## Innovation Development

## Description:

Numeracy focuses on the core skills of applying numerical concepts. It is the ability of understanding fundamental mathematical operations such as multiplication, division, addition and subtraction. These activities are created for all ages and all cognitive levels.

Activities should be adapted based on the learner's cognitive ability.

Numeracy activities are important for learners to develop logical thinking and strategies in everyday life. Learners also need numeracy to make sense of numbers, solve problems, play sports, cook and understand instructions.

Ask the learner to write a math story or word problem and have someone else draw it out and solve it!

This activity ensures that learners understand the real world applications of mathematics and encourages them to use math to solve these problems

Ask the learner to think about a very short story for their word problem. Think of questions such as:

- Who is the character in the story?

- Where is the story happening?

- What is his or her problem?

- What question are you looking to answer?

Once the learner has the story, think about the math involved:

- How many steps will be needed to solve the problem?

- Which operation/s will be needed? (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division)

- How large will the numbers be?

Finally, tell the learner to write the problem and ask someone else to solve it by drawing a picture and writing a number sentence to go with it!

Emily made 10 cookies at home for her family and herself. Her brother ate 4 cookies, how many are left for the rest of the family?

Choose a number and then show different ways to split a number into two whole numbers.

This activity ensures that learners understand how to create connections between numbers using addition.

Ask the learner to create a list with numbers and pick one number from the list, or ask the learner to think of a number in their head and say it out loud. Alternatively the learner can roll one or two dice to decide the number.

Next, ask the learner how many ways they can split the number into whole numbers. For example, if their number is 10, they can come up with:

- 10 can be added using the numbers 5, 5

- 10 can be added using the numbers 8, 2

- 10 can be added using the numbers 7, 3

- 10 can be added using the numbers 6, 4

Finally, tell the learner to see how many ways they can think of to reach their chosen number.

Ask the learner to play this with a partner or in a group, and whoever has the most ways of reaching the number, wins.

Ask the learner to try to split the number with different mathematical operations such as subtraction, division and multiplication.

Ask the learner to set a goal for themselves: “I will think of 5 different ways to make this number.”

Roll two or more dice and create math equations to solve for.

This activity ensures that learners know their math facts automatically.

Ask the learner to decide what operation they wish to do (addition, subtraction, multiplication or division)

Next, get two dice and roll them.

Finally, solve the problem.

For example: if they chose addition and rolled 2 on one dice and 3 on another dice, do 2 + 3 and solve this equation.

Assist the learner in creating their own dice like the picture!

If the learner wants to work with bigger numbers, then change the numbers on the dice.

The learner can play this with a partner or in a group, and whoever has the most correct answers, wins.

Set a timer for the learner and keep rolling the dice and solving the equations. Start the timer again and then tell the learner to try to beat their previous score.

For a longer project where the learner can create their own math games, please refer to Math Cards here: Link

Two or more people pick a card each. The person with the higher number will move their car one step ahead. Whoever reaches the finish line first, wins.

To ensure the learners are able to compare number values.

Help the learner create about 20-30 number cards. (cut an A4 piece of paper in 8 or 12 cards)

Next, ask the learner to get two toy cars and create a race track on some chart paper like the one in the picture.

Then, place the cars on the starting position and each person pick up a number card. The person with the higher number moves one step forward.

Finally, the person who reaches the finish line first, wins.

Use numbers in the tens, hundreds or thousands or even larger to make it more challenging. The number cards can also be decimals, fractions or integers if the learner knows them.

Two or more people take turns putting a playing card one on top of another. The person who calculates the decided number first says snap and collects the cards. Keep going until one person loses all their cards.

This activity ensures the learners are able to compute their basic math facts automatically.

Deal all the number cards equally among the players.

Next, ask the learner to decide which operation they wish to work with and what the total must be. For example: They decide they want to work with addition and the total number must be 10.

Then, hand out the cards to each player, facing down. Each player takes a turn picking up a card from their own pile and placing it face up in the center, one on top of each other.

Keep calculating the top 2 cards (e.g., 3+4, 2+8), and when the numbers equal the predetermined total (e.g., 10), a player calls “Snap” while slapping their hand onto the top of the pile of cards. The first player to do this wins the pile and adds these cards to the bottom of their pile.

The player that runs out of cards is out of the game and the player with the most cards wins.

If the learner wants to include the other cards (e.g., WILD, Jacks etc.), then assign each of them a number value.

Ask the learner to make their own number cards. About 30-40, with any number they wish to have.

Two or more people take turns picking up two cards at a time and adding them. The person who gets the higher total collects the cards. Keep going till one person loses all their cards.

Deal all the number cards from a playing cards deck equally among all players. If the learner wants to include the other cards (e.g., WILD, Jacks etc.), then assign each of them a number value.

Then, hand out the cards to each player, facing down. Each player takes turn placing two cards, facing up, in front of them.

Next, add the numbers on the cards (e.g.: if they get 3 and 2, then their answer is 5). Tell everyone the answer. The player with the highest answer adds everyone’s cards to the bottom of their pile.

If the player gets the same number in both cards, they can DOUBLE their answer! (e.g.: if they get 3 and 3, add them and get 6 and then double this to get 12 as the final answer!)

Play this game with subtraction or multiplication too!

Two or more people take turns subtracting. The person who gets the lower total collects the cards. Keep going until one person loses all their cards.

This activity ensures the learners are able to do basic operations mentally.

Deal the number cards (1-9) from a playing cards deck to all the players.

Next, the players look at their cards and make a 2 digit number using two cards (e.g.: if I have 3, 6, 7 and 9, I can make numbers such as 36 and 97, etc.)

Then, each player subtracts the smallest number from their largest number and tells the answer (e.g.: 97-36= 51). This should be done mentally, if possible.

The player with the highest number for the answer keeps their cards, but the other players return their cards to the bottom of the middle pile.

Keep going until the cards are all done. The person with the most cards wins.

This game can be played with addition, multiplication or division too!

Use only 1 digit numbers, using 1 card, and subtracting the smallest number from the largest number.

Using a deck of cards, shuffle the cards and then lay 5 cards out on the table and all other cards face down in a pile on the side.

Next, the first player picks one card from the deck of the cards and lays it face up beside the pile.

Then, the players attempt to create an equation using any of the 5 cards to make the number they have turned over.

For example: if they have placed 5 cards - 3, 6, 2, 5 and 10 on the table, and 7 is the number they chose, then they can make the equations 5 + 2, or 10 – 3, or 5x2 - 3 and so on that all equal 7.

The first player to think of an equation says “Made My Number” and says the equation. If they are correct, they keep those number cards and the number card chosen, all of which are then replaced in the next round.

If the players are unable to make the number, just place the chosen card at the bottom of the pile and pick a new one. Keep going until the cards are all done. The person with the most cards wins.

This game can be played by using a timer and challenging players to come up with as many equations within the time limit as possible!

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Teaching with Jennifer Findley

Upper Elementary Teaching Blog

October 22, 2017 | 1 Comment | Filed Under: Math

## Whole Group Instruction and Activities for Math

Over my near decade of teaching fifth grade, I have found that whole group instruction is still very much needed. The skills and meaty concepts that the fifth graders have to master makes it virtually impossible to cover in a mini-lesson or even in small group math. My students (and me and my pacing guide) still really need that whole group instruction time.

With that being said, whole group instruction can take so.many.different.formats. It is not just the teacher teaching and the students listening and copying. It is so much more than that. On this post, I want to break down what whole group instruction and activities looks like in my classroom.

## Whole Group Instruction: The Lesson

My whole group lesson length varies depending on the skills we are practicing or I am introducing. However, the format almost always stays the same.

1.) Introduce the skill through a word problem or context (this helps build conceptual understanding).

2.) Lots of student discussion and exploration while I guide the discussion around the skill/word problem/context. This is key. Students need to regularly talk about math AND hear math from their peers – and not just those peers in their small math group. My students who struggle need to hear from my students who have mastered concepts and vice versa. Some of my “struggling” (eh – I hate that term) students have the biggest a-ha moments during whole group instruction that all of my students can benefit from hearing.

3.) Guided practice of the skill.

4.) Exit slip to informally assess the students’ current mastery levels ( click here to see 4th grade math exit slips and here to see 5th grade math exit slips ).

To read more about how I use exit slips to drive my instruction (and grab a data analysis binder freebie), click here.

After this, we move into the independent or not-so-independent activities and practices.

## Whole Group Instruction: “Independent” Activities and Practice

Our whole group practice and activities vary from day to day, skill to skill. It does not always look like this: students working while teacher teaches a small group or checks in with individual students. But, sometimes it does look like that. In a minute, we will dive into some of my favorite activities and ways to practice that we do on whole group instruction days, but first, here are the factors that guide what we do each day:

2.) The students’ current mastery level with the skill based on the exit slips or my observations

3.) What I have prepared ahead of time

Now, let’s dive into all the different types of activities you can use to make the most of this time + keep your students engaged and working hard (in no particular order).

## 1. Independent Practice with Small Group Instruction

After giving the exit slip, I can pull my small groups based on it. While I am pulling small groups, my students can be working independently on the same task or a similar task.

Click here to read more about how I pull small groups during whole group math days.

For independent practice, I use the following resources (not all of these each day):

- Interactive notebook resources that are heavily student-driven and allow for multiple opportunities to practice a skill
- Word problems for interactive math notebooks are also a go-to resource, and I often use these for the guided practice aspect of the lesson, too.
- Practice printables from my fifth grade math supplemental resources.
- Leveled math skill sheets that allow me to quickly differentiate independent practice.

## 2. Guided Math Manipulative Practice

This is one of my favorites and is often just an extension of the whole group lesson. We do this a lot with decimals and fractions skills. This type of practice follows this basic format:

- Present a task or an equation to the students.
- Discuss how the manipulatives can help us solve the task or equation.
- The students use the manipulatives to solve the task or equation.
- The students discuss with partners how they used the manipulatives and/or justify their answer using the manipulatives.
- Discuss as a class and record a visual representation of what the students did with the manipulatives (or an abstract representation).
- Repeat steps 1-5 with a new task or equation.

Click here to read a detailed blog post about my favorite math manipulatives for 5th grade.

## 3. Guided “Independent” Practice

Sometimes, I find that my students are not ready to really be let loose with independent practice, but continuing guided practice is not the answer either. Enter: Guided “Independent” Practice.

Our Guided “Independent” Practice follows this basic format (similar to the one for the guided manipulative practice):

- Present a task or problem to the students.
- Discuss the task or equation (mainly to ensure the students have an access point).
- Students solve the problem and check/discuss with an assigned partner.
- Discuss as a class, recording work for the students to see if necessary.
- Repeat steps 1-4 with a new problem or task.

## 4. Partner Math Games

Easily one of my students’ favorite activities to complete after whole group lesson is partner math games. We play the same five partner games throughout the year (see below picture), changing out the content and math skills as needed. My students love them, and I love that they can quickly grab their game and get to playing and practicing math.

Click here to read a more detailed post about my go-to partner math games AND grab 30+ free ones!

To see the grade level sets of partner games in my store, click on your grade level below:

4th Grade Math Partner Games BUNDLE

5th Grade Math Partner Games BUNDLE

## 5. Scoot Math Review

We pretty much love SCOOT in my classroom. Sometimes, something simple like putting questions on task cards and letting the students walk from desk to desk is really just what you need. I have found that those same students who struggle to get 5-6 questions done independently can knock some problems out with SCOOT.

Click here to read more about SCOOT and how I use it to informally assess my students.

Do you need math task cards that cover all of the CCSS standards? Click on your grade level to check them out.

3rd Grade Math Task Cards

4th Grade Math Task Cards

5th Grade Math Task Cards

## 6. Around the Room Review

This is one of my go-to math activities before an assessment, but it works well at any point in instruction. Basically, I tape problems around the room, group the students into small groups, and have them rotate at my signal solving the problems on their own paper. We do a final rotation, if time allows, where one group is assigned a problem to solve on the chart. Read more about this math activity here.

Another twist on the Around the Room activity that we love is having the students rotate through different levels of understanding for a math skill. This works the same as the above activity, except the tasks all require a different level of understanding. The levels are:

- Define It: a list of 2-5 terms are listed for the students to define
- Practice It: requires the students to apply their knowledge to answer 2-6 practice problems
- Create It: this task is a bit more complicated, and the students have to apply their knowledge to create a task, a number, a word problem, etc. based on the standard
- Explain It: requires the most thinking and requires the students to explain their thinking or explain some aspect of the math skill

Click here to see a complete resource with those specific tasks for each 5th grade math standard.

## 7. Collaborative Group Activities

And finally, we also complete collaborative group activities. This may include:

- Creating a collaborative poster
- Completing a math project
- Creating lessons to teach the rest of the class

## What do you do during math center days?

My students complete math centers 2-3 times a week. Click here to read a detailed post about my math center instruction.

Which of these activities do you do in your classroom? Do you have any other activities that work well during whole group instruction days? Let me know in the comments!

## Share the Knowledge!

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## You May Also Like These Posts

## Reader Interactions

July 17, 2018 at 10:04 am

Thank you for this info! It sounds like you take a hybrid approach to whole group vs. math centers. I’m wondering – How do you decide which lesson require centers and which would be better suited for whole group instruction?

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Welcome friends! I’m Jennifer Findley: a teacher, mother, and avid reader. I believe that with the right resources, mindset, and strategies, all students can achieve at high levels and learn to love learning. My goal is to provide resources and strategies to inspire you and help make this belief a reality for your students. Learn more about me.

## Good Group Work in Math

Before working together, students discuss norms that will help create an environment for productive, positive, and equitable group work in math class.

## Planning For It

When you might use this practice.

- At the beginning of a semester, to set up a productive climate of equitable group work in mathematics class
- To build a growth mindset culture for students around mathematics class
- Prior to beginning group work in math class

## Time Required

- ≤ 30 minutes
- Poster paper

## Learning Objectives

Students will:

- Develop a growth mindset towards mathematics and working with others
- Understand what helps or hinders productive group interactions
- Take the perspective of other students in establishing group norms

## Additional Supports

- Making Practices Culturally Responsive
- Adapting Practices for Students with Special Needs
- Making Classrooms and Schools Trauma-Informed and Healing-Centered

## SEL Competencies

- Self-Awareness
- Self-Management
- Social Awareness
- Relationship Skills

## How To Do It

Reflection before the practice.

- Take a moment to reflect on the behaviors you like and dislike when working in groups. Do you expect your students to feel the same? Why or why not?
- If you have already seen your students work together in groups, reflect on how it has gone. What would you like to build on and/or change in order to create a positive, supportive, and equitable environment?
- What can you do to ensure all students’ voices are heard during this activity?

## Instructions

Note: Practice 5 of 5 in youcubed Mathematical Mindset practice collection.

## To the Teacher

For this activity, be sure to make space for ideas over being pressed for time so that all students’ voices are represented.

## Introduction

This activity is valuable to do before students work on math together as it helps create an environment for productive group interactions. Teachers who have tried this activity have been pleased by students’ thoughtful responses and found the students’ thoughts and words helpful in creating a positive and supportive environment.

## Launch (5 minutes)

- Let students know that group work will be important in math class because there is so much to learn from each other’s thinking and ideas. Reasoning is really important to the discipline of mathematics.

## Explore (5 minutes)

- Students will come up with many important ideas, such as not liking people to give away the answer, or to rush through the work, or to ignore other people’s ideas.
- Small group discussion: Groups share their ideas with each other, and agree on the ideas from the group they will share with the class.

## Discuss (5 minutes)

- Have each group contribute one idea, moving around the room until there are no more unique ideas to add.
- If you hear a comment such as “I don’t like waiting for slow people,” do not put it on the poster; instead, use it as a chance to discuss the comment. Students are usually very thoughtful and respectful in the ideas they share.
- Students will come up with many important ideas, such as liking people to check in with each other, to ask how everyone sees it, or to give reasons.
- Small group discussion: Groups share their ideas with each other and agree on the ideas from the group they will share with the class.

## Closing (5 minutes)

- Present the final posters/lists to the class and ask if they agree with these classroom norms or if there is anything else that should be added.
- Let them know that these will be a reference for the class throughout your work together and that they might have more they would like to add in the future.

This is a practice from youcubed , a center at Stanford University led by Professor Jo Boaler. In addition to classroom ideas and videos, youcubed offers a variety of resources for mathematics educators, including research summaries and professional development.

## Reflection After the Practice

- Reflect on the interactions in the group during this exercise. Did any disagreements arise? Did all students seem engaged and have the chance to make their voices heard?
- How can you continue to use the lists throughout the school year? (For instance, you could go back to the “What we DO like” poster as a positive reminder when interactions are less than desirable, or when you perceive that students need support from one another.)

## The Research Behind It

Evidence that it works.

Research has shown that students who learned about growth mindset with regards to mathematics reported more positive beliefs about math, were more engaged in math class, and did better on standardized math achievement tests. Mindset interventions in math benefit all students, but have demonstrated even more power for groups that may be more affected by myths about math learning, including girls, English language learners, and economically disadvantaged students.

In addition, a four-year study of high school students in different types of math classes showed that the students who learned math in mixed-ability classrooms that emphasized cooperative group work, open problem-solving, and the use of multiple strategies–compared to those in traditional math classrooms, which were often ability-grouped and focused on teacher lectures and individual work–demonstrated greater gains in math achievement and greater reductions in achievement gaps, enjoyed math more, and treated each other with more respect, support, and equity .

## Why Does It Matter?

A substantial body of research has indicated that students who have a growth mindset about intelligence–who believe that, with effort, intelligence can be changed over time–are more likely to do well academically .

Importantly, evidence shows that growth mindset can be learned : in a nationally representative study, students who were taught about a growth mindset of intelligence went on to earn better grades (especially if they started out lower-achieving) and select more challenging classes. Grades improved even more in schools with more supportive learning climates, in which peer norms supported the growth mindset message.

Though much of the research on growth mindset has to do with beliefs about intelligence, other research suggests that social and emotional growth mindsets (e.g., believing that personality, emotions, etc., can grow and change) can reduce bias and promote well-being , social competence , and prosocial behavior .

## GGIE Online Courses for Educators

Do you want to dive deeper into the science behind our GGIE practices? Enroll in one of our online courses for educators!

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## 10 Hands-on Numeracy Ideas For Children

As a teacher of young children, I am aware of the huge benefits of students engaging in hands-on learning. In the early years, it is essential for children to have opportunities to engage in kinaesthetic learning where they can absorb themselves in activities and gain a comprehensive understanding of concepts. When teachers facilitate hands-on, kinaesthetic activities, they are creating engaging and exciting ways for children to master concepts and develop deeper understandings. Read on to find out 10 of my favourite hands-on numeracy ideas that I implement in my Prep classroom.

1. Number hunt

Earlier in the year, we went on a ‘sight word’ hunt and my students LOVED it, so I knew that I was going to have to organise something similar for maths! We have been focusing on teen numbers this term so this was a fun, hands-on opportunity for us to consolidate this learning. In our number hunt, we walked around the school searching for teen number cards. When we found each number card, we traced the numeral and number word on our sheet and then represented that number using tally marks. It was so much fun finding numbers all around the school! Especially the ones in funny places!

What you’ll need:

- Clipboards (one per student)
- Sheet with numbers and number words to trace (one per student)
- Number cards (to be placed around school)

As we engaged in this activity, we developed a range of skills including:

- Recognition of teen numbers
- Numeral formation practice
- Knowledge of number words
- Representing numbers in different ways
- Gross motor skills

2. Number books

Over the first semester of Prep, we have focused heavily on numbers 1-20. At the end of the semester, I thought a great way to consolidate this learning would be to make a number book focusing on these numbers. The nature of this activity has allowed children to be creative and take ownership of their writing. I have loved hearing their creative responses and seeing their knowledge of numbers 1-20!

- An example book to show students what the task is
- ‘Books’ made from 11 pieces of paper folded and stapled
- Pencils to write and draw with
- Number posters to refer to if needed
- Ordering numbers 1-20
- Numeral formation of the numbers 1-20
- Representing numerals with collections
- Knowledge of how books work and what they can be used for
- Writing skills and pencil grip

3. Number towers

My students absolutely LOVE building so integrating this interest into our maths activities was crucial for maximum engagement. In this activity, students build a number tower with stackable counters to represent the numerals. As students are building their towers, they are counting using one to one correspondence as they add each counter.

- Number tower sheets laminated
- Stackable Counters
- Numeral recognition
- Ability to represent numerals with a collection
- One to one correspondence
- Fine motor skills
- Hand-eye coordination

4. Rainbow rice number formation

Learning to write numerals properly is a very important skill children should learn in their first year of school. We practice proper numeral formation through a range of tactile experiences including on the interactive smartboard, on our individual whiteboards, making numerals with playdough, and our favourite of all time; writing in rainbow rice. In this activity, students choose a number disc from the table and write the numeral in the rainbow rice with their finger. It’s a maths experience with a sensory twist!

What you’ll need:

- Rainbow rice (normal rice dyed with food colouring)
- 1-20 Wooden Number Matching Discs
- Tray to contain rice
- Numeral formation
- Sensory exploration

5. Rainbow rice number representation

As mentioned above, we LOVE using rainbow rice in our maths activities. In this activity, students choose a number card and then represent this number using counters in their bowl. The cards contain number represented in different ways; numerals, number words, tally marks, tens frame etc. Students sift through the rainbow rice to find the counters and place the counters in their bowl by using tweezers.

- Stackable Counters
- Coloured Plastic Bowls
- Printed number cards (representing numbers in different ways)
- Understanding that numbers can be represented in different ways
- Number recognition

6. Exploring 2D shapes

This term, we explored 2D shapes in-depth and learnt about the properties of each shape. One of the main activities we engaged in to reinforce this learning was using our Geoboards to create shapes. As students used the rubber bands to make 2D shapes on their Geoboards, they were encouraged to use mathematical language and discuss the properties of each shape as they made it. For example “I’m making a square… It has 4 vertices and 4 sides that are all equal”.

- Rubber bands for Geoboards
- Printed 2D shape cards
- Shape recognition
- Knowledge of 2D shape properties
- Use of mathematical language

7. Beanbag match up

Resources that can be used in multiple ways are my absolute favourite! These number beanbags are used a lot in my classroom for various activities. Sometimes it’s as simple as using the beanbags for transitions; throwing a beanbag to each student and they have to say the number before they head to the next activity. We also like using the beanbags for matching activities, such as pairing them with number cards or throwing them in a numbered hula hoop.

- Printed number cards 1-10
- Number 1 – 10 beanbags
- Numeral and number word recognition
- Matching skills

8. Number lock match up

Representing numbers to 20 in different ways is a big focus for us in the first year of school. One of our favourite ways to explore this key maths concept is engaging with these number locks. I usually set these up as a maths rotation and students are encouraged to find the correct key to unlock the matching lock. Students have to use their knowledge of counting, as well as numeral and word recognition to match the correct key to lock, which reinforces their knowledge of number being able to be represented in different ways.

- Unlock it counting keys and number match
- Counting skills

9. Exploring direction and location with Beebots

One of the components we have been exploring in maths is direction and location. We have been using our Beebots and Beebot mats to explore positional and directional language as well as following and giving directions. When my students were first introduced to Beebots they were SO excited and this mathematical area has been one of the most engaging and enjoyable concepts to explore. We love working in groups and watching our Beebots follow our commands to move around the mats.

- Beebot Fairytale Mat
- Beebot early number mat
- Positional and directional language vocabulary
- Following and giving directions to locations
- Using mathematical language
- Digital technology skills
- Teamwork skills

10. Number sort

At the beginning of the year in Prep, a lot of the focus in maths is on numbers to 10. One of our favourite maths activities to explore numbers to 10 was matching maths beads to number cards. The students use the tweezers to pick up the beads and match them to the corresponding number card.

- Maths beads
- Printed number cards 0-9
- Fine motor skills by using the tweezers
- Number discrimination
- Knowledge of numbers 0-9
- Sorting and matching skills

What is your favourite hands-on maths activity to implement in your classroom?

ABOUT HEIDI:

Heidi Overbye from Learning Through Play is a Brisbane based, Early Years Teacher who currently teaches Prep, the first year of formal schooling in Queensland. Heidi is an advocate for play-based, hands-on learning experiences and creating stimulating and creative learning spaces. Heidi shares what happens in her classroom daily on her Instagram page, Learning Through Play. See @learning.through.play for a huge range of activities, play spaces and lesson ideas.

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## A Model for Setting Up Group Work in High School Math

Collaboration is beneficial for student learning, and a strategy designed for distance learning makes it manageable and engaging.

As math teachers, we find that our students learn best when they can collaborate. In our book, The Math Teacher’s Toolbox , we note that cooperative learning—in which students learn by working together in small groups to complete a task—has several benefits: Students can construct a deeper understanding of the material, improve their self-confidence, reduce their math anxiety, and practice social and emotional learning skills. In addition, successful cooperative learning holds students individually accountable while making their success also dependent on others .

The pandemic initially restricted our ability to implement traditional group work. Remote learning has burdened both students and teachers with overwhelming workloads, and in addition, our students spend most of the school day alone, passively watching lessons or silently working on assignments by themselves.

Over the last few months, we’ve developed a simple cooperative learning strategy for our online teaching. This strategy not only makes our workload more manageable—since we’re checking work for each group instead of for each individual—but also encourages students to interact with others and take a more active role in their learning.

## Group Work Checklist

We divide students into groups of three or four to work on a task in our online meetings, and we use breakout rooms so each group has its own space to talk. Using a blank copy of the classwork sheet as a template, each group then creates a shared document so that group members can write their responses and edit each other’s work.

To help groups manage their work, we’ve developed a simple checklist that describes each student’s responsibilities .

Each student has a clearly defined role. Student A manages the group’s discussion and ensures that the work is fairly divided. Student B shares the screen while the group is in the breakout room so that we can observe their work, and students B and C help A and D as needed. Student D is responsible for submitting the assignment.

Each student is responsible for treating each other respectfully, doing a fair share of the work, and seeking or providing help as necessary—and the checklist contains all those points, to help make sure students keep those goals in mind.

## Different Types of Group Work

We often use online group work to help students discover mathematical ideas. For example, in a lesson on transformations, each group member watches a video explaining a different transformation and teaches it to the rest of the group. To summarize their learning, the group then matches transformations to pictures. (This is similar to a jigsaw , a cooperative learning technique in which individual students complete part of a larger task, which is then reassembled with the rest of the group.)

Another way we commonly use group work is to facilitate practice. Our practice assignments typically have between four and 16 problems, depending on the lesson’s complexity—we might give four word problems or 12 equations. We put enough problems on an assignment so that each student can do the same amount of work. Each student is responsible for answering some of the questions, reviewing the work of other group members, and explaining solutions as necessary.

To enable groups to check their work, we create a blank copy of the assignment that all students can edit—for extra credit, students can type in their response or comment on existing responses, so that we have a student-created answer key. We then facilitate a whole-class discussion based on the work contributed by students. We find that using a student-generated answer key instead of a teacher-generated one encourages more students to explain their work, since they wrote it themselves, and to pay attention, since their peers are speaking.

All of our group work has the same structure, with students working together in clearly defined individual roles to answer questions as a group.

## Advantages of This Strategy

Our online group work strategy has several advantages. Our students are generally more likely to complete group work than individual work because they’re accountable to their peers. Our method encourages students to communicate mathematically with each other by writing and speaking, which improves their understanding. Most of our students enjoy being able to choose their roles because doing so gives them more autonomy in their work. (If necessary, we step in to help students select tasks.) They also appreciate the opportunity to talk to others, breaking the lonely monotony of solitary independent work.

However, online group work has some limitations. As with any strategy, it doesn’t work with every lesson. Online group work also requires more class time than independent work since students need time to create shared documents and divide the work fairly—we find that these discussions are best done in class. We also have to take time in class to train students on interpersonal skills, such as trust, decision making, and conflict resolution. Sometimes we have to mediate disputes between group members who don’t communicate clearly with each other. Since determining which students function well together can be tricky, we periodically change the groups.

Despite these limitations, we find that online group work has made our mathematical instruction more engaging and manageable. In our experience, our strategy enables us to achieve the same goals online that we would in person—holding students individually responsible while allowing them to collaborate with others to achieve a common goal.

Or search by topic

## Number and algebra

- The Number System and Place Value
- Calculations and Numerical Methods
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## Geometry and measure

- Angles, Polygons, and Geometrical Proof
- 3D Geometry, Shape and Space
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## Working mathematically

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## Advanced mathematics

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## For younger learners

- Early Years Foundation Stage

Published 2013 Revised 2018

## Group-working Skills

In her article Group-worthy Tasks and Their Potential to Support Children to Develop Independent Problem-solving Skills , Jennie Pennant outlines the benefits of working on mathematics as a group, arguing that group work also supports children's individual problem-solving abilities. Almost all NRICH tasks could be tackled by a group of learners, as opposed to an individual or pair, but the Developing Group-working Skills feature is a collection of activities which have been designed especially to develop children's group-working skills . How can we help children get better at group work? We cannot expect learners to be able to work well in groups overnight. We must help them develop the skills that are needed for successful group work and give them many opportunities to put these skills into practice. In her article Developing Good Team-working Skills , Jenny Piggott offers the following list of skills related to working collaboratively, based on those found in Elizabeth Cohen's book 'Designing Groupwork':

- Asking questions - making sense of your own understanding
- Explaining by telling how and why
- Helping others - by responding to their needs
- Helping others - to do things for themselves
- Sharing knowledge and reasoning
- Finding out what others think - asking for, listening to and making sense of their ideas
- Reflecting on and making use of what has been said
- Being concise - communicating thinking
- Giving reasons for ideas - communicating reasoning
- Allowing everyone to contribute
- Pulling ideas together - sharing, listening, valuing all contributions
- Finding out if the group is ready to make a decision - consensus making.

Jenny suggests that these collaborative working skills can be developed through particular group activities and she offers six categories of team-building activities that can be used to focus on a range of the different skills. Jenny's article links to several classroom activities within each category and we have chosen a subset of these in our Group Work feature which exemplifies the full range of skills. The featured activities For more details about the kinds of task and further example activities, please see Jenny's article . Number Match , a Stage 1 task, is only complete as an activity when every member of the group has completed their own part. The task is undertaken in silence which helps group members respond to the needs of others. Fraction Match , aimed at Stage 2 and above, is done in exactly the same way. In Counters in the Middle , a 'designer' makes an arrangement of counters without the team seeing it. The team has to agree on the final pattern by asking the minimum number of questions, which requires them to listen to each other, give reasons for their opinions and pull ideas together. In En-counters , each learner completes a picture themselves, based on the designer's instructions, but with support and advice from other members of the team. This therefore encourages children to respond to the needs of others, help others do things for themselves and explain by telling how. Guess the Houses , a Stage 1 activity, ï»¿depends on learners sharing reasoning, listening to opinions, reflecting and pulling ideas together. The team is required to guess the rule in the minimum number of questions. In What Shape? , one member of the group is trying to find out what is on their chosen card (the unknown) by asking as few questions as possible. This task therefore depends on group members being concise, asking questions, listening and reflecting on what has been said. Arranging Cubes requires the group to recreate a 2D arrangement of cubes which matches all the information on their cards without showing each team member's information to anyone else. Among other skills, learners must allow everyone to contribute, share knowledge and reasoning, reflect on (and make use of) what has been said and come to a consensus. Submitting solutions Due to the nature of these tasks, it will be a little difficult for children to submit solutions in the usual sense to the live problems in this feature. However, we would love to hear about how the activity helped them work better as a group. It could be that you as the teacher summarise your observations or it might be that the learners themselves can articulate their thoughts. We would be delighted to hear from you. You may find it helpful to use the list of skills above as an assessment 'checklist' (see Skills.doc or Skills.pdf ). What next? Having tried these activities which aim to build learners' group-working skills, why not have a go at other NRICH activities using a group-work approach? In May 2010, we created several group-worthy tasks, based on Jo Boaler's research on Complex Instruction, and in February 2010, all our problems were designed with collaborative mathematics in mind. Of course, as we mentioned at the start of this article, almost any NRICH activity could be worked on by a group, so you could encourage children to tackle any of our tasks using their group-working skills.

## Taking the tasks home

We have rewritten some of these tasks so that they are suitable for just one child to do together with an adult. We've collected these here . References Cohen, E. G. (1994) Designing Groupwork - Strategies for the Heterogeneous Classroom. Second Edition, Teachers College Press. Here is a PDF version of this article.

## Center for Teaching

Group work: using cooperative learning groups effectively.

Many instructors from disciplines across the university use group work to enhance their students’ learning. Whether the goal is to increase student understanding of content, to build particular transferable skills, or some combination of the two, instructors often turn to small group work to capitalize on the benefits of peer-to-peer instruction. This type of group work is formally termed cooperative learning, and is defined as the instructional use of small groups to promote students working together to maximize their own and each other’s learning (Johnson, et al., 2008).

Cooperative learning is characterized by positive interdependence, where students perceive that better performance by individuals produces better performance by the entire group (Johnson, et al., 2014). It can be formal or informal, but often involves specific instructor intervention to maximize student interaction and learning. It is infinitely adaptable, working in small and large classes and across disciplines, and can be one of the most effective teaching approaches available to college instructors.

## What can it look like?

What’s the theoretical underpinning, is there evidence that it works.

- What are approaches that can help make it effective?

Informal cooperative learning groups In informal cooperative learning, small, temporary, ad-hoc groups of two to four students work together for brief periods in a class, typically up to one class period, to answer questions or respond to prompts posed by the instructor.

## Additional examples of ways to structure informal group work

Think-pair-share

The instructor asks a discussion question. Students are instructed to think or write about an answer to the question before turning to a peer to discuss their responses. Groups then share their responses with the class.

Peer Instruction

This modification of the think-pair-share involves personal responses devices (e.g. clickers). The question posted is typically a conceptually based multiple-choice question. Students think about their answer and vote on a response before turning to a neighbor to discuss. Students can change their answers after discussion, and “sharing” is accomplished by the instructor revealing the graph of student response and using this as a stimulus for large class discussion. This approach is particularly well-adapted for large classes.

In this approach, groups of students work in a team of four to become experts on one segment of new material, while other “expert teams” in the class work on other segments of new material. The class then rearranges, forming new groups that have one member from each expert team. The members of the new team then take turns teaching each other the material on which they are experts.

Formal cooperative learning groups

In formal cooperative learning students work together for one or more class periods to complete a joint task or assignment (Johnson et al., 2014). There are several features that can help these groups work well:

- The instructor defines the learning objectives for the activity and assigns students to groups.
- The groups are typically heterogeneous, with particular attention to the skills that are needed for success in the task.
- Within the groups, students may be assigned specific roles, with the instructor communicating the criteria for success and the types of social skills that will be needed.
- Importantly, the instructor continues to play an active role during the groups’ work, monitoring the work and evaluating group and individual performance.
- Instructors also encourage groups to reflect on their interactions to identify potential improvements for future group work.

This video shows an example of formal cooperative learning groups in David Matthes’ class at the University of Minnesota:

There are many more specific types of group work that fall under the general descriptions given here, including team-based learning , problem-based learning , and process-oriented guided inquiry learning .

The use of cooperative learning groups in instruction is based on the principle of constructivism, with particular attention to the contribution that social interaction can make. In essence, constructivism rests on the idea that individuals learn through building their own knowledge, connecting new ideas and experiences to existing knowledge and experiences to form new or enhanced understanding (Bransford, et al., 1999). The consideration of the role that groups can play in this process is based in social interdependence theory, which grew out of Kurt Koffka’s and Kurt Lewin’s identification of groups as dynamic entities that could exhibit varied interdependence among members, with group members motivated to achieve common goals. Morton Deutsch conceptualized varied types of interdependence, with positive correlation among group members’ goal achievements promoting cooperation.

Lev Vygotsky extended this work by examining the relationship between cognitive processes and social activities, developing the sociocultural theory of development. The sociocultural theory of development suggests that learning takes place when students solve problems beyond their current developmental level with the support of their instructor or their peers. Thus both the idea of a zone of proximal development, supported by positive group interdependence, is the basis of cooperative learning (Davidson and Major, 2014; Johnson, et al., 2014).

Cooperative learning follows this idea as groups work together to learn or solve a problem, with each individual responsible for understanding all aspects. The small groups are essential to this process because students are able to both be heard and to hear their peers, while in a traditional classroom setting students may spend more time listening to what the instructor says.

Cooperative learning uses both goal interdependence and resource interdependence to ensure interaction and communication among group members. Changing the role of the instructor from lecturing to facilitating the groups helps foster this social environment for students to learn through interaction.

David Johnson, Roger Johnson, and Karl Smith performed a meta-analysis of 168 studies comparing cooperative learning to competitive learning and individualistic learning in college students (Johnson et al., 2006). They found that cooperative learning produced greater academic achievement than both competitive learning and individualistic learning across the studies, exhibiting a mean weighted effect size of 0.54 when comparing cooperation and competition and 0.51 when comparing cooperation and individualistic learning. In essence, these results indicate that cooperative learning increases student academic performance by approximately one-half of a standard deviation when compared to non-cooperative learning models, an effect that is considered moderate. Importantly, the academic achievement measures were defined in each study, and ranged from lower-level cognitive tasks (e.g., knowledge acquisition and retention) to higher level cognitive activity (e.g., creative problem solving), and from verbal tasks to mathematical tasks to procedural tasks. The meta-analysis also showed substantial effects on other metrics, including self-esteem and positive attitudes about learning. George Kuh and colleagues also conclude that cooperative group learning promotes student engagement and academic performance (Kuh et al., 2007).

Springer, Stanne, and Donovan (1999) confirmed these results in their meta-analysis of 39 studies in university STEM classrooms. They found that students who participated in various types of small-group learning, ranging from extended formal interactions to brief informal interactions, had greater academic achievement, exhibited more favorable attitudes towards learning, and had increased persistence through STEM courses than students who did not participate in STEM small-group learning.

The box below summarizes three individual studies examining the effects of cooperative learning groups.

## What are approaches that can help make group work effective?

Preparation

Articulate your goals for the group work, including both the academic objectives you want the students to achieve and the social skills you want them to develop.

Determine the group conformation that will help meet your goals.

- In informal group learning, groups often form ad hoc from near neighbors in a class.
- In formal group learning, it is helpful for the instructor to form groups that are heterogeneous with regard to particular skills or abilities relevant to group tasks. For example, groups may be heterogeneous with regard to academic skill in the discipline or with regard to other skills related to the group task (e.g., design capabilities, programming skills, writing skills, organizational skills) (Johnson et al, 2006).
- Groups from 2-6 are generally recommended, with groups that consist of three members exhibiting the best performance in some problem-solving tasks (Johnson et al., 2006; Heller and Hollabaugh, 1992).
- To avoid common problems in group work, such as dominance by a single student or conflict avoidance, it can be useful to assign roles to group members (e.g., manager, skeptic, educator, conciliator) and to rotate them on a regular basis (Heller and Hollabaugh, 1992). Assigning these roles is not necessary in well-functioning groups, but can be useful for students who are unfamiliar with or unskilled at group work.

Choose an assessment method that will promote positive group interdependence as well as individual accountability.

- In team-based learning, two approaches promote positive interdependence and individual accountability. First, students take an individual readiness assessment test, and then immediately take the same test again as a group. Their grade is a composite of the two scores. Second, students complete a group project together, and receive a group score on the project. They also, however, distribute points among their group partners, allowing student assessment of members’ contributions to contribute to the final score.
- Heller and Hollabaugh (1992) describe an approach in which they incorporated group problem-solving into a class. Students regularly solved problems in small groups, turning in a single solution. In addition, tests were structured such that 25% of the points derived from a group problem, where only those individuals who attended the group problem-solving sessions could participate in the group test problem. This approach can help prevent the “free rider” problem that can plague group work.
- The University of New South Wales describes a variety of ways to assess group work , ranging from shared group grades, to grades that are averages of individual grades, to strictly individual grades, to a combination of these. They also suggest ways to assess not only the product of the group work but also the process. Again, having a portion of a grade that derives from individual contribution helps combat the free rider problem.

Helping groups get started

Explain the group’s task, including your goals for their academic achievement and social interaction.

Explain how the task involves both positive interdependence and individual accountability, and how you will be assessing each.

Assign group roles or give groups prompts to help them articulate effective ways for interaction. The University of New South Wales provides a valuable set of tools to help groups establish good practices when first meeting. The site also provides some exercises for building group dynamics; these may be particularly valuable for groups that will be working on larger projects.

Monitoring group work

Regularly observe group interactions and progress , either by circulating during group work, collecting in-process documents, or both. When you observe problems, intervene to help students move forward on the task and work together effectively. The University of New South Wales provides handouts that instructors can use to promote effective group interactions, such as a handout to help students listen reflectively or give constructive feedback , or to help groups identify particular problems that they may be encountering.

Assessing and reflecting

In addition to providing feedback on group and individual performance (link to preparation section above), it is also useful to provide a structure for groups to reflect on what worked well in their group and what could be improved. Graham Gibbs (1994) suggests using the checklists shown below.

The University of New South Wales provides other reflective activities that may help students identify effective group practices and avoid ineffective practices in future cooperative learning experiences.

Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., and Cocking, R.R. (Eds.) (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Bruffee, K. A. (1993). Collaborative learning: Higher education, interdependence, and the authority of knowledge. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Cabrera, A. F., Crissman, J. L., Bernal, E. M., Nora, A., Terenzini, P. T., & Pascarella, E. T. (2002). Collaborative learning: Its impact on college students’ development and diversity. Journal of College Student Development, 43 (1), 20-34.

Davidson, N., & Major, C. H. (2014). Boundary crossing: Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and problem-based learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25 (3&4), 7-55.

Dees, R. L. (1991). The role of cooperative leaning in increasing problem-solving ability in a college remedial course. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 22 (5), 409-21.

Gokhale, A. A. (1995). Collaborative Learning enhances critical thinking. Journal of Technology Education, 7 (1).

Heller, P., and Hollabaugh, M. (1992) Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping. Part 2: Designing problems and structuring groups. American Journal of Physics 60, 637-644.

Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K.A. (2006). Active learning: Cooperation in the university classroom (3 rd edition). Edina, MN: Interaction.

Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Holubec, E.J. (2008). Cooperation in the classroom (8 th edition). Edina, MN: Interaction.

Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K.A. (2014). Cooperative learning: Improving university instruction by basing practice on validated theory. Journl on Excellence in College Teaching 25, 85-118.

Jones, D. J., & Brickner, D. (1996). Implementation of cooperative learning in a large-enrollment basic mechanics course. American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference Proceedings.

Kuh, G.D., Kinzie, J., Buckley, J., Bridges, B., and Hayek, J.C. (2007). Piecing together the student success puzzle: Research, propositions, and recommendations (ASHE Higher Education Report, No. 32). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Love, A. G., Dietrich, A., Fitzgerald, J., & Gordon, D. (2014). Integrating collaborative learning inside and outside the classroom. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25 (3&4), 177-196.

Smith, M. E., Hinckley, C. C., & Volk, G. L. (1991). Cooperative learning in the undergraduate laboratory. Journal of Chemical Education 68 (5), 413-415.

Springer, L., Stanne, M. E., & Donovan, S. S. (1999). Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 96 (1), 21-51.

Uribe, D., Klein, J. D., & Sullivan, H. (2003). The effect of computer-mediated collaborative learning on solving ill-defined problems. Educational Technology Research and Development, 51 (1), 5-19.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

## Teaching Guides

- Online Course Development Resources
- Principles & Frameworks
- Pedagogies & Strategies
- Reflecting & Assessing
- Challenges & Opportunities
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## Quick Links

- Services for Departments and Schools
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## Center for Teaching Innovation

Resource library, examples of collaborative learning or group work activities.

- Getting Started with Designing Group Work Assignments
- Getting Started with Evaluating Group Work
- Team-Based Learning Collaborative

## Stump Your Partner

- Students take a minute to create a challenging question based on the lecture content up to that point.
- Students pose the question to the person sitting next to them.
- To take this activity a step further, ask students to write down their questions and hand them in. These questions can be used to create tests or exams. They can also be reviewed to gauge student understanding.

## Think-Pair-Share/Write-Pair-Share

- The instructor poses a question that demands analysis, evaluation, or synthesis.
- Students take a few minutes to think through an appropriate response.
- Students turn to a partner (or small groups) and share their responses. Take this a step further by asking students to find someone who arrived at an answer different from their own and convince their partner to change their mind.
- Student responses are shared within larger teams or with the entire class during a follow-up discussion.
- Stop at a transition point in your lecture.
- Have students turn to a partner or work in small groups to compare notes and ask clarifying questions.
- After a few minutes, open the floor to a few questions.

## Fishbowl Debate

- Ask students to sit in groups of three.
- Assign roles. For example, the person on left takes one position on a topic for debate, the person on right takes the opposite position, and the person in the middle takes notes and decides which side is the most convincing and provides an argument for his or her choice.
- Debrief by calling on a few groups to summarize their discussions.
- Create four to five case studies of similar difficulty.
- Have students work in groups of four or five to work through and analyze their case study.
- Provide 10-15 minutes (or adequate time) to work through the cases.
- Walk around and address any questions.
- Call on groups randomly and ask that students share their analysis. Continue until each case study has been addressed.

## Team-Based Learning

- Start a course unit by giving students some tasks to complete, such as reading or lab assignments. Consider assigning these to be completed before class.
- Check students' comprehension of the material with a quick multiple-choice quiz. Have students submit their answers.
- Assign students to groups and have them review their answers with group members to reach consensus. Have each group submit one answered quiz.
- Record both the individual student assessment scores and the final group assessment score (both of which are used toward each student's course grade).
- Deliver a lecture that specially targets any misconceptions or gaps in knowledge the assessments reveal.
- Give groups a challenging assignment, such as solving a problem or applying a theory to a real-world situation.
- Find more information on this strategy at the Team-Based Learning Collaborative .

## Group Problem-Solving

There are many instructional strategies that involve students working together to solve a problem, including inquiry-based learning, authentic learning, and discovery learning. While they each have their own unique characteristics, they fundamentally involve:

- Presenting students with a problem.
- Providing some structure or guidance toward solving the problem. Note however, that they are all student-centered activities in which the instructor may have a very minimal role.
- Reaching a final outcome or solution.

## Creating Curriculum

Group work vs. individual work.

Let's say today's agenda is learning about microbes.

We know it's exciting, but settle down.

Now, single out all your introverts and put them on one side of the room at individual desks to do a worksheet about different bacteria. Circle up the desks for your extroverts and have them fill out the worksheet together.

Easy as that, right?

Um. If that's what the distinction between individual work and group work were like, it would be a lot easier to set up—and a lot harder to get any benefits from.

Some classes may benefit from a larger emphasis on one of these tactics or the other, but we're guessing some sort of blend is going to be the best bet in most cases. Chances are your students will need some skills both working in a team and solving problems independently—whether that's now in fourth grade or a decade or two down the line in the professional world. So figuring out how and when to use each of these strategies can end up a great tool for your classroom.

Whether you think of it as collaborating with us as you read along or silently and solely reading a dead assemblage of words, power on along.

One is the loneliest number…but we're still going to talk group work first.

Group work can be a good idea when you want to get your students to think harder and dig deeper, and when some variety in skill levels and ways of thinking about things can be a benefit to all. Say a big math problem with lots of different steps; or a scene in Ulysses that could be interpreted in three or 300 different ways; or you're doing a unit on Ancient Egypt and you need your students to combine their knowledge of history with an ability to analyze and critique other civilizations. Things like that (and a million others) can be great places to institute some group work.

Let's throw out some bullet points. Group work can help hone your students' skills in

- listening to and respecting others' ideas;
- thinking about one problem in a variety of ways;
- getting to a deeper level understanding through having to explain a perspective and discuss it with folks with different perspectives;
- dividing up tasks and delegating responsibilities;
- sharing knowledge and abilities to get a better hold on a problem than they could individually;
- holding group members accountable—and being held accountable back.

Along with some of those and a whole bunch of other pros listed on Carnegie Mellon's page on group work , there's the possibility of assigning bigger, harder problems to work on, and an added element of unpredictability that can make for greater learning possibilities overall.

Sure, whatever the project may be, it'll have to be "designed, supervised, and assessed in a way that promotes meaningful teamwork and deep collaboration," as the Carnegie Mellon site says ( source ) . And all that can make for a fair amount more work for the teacher. But if you establish the exact goals of the project in advance, and have a sense of how your students should pursue it in a team, the benefits are worth it.

Individual work isn't just for those introverts out there. Sure, it is great for them to get a chance to think things through on their own, which is a comfier way to process new info for many introverts (which you can read a lot more about in this entire article about the needs of introverts and extroverts ).

Still, it can be just as helpful for those who prefer group work to learn how to cope with the prospect of sitting still, keeping that noisy mouth shut, and puzzling out some answers without giving in to any and every distraction that comes along.

Individual work can help students

## Individual Work

Individual work isn't just for those introverts out there. Sure, it is great for them to get a chance to think things through on their own, which is a comfier way to process new info for many introverts (which you can read a lot more about in this entire article about the needs of introverts and extroverts).

- gain independence to think things through on their own;
- improve confidence in working through a problem, even when they don't feel certain about every step;
- work at their own level, rather than having to adapt to suit their group members;
- practice self-control—both in staying focused on the task at hand, and in having the willpower to avoid turning to a neighbor or asking the teacher for the answer;
- get more comfortable taking actions on their own;
- gain creativity and effective thinking processes that can apply to problem solving across a range of subjects and types of issues;

Plus, it can be easier for the teacher to assess an individual's work—at least, easier in a traditional sense, if you have an idea of the "norm" for the type of work you're looking for. Sure, it can be tough to assess an individual's skills and motivation all while being aware of inevitable comparisons with others (as this psychology article on group and individual performance describes). But be aware of those issues, and you'll be fine.

As for when to use it, individual work can be a good filler for a chunk of time when there's a set of problems or a big, hovering question that it would behoove everyone to ponder on their own. Plus, it can be a good way to re-focus or re-center a class, or get everyone on the same page (or at least, on their own personal parts of the same-ish page) before diving into a bigger project or discussion.

## The Balance

In individual work, some students—especially those extroverts we talked about—may feel a bit isolated. For some kids, when the lonely monster bites, it bites hard. Plus, if some students finish an activity before the rest, you should be prepared with an add-on task or two.

And when students are doing individual work on a topic they might feel more comfortable tackling in a group or with you guiding the way, make sure you don't help too much—try to ask some questions that will start them off in the right direction and give them a sense of additional resources.

As for group work, every teacher knows the headache of a classroom that gets too loud or the fury of checking on groups only to find they're off task. It's always a gamble, but if you come up with very specific guidelines and a time frame for accomplishing some concrete tasks, that'll be a big help in keeping those groups focused.

Finally, when it comes to deciding whether to make a certain activity individual- or group-based, don't just think of the two tactics as diametric opposites. Maybe have some individual "think time" before setting them up in groups. This can help each student clarify the problem to himself or herself, which can lead to more successful collaboration once they're tackling the problem together. Not sure how to do it? Check out this video from the Teaching Channel about how to make it happen.

In most classes, it'll make sense to divide up your time between group work and individual work. Sure, and there are also those times when you'll need to talk for a while, or an all-class discussion will be in order. There are lots of iterations of individual-pair-group-teacher only-student only-everyone together, and so on, that you can use to fill your day. And for the most part, shaking it up keeps things interesting—and effective—for the students and for the teacher.

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- Food and Cooking (17)
- Messy Play (7)
- Music Activities (12)
- Play Room and Toys (14)
- Pretend and Imagine (32)
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- Rainy Day Play (5)

## Numeracy Activities

## Printable Counting Mats

These FREE printable Counting Mats are a fun and colourful counting activity for pre-schoolers and kindergarten children to provide an opportunity to count out …

Printable Counting Mats Read More »

## Number Line Counting

Number Line Counting is a maths activity that involves children sorting numbers along the number line. It is a great way for children to …

Number Line Counting Read More »

## Number Play Dough

We had so much fun making numbers with our Orange Scented Play Dough. It is a fun activity to introduce or reinforce learning about …

Number Play Dough Read More »

## Counting Octopus

Octopus Counting is a fun and creative way to introduce numbers, learn to count, or for the older kids skip counting. I have done this …

Counting Octopus Read More »

## Number Cookies

An irresistibly yummy numeracy activity for kids! So much learning happens when we cook with our kids. The social interactions, processing information, …

Number Cookies Read More »

## Number Sort

Number sort is a fun, hands on activity to play and learn with numbers. It sets a challenge of searching for Vanilla Play Dough Recipe specific numbers amongst a jumble …

Number Sort Read More »

## Hi and welcome to Learning 4 Kids!

My name is Janice and I am an Early Childhood Teacher in Australia.

I have a strong passion and love for teaching and creating meaningful learning experiences for my students. What I love most is watching children discover in those amazing light bulb moments. I hope Learning4kids brings you some useful ideas.

- Course Design

## Four Types of Group Work Activities to Engage Students

- May 1, 2017
- Lynne N. Kennette, PhD, and Wes Hanzuk

C ollaboration helps to develop many of the key skills that will be required of students for their future success. Students can develop many of these so-called “soft skills,” or Essential Employability Skills, by engaging in group work and other forms of collaboration (Ontario Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development 2005). Collaboration leads to greater retention, improved student achievement, and increased self-esteem and metacognition, and it can be used to facilitate active learning and to promote inclusion by increasing contact among diverse groups (Bossert 1988; Bowman, Frame, and Kennette 2013; Hennessey 1999; Kennette and Frank 2010; Kramarski and Mevarech 2003; Rajaram and Pereira-Pasarin 2007; U.S. Department of Education 1992). Despite the many benefits of group work, instructors are sometimes hesitant to use it due to some of its well-known pitfalls (social loafing, disputes, individualized grading, student bemoaning, etc.).

Before you get started Regardless of the discipline you teach, you will likely encounter some resistance from students when you introduce your group work project. You’ll likely hear a few groans, and students may complain or even question the validity of your methods of instruction. Students may react this way to any assignment, but they seem to have particularly negative perceptions of group work. The successful implementation of group work will likely require an adjustment on behalf of both the students and the instructor. To maximize success, start slow and start early in the semester. If you interweave small collaborative activities into every class, a group assignment later in the semester will seem much less daunting to students. To help you achieve success with group work, below are some examples of activities that instructors use in their courses to engage students in collaboration, including many which are low-stakes or no-stakes (i.e., ungraded) and are therefore less likely to produce resistance.

Group work: Creating A great way for students to demonstrate their knowledge is to retrieve and synthesize information. This can be achieved by collaborating with their peers to create something new: a written piece, a song, a computer program, a piece of code, a pamphlet, an infographic, or even sample test questions. Many assessments are already set up to promote creating some product (e.g., essay), so modifying it to be a group project should be straightforward. Although students can complete these activities individually, collaboration lets them practice skills they will need in the workplace.

Group work: Investigating Students can work together to investigate a question and report their findings back to the class. For example, the recently debunked myth of the benefits of teaching to students’ preferred learning styles could be a starting point for students to explore content about learning principles or research methods. Students can find scholarly evidence to support or to refute the claim or collect personal experiences around campus in an informal survey. In this way, students help generate course content and present it to their peers. Other good examples include a case study or an investigation of a specific law, regulation, or procedure. Students can also generate their own problems or case studies using course content and/or external scholarly sources.

Group work: Critiquing With a critique, students have to apply their knowledge and problem-solving skills, especially if the critique must include possible solutions on which the group must agree. Students not only identify what’s wrong, but also potential causes and how to fix them. For example, a welding instructor can create bad welds for students to examine, bring in items with faulty welds from the real world, or use students’ previous work on practice pieces of metal. Similar practices are possible in many fields: writing (grammar or prose); philosophy and critical thinking (logical conclusions, hypotheses, or ethics); computer code/programs (trouble-shooting or improvements). Peer evaluations (e.g., of an oral presentation) or peer/group editing are also examples of critiquing.

Group work: Games and more Other ways to engage students in collaboration and group work is to include multiplayer games (these make great test reviews), which require the players to collaborate. For example, have students play charades or adapt commercial games such as Taboo (get teammates to guess a word without using four related taboo words) or Headbandz/Heads-Up! (a player holds up a card on their forehead for their teammates to see, and they give clues to guess the word) where players are part of a team. Other games that are typically based on individual performance (e.g., Jeopardy) can also be modified to be more collaborative by using groups instead of individuals for each of the players. Additionally, group testing, where two or more students work on the test together (sometimes individually first, then in pairs), has shown promising results (Gilley and Clarkston 2014).

Conclusions Although some disciplines and industries may place greater value on individual rather than collaborative work, research has shown us that it’s often better to learn with others. Using group work can be beneficial at all academic levels and in any program; it is a matter of finding what works for you, your students, and your discipline. Group work should be somewhat tailored to students’ expectations of what they will be doing in the workplace, if for no other reason than to increase student buy-in. Engaging students in group work has many benefits, and instructors should ensure they find a way to incorporate this technique into each course.

References Bossert, S. T. (1988). Chapter 6: Cooperative activities in the classroom. Review of Research in Education, 15 , 225-250. doi: 10.3102/0091732X015001225

Bowman, M., Frame, D. L., & Kennette, L. N. (2013). Enhancing Teaching and Learning: How Cognitive Research Can Help. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching: Brain-Based Learning (Special Issue), 24(3), 7-28.

Cortright, R. N., Collins, H. L., Rodenbaugh, D. W., & DiCarlo, S. E. (2003). Student retention of course content is improved by collaborative-group testing. Advanced Physiological Education, 27 (3), 102-108.

Gilley, B., & Clarkston, B. (2014). Collaborative testing: Evidence of learning in a controlled in-class study of undergraduate students. Journal of College Science Teaching, 43 (3) 83-91.

Hennessey, M. G. (1999). Probing the dimensions of metacognition: Implications for conceptual change teaching-learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Boston, MA. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED446921.pdf

Kennette, L. N., & Frank, N. M. (2013) The value of peer-review opportunities for

students in writing-intensive classes. Psychology Teaching Review. 19 (2), 106-111.

Kramarski, B., & Mevarech, Z. R. (2003). Enhancing mathematical reasoning in the classroom: The effects of cooperative learning and metacognitive training. American Educational Research Journal, 40 (1), 281-310. doi: 10.3102/00028312040001281

Ontario Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development (2005), Essential Employability Skills. Retrieved from: http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/audiences/colleges/progstan/essential.html

Rajaram. S. & Pereira-Pasarin, L. P. (2007). Collaboration can improve individual recognition memory: Evidence from immediate and delayed tests. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14 (1), 95-100.

U.S. Department of Education. (1992). Cooperative Learning. Office of Research . Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/pubs/OR/ConsumerGuides/cooplear.html

Dr. Lynne N. Kennette is a professor of psychology and program coordinator for the General Arts and Science Program at Durham College, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada.

Wes Hanzuk is a professor of welding at Durham College, Whitby, Ontario, Canada.

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## Implementing Group Work in the Classroom

Group work can be an effective method to motivate students, encourage active learning, and develop key critical-thinking, communication, and decision-making skills. But without careful planning and facilitation, group work can frustrate students and instructors, and feel like a waste of time. Use these suggestions to help implement group work successfully in your classroom.

## Preparing for Group Work

- Think carefully about how students will be physically arranged in groups. Will it be easy for groups to form and for all students to be comfortable? Also think about how the layout of your classroom will impact volume. Will students be able to hear one another clearly? How can you moderate the activity to control volume?

Set clear guidelines on professional, civil conduct between and among students to respect people’s differences and create an inclusive environment.

Talk to students about their past experiences with group work and allow them to establish some ground rules for successful collaboration. This discussion can be successfully done anonymously through the use of note cards.

## Designing the Group Activity

- Identify the instructional objectives. Determine what you want to achieve through the small group activity, both academically (e.g., knowledge of a topic) and socially (e.g., listening skills). The activity should relate closely to the learning objective(s) and class content, and must be designed to help students learn, not simply to occupy their time. When deciding whether or not to use group work for a specific task, consider these questions: What is the objective of the activity? How will that objective be furthered by asking students to work in groups? Is the activity challenging or complex enough that it requires group work? Will the project require true collaboration? Is there any reason why the assignment should not be collaborative?
- Make the task challenging. Consider giving a relatively easy task early in the term to arouse students’ interest in group work and encourage their progress. In most cases collaborative exercises should be stimulating and challenging. By pooling their resources and dealing with differences of opinion that arise, groups of students can develop a more sophisticated product than they could as individuals. See our teaching tip “ Group work in the Classroom: Small-Group Tasks ” for some ideas.
- Allocate essential resources across the group so that group members are required to share information (e.g., the jigsaw method ). Or, to come up with a consensus, randomly select one person to speak for the group, or assign different roles to group members so that they are all involved in the process (e.g., recorder, spokesperson, summarizer, checker, skeptic, organizer, observer, timekeeper, conflict resolver, liaison to other groups).
- Another strategy for promoting interdependence is specifying common rewards for the group, such as a group mark. See the CTE teaching tip “ Methods for Assessing Group Work ” for more information.
- Decide on group size. The size you choose will depend on the number of students, the size of the classroom, the variety of voices needed within a group, and the task assigned. Groups of four-five tend to balance the needs for diversity, productivity, active participation, and cohesion. The less skillful the group members, the smaller the groups should be (Gross Davis, 1993).
- To vary group composition and increase diversity within groups, randomly assign students to groups by counting off and grouping them according to number.
- For some group tasks, the diversity within a group (e.g., gender, ethnicity, level of preparation) is especially important, and you might want to assign students to groups yourself before class. Collect a data card from each student on the first day of class to glean important information about their backgrounds, knowledge, and interests. Alternately, ask students to express a preference (e.g., list three students with whom they would most like to work or two topics they would most like to study), and keep their preferences in mind as you assign groups.
- Allow sufficient time for group work. Recognize that you won't be able to cover as much material as you could if you lectured for the whole class period. Cut back on the content you want to present in order to give groups time to work. Estimate the amount of time that subgroups need to complete the activity. Also plan for a plenary session in which groups’ results can be presented or general issues and questions can be discussed.
- Design collaborative work in multiple forms: pairs, small groups, large groups, online synchronously, online asynchronously, etc. Some students might be better at contributing after they have had time to digest material, while others might be better at thinking on the spot. Other students will defer to others in large groups but actively contribute in pairs. All roles should be valued and included.

## Introducing the Group Activity

- Share your rationale for using group work. Students must understand the benefits of collaborative learning. Don't assume that students know what the pedagogical purpose is. Explicitly connect these activities to larger class themes and learning outcomes whenever possible.
- Have students form groups before you give them instructions. If you try to give instructions first, students may be too preoccupied with deciding on group membership to listen to you.
- Facilitate some form of group cohesion. Students work best together if they know or trust each other, at least to some extent. Even for brief group activities, have students introduce themselves to their group members before attending to their task. For longer periods of group work, consider introducing an icebreaker or an activity designed specifically to build a sense of teamwork.
- Explain the task clearly. This means both telling students exactly what they have to do and describing what the final product of their group work will look like. Explaining the big picture or final goal is important, especially when the group work will take place in steps (such as in snowballing or jigsaw ). Prepare written or visual instructions (e.g., charts, sequential diagrams) for students. Remember to include time estimations for activities.
- Set ground rules for group interaction. Especially for extended periods of group work, establish how group members should interact with one another, including principles such as respect, active listening, and methods for decision making. Consider making a group contract. See Group Decision Making , a CTE teaching tip prepared for students working in groups, and Making Group Contracts .
- Let students ask questions. Even if you believe your instructions are crystal clear, students may have legitimate questions about the activity. Give them time to ask questions before they get to work.

## Monitoring the Group Task

- Monitor the groups but do not hover. As students do their work, circulate among the groups and answer any questions raised. Also listen for trends that are emerging from the discussions, so that you can refer to them during the subsequent plenary discussion. Avoid interfering with group functioning — allow time for students to solve their own problems before getting involved. You might consider leaving the room for a short period of time. Your absence can increase students’ willingness to share uncertainties and disagreements (Jaques, 2000).
- Be slow to share what you know. If you come upon a group that is experiencing uncertainty or disagreement, avoid the natural tendency to give the answers or resolve the disagreement. If necessary, clarify your instructions, but let students struggle — within reason — to accomplish the task (Race, 2000).
- Clarify your role as facilitator. If students criticize you for not contributing enough to their work, consider whether you have communicated clearly enough your role as facilitator.

## Ending the Group Task

Provide closure to the group activities. Students tend to want to see how their work in small groups was useful to them and/or contributed to the development of the topic. You can end with a plenary session in which students do group reporting. Effective group reporting “can make the difference between students’ feeling that they are just going through their paces and the sense that they are engaged in a powerful exchange of ideas” (Brookfield & Preskill, 1999, p. 107).

- Oral reports: Have each group give one idea and rotate through the groups until no new ideas arise. Or have each group give their most surprising or illuminating insights or their most challenging question. You can record ideas raised to validate their value.
- Written reports: Have each group record their ideas and either present them yourself or have a group member do so. One variation on this is to have groups record their conclusions on a section of the blackboard or on flipchart paper that is then posted on the wall. Students then informally circulate around the room and read each other’s answers. Alternately, you can ask students to move around the room in small groups, rotating from one set of comments to another and adding their own comments in response. Another variation on written reports is to have students write brief comments on Post-it notes or index cards. Collect them, take a few minutes to process them or put them in sequence, then summarize their contents.
- Model how you want students to participate. When responding to students’ answers, model the respect and sensitivity that you want the students to display towards their classmates. Be ready to acknowledge and value opinions different from your own. Be willing to share your own stories, critique your work, and summarize what has been said.
- Connect the ideas raised to course content and objectives. Recognize that groups might not come up with the ideas you intended them to, so be willing to make your lecture plans flexible. Wherever possible, look for a connection between group conclusions and the course topic. However, be aware that misconceptions or inaccurate responses need to be clarified and corrected either by you or by other students.
- Don’t provide too much closure. Although the plenary session should wrap up the group work, feel free to leave some questions unanswered for further research or for the next class period. This openness reflects the nature of knowledge.
- Ask students to reflect on the group work process. They may do so either orally or in writing. This reflection helps them discover what they learned and how they functioned in the group. It also gives you a sense of their response to group work.

If you would like support applying these tips to your own teaching, CTE staff members are here to help. View the CTE Support page to find the most relevant staff member to contact.

- Brookfield, S.D., & Preskill, S. (1999). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
- Gross Davis, B. (1993). Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
- Jaques, D. (2000). Learning in Groups: A Handbook for Improving Group Work, 3rd ed. London: Kogan Page.
- Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A. (2014). Cooperative learning: Improving university instruction by basing practice on validated theory. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching , 25(3&4), 85-118.
- Race, P. (2000). 500 Tips on Group Learning. London: Kogan Page.
- Roberson, B., & Franchini, B. (2014). Effective task design for the TBL classroom. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25(3&4), 275-302.

## CTE teaching tips

- Group Work in the Classroom: Small-Group Tasks
- Group Work in the Classroom: Types of Small Groups
- Making Group Contracts
- Methods for Assessing Group Work

## Other resources

- Journal on Excellence in College Teaching (2014). Special Focus Issue: Small-Group Learning in Higher Education — Cooperative, Collaborative, Problem-Based, and Team-Based Learning .
- Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K.A. (2006). Active learning: Cooperation in the university classroom (3 rd edition). Edina, MN: Interaction.
- Silberman, M. (1996). Active Learning: 101 Strategies to Teach Any Subject. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

## Catalog search

Teaching tip categories.

- Assessment and feedback
- Blended Learning and Educational Technologies
- Career Development
- Course Design
- Course Implementation
- Inclusive Teaching and Learning
- Learning activities
- Support for Student Learning
- Support for TAs

Helping with Math

Note: this page contains legacy resources that are no longer supported. You are free to continue using these materials but we can only support our current worksheets , available as part of our membership offering .

## Numeracy Worksheets

The free, printable worksheets listed below will help when you are tutoring your child by providing lots of practice work with numbers. They provide questions and exercises on number bonds , place value, comparing numbers , skip counting (by twos, fives, tens, and hundreds), rounding (to nearest ten, hundred, and thousand), integers (including adding and subtracting negative numbers), and on multiples and factors (including prime factorization , greatest common factors, and common multiples.)

You will find related help and guidance on place value, rounding, and comparing numbers here.

## Numbers in Word Form

- Writing Numbers in Words (3-Page Worksheet)

## Number Bonds Worksheets/ Activities

- Number bonds for 3 and for 4
- Number bonds for 5
- Number bonds for 6
- Number bonds for 7
- Number bonds for 8
- Number bonds for 9
- Number bonds: For 4, & 5 – Stacked To Color
- Number bonds: For 6, 7, & 8 – Stacked To Color
- Number bonds: For 9 & 10 – Stacked To Color

## Rounding Worksheets

- Rounding numbers to nearest 10
- Rounding numbers to nearest 100
- Rounding numbers to nearest 1000
- Rounding decimals to the nearest whole number
- Rounding decimals to the nearest tenth
- Rounding decimals to the nearest hundredth
- Rounding Matching Cards Activity (Printable Card Generator)

There are three rounding numbers worksheet generators (limitless questions) that will provide practice help when you are tutoring your children. There’s one on rounding to the nearest ten and/ or hundred , another one on rounding larger numbers , and also one on rounding decimals to the nearest whole unit, tenth, hundredth, and/ or thousandth.

Try these printable worksheets which cover place value and rounding with decimals :

- Comparing and ordering decimals
- Identifying and writing decimals – tenths
- Identifying and writing decimals – hundredths
- Identifying and writing decimals – thousandths

## Comparing Numbers Worksheets

- Comparing numbers (up to 999)
- Comparing 3-digit numbers 3-Pages
- Comparing numbers (up to 9,999)

## Skip Counting Worksheets

- Counting by twos
- Counting by fives
- Counting by tens
- Counting by hundreds

Try out the missing numbers worksheet generator. It will randomly created sequential number patterns with missing numbers. You can control the number ranges, the intervals , the quantity of numbers, and the number that are missing.

## Place Value Worksheets

- Ones and Tens in a Number Frame
- Place Value (numbers to 99)
- Place Value (numbers to 999)
- Place Value (numbers to 9,999)

Have a go with the place value worksheet generator. Questions require numbers given in standard form to be written in expanded form. e.g. 7,491 = 7,000 + 400 + 90 + 1. Number ranges can be limited to 99, to 999, to 9,999, and/ or to 999,999. There is also another worksheet generator here where students identify the number of hundreds, tens, and ones.

## Positive and Negative Integers Worksheets

The worksheets below provide practice with adding and subtracting integers .

- Using Integers
- Comparing and Ordering Integers
- Adding Integers
- Subtracting Integers
- Adding and Subtracting