic nodules – potato-sized lumps rich in a combination of metals that sit on the surface of the deep ocean floor.
The test of time
The Clarion-Clipperton Zone, a large stretch of seafloor between Hawaii and Mexico, is particularly rich in polymetallic nodules.
One long-running experiment here simulated extraction of the nodules in 1989, and returned periodically to see how the ecosystem had changed before and after.
The researchers found that even 26 years later the ecosystem had failed to return to its previous state, and biodiversity in the area had reduced overall.
Mining proponents, such as Gerard Barron, chief executive of The Metals Company, argue these tests were more invasive than the techniques they use.
( Read more about the extraordinary ecosystems that exist on the deep ocean floor .)
Techniques to obtain the nodules vary. Some involve using machines likened to "huge combine harvesters ", disturbing a layer of sediment as the nodules are collected. The plumes of sediment released by this activity could stretch for hundreds of kilometres and risk smothering animals, harm filter-feeding species and obscuring animals' vision, according to the IUCN .
Especially for the species that live on the ocean floor, known as the benthic ecosystem, strong environmental regulation is hugely important, says Kirsten Thompson, lecturer in ecology at the University of Exeter in the UK. "Mining could irreversibly damage benthic ecosystems."
For species living higher up in the water column, such as cetaceans, the impacts of mining are less well understood . "But, considering the myriad threats faced by marine ecosystem in general, regulation of human activities is vital to ensure biodiversity conservation and to preserve ecosystem functioning," says Thompson.
There is also an immense quantity of carbon thought to be locked up in deep-sea sediments. When tiny organisms and bits of organic matter, from dead seaweed to whale faeces , fall to the ocean floor, some of the carbon that makes up that detritus, known as "marine snow", falls out of the carbon cycle and rests in sediments for millions of years . That is, if it is left undisturbed.
"So it's not just the direct disturbance of the sea floor and those precious, unique little species that are there," says Epps. "It's also about what would happen if you stir it up, and all that carbon is released again."
Other researchers, such as Seaver Wang at the Breakthrough Institute in Berkeley, California, question whether stirring up carbon in the sediments would in fact lead to its release into the atmosphere. Until conclusive research is carried out in the field, it's another question to add to the list of deep-ocean unknowns.
The proponents of deep-sea mining argue that to obtain the large quantities of metals that we need for green technologies like wind turbines and solar panels, as well as for devices such as mobile phones, we will need to use the ocean's resources.
"Where should those metals come from?" says Gerard Barron, chief executive of The Metals Company, a Vancouver-based deep-sea mining firm. "We think unequivocally the right resource is polymetallic modules."
He argues deep-sea mining could be carried out with less disturbance to ecosystems than land-based mining, which often leads to habitat destruction and generates large quantities of waste. (Read more about the environmental impacts of mining on land .)
Barron's firm carried out a test in November 2022 that extracted 3,000 tonnes of polymetallic nodules from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone.
One report by the US Geological Survey estimated that if deep-sea mining were to follow the path of fossil-fuel extraction at sea, then by 2065 the deep oceans could supply as much as 35-45% of our demand for critical metals.
However, researchers have found that many of the resources we already have on land are sufficient to see us through a green transition . Wang has also looked into the quantities of metals required for greater battery production, such as nickel, cobalt, manganese and copper, all found in polymetallic nodules.
"Strictly speaking, these seabed resources are not necessary to meet projected battery mineral needs in the EV and storage sectors," says Wang. "Future needs for the next few decades could in theory be met entirely through extraction on land."
Wang does, however, believe it is important to answer the question of whether deep-sea mining is less damaging to communities and the environment than land-based mining . "This has not yet been conclusively demonstrated," Wang says. "I would personally advocate for more marine science research and pilot-scale tests to verify that the environmental impacts of nodule harvesting are low."
Deep-sea mining tests in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone are largely focused on polymetallic nodules (Credit: The Metals Company)
Indeed, one of the main challenges that scientists return to is that we don't yet have answers to many basic questions about the life and chemistry of the deep oceans – what's living down there? How much carbon does it lock up, and would mining risk releasing it? How much disturbance could the ecosystem tolerate?
"Considering the vast implications, both direct and indirect, and all the other consequences that we don't actually know, because we don't have enough knowledge, that alone points to [the idea that we] shouldn't go ahead with deep-sea mining," says the IUCN's Epps.
In 2021, a majority of the 160 member states of the IUCN voted in favour of a moratorium on deep-sea mining (though the IUCN itself has no jurisdiction to implement such a ban). More than 700 science and policy experts from 44 countries signed a statement calling for a pause on deep-sea mining. In 2022, France became the first country to call for an international ban . A number of technology and car manufacturers have also called for a moratorium .
Louisa Casson, who leads the environmentalist group Greenpeace's campaign to stop deep-sea mining, believes that momentum from the High Seas Treaty "will inevitably spill-over" into the ISA's upcoming deep-sea mining negotiations in Kingston, Jamaica. "This treaty is a monumental win for ocean protection and an important sign that multilateralism still works in an increasingly divided world," says Casson.
The impact of the High Seas Treaty on ocean life could turn out to be profound, perhaps the greatest step in protecting the seas that the world has yet taken. But in the race to conserve life in the watery depths, this is only just beginning.
WATCH - The unseen man-made 'tracks' on the deep ocean floor:
An earlier version of this article stated that The Metals Company's 2022 test retrieved three tonnes of polymetallic nodules. This has been corrected to 3,000 tonnes.
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ماهو تعريف المشاريع الهندسية الدولية متى يصبح المشروع الهندسي مشروعاً دولياً ؟
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المشاريع الدولية هي المشاريع النوعية الكبيرة التي تقوم بتنفيذها شركات كبيرة قد تكون شركات دولة تنفذ هذه المشاريع في دول أخرى كمشاريع محطات الطاقة النووية ومشاريع محطات توليد الكهرباء الكبيرة ومشاريع الطاقة المستدامة مثل توليد الطاقة بالاستفادة من الطاقة الشمسية وغيرها من المشاريع التي تحتكر الدول المتقدمة التكنولوجيا الخاصة بها وتكون هذه المشاريع عادة بعقود توقع بين الدولة المنفذة والدولة المستفيدة مما يعطيها صبغة العلاقات والمشاريع الدولية .
اشكرك على الدعوة المشاريع الدولية هي التي تقوم بها شركات دولة خاصة او عامة في دولة اخرى
عندما تنفذها دولة لصالح دولة اخرى
لازيادة على اجابات الاساتذة
المشاريع الدولية التي تقوم بها الدول مع بعضها مثل انشاء محطة نووية في بلد من قبل دولة اخرى
المشاريع الدوليه هي التي تطرح في مناقصات لجميع الدول ويطبق فيها القوانين الدوليه
هي المشاريع التي تخضع في تصميمها وانشائها وتشغيلها الي المعايير الدولية الخاصة بموجب اتفاقيات دولية تكون فيها الدولة صاحبة المشروع مصادقة وعضوا في هذه المنظمة او تلك وتخضع اداراتة هذة المشاريع اثناء التنفيذ وعند تشغيلها الى الرقابة الدولية التي تتمثل في المنظمة المتخصصة ذات التفويض الدولي بغض النظر عما اذا كانت الجهة المنفذة لتلك المشاريع محلية او اجنبية فالشركات الفرنسية مثلا المتخصصة في انشاء مشاريع الطافة النووية عند تنفيذها لمشروع من هذا النوع تخضع الى رقابة منظمة الطاقة النووية الدولية وكذلك الحال في المانيا وامريكا مادامت عضوا في هذه المنظمة ومصادقة على التفاقات الدولية في هذا المجال وكذلك فيما يخص المطارات الدولية فانها خاضعة الى اتفاقيات وضوابط وزمعايير منظمة الطيران الدولي فمطار اربيل الدولي مثلا نفذ بكادر عراقي100% الا انه طبقت المعايير الدولية لمنظمة الطيران الدولي وهو معترغا به دوليا ومسجل على لائحة المطارات الدولي في المنظمة , وشكرا
مهندس فواز ماشاء الله افاد وكفاء جزيت خيرا
هي المشاريع العملاقة التي تكون تكلفتها بملائن الدولارات وتجذب انتباه الرأي العام نظراً لتأثيرها الهام على المجتمعات والبيئة الطبيعية والموازنات مثل المطارات والملاعب الرياضية والاسواق ( المولات) وهكذا.
لا اضيف على اجابة الزملاء ولكن هناك نقطة مهمة وهي تمويل الدولة التي تنفذ المشروع واستغلالها لعوائد المشروع فترة من الزمن لتحصيل الكلف والمصاريف
أشكرك على الدعوة. المشاريع الهندسية الدولية هي المشاريع التي تشترك أكثر من دولة في التخطيط لتنفيذها وتمويلها
عمليات البحث الشائعة
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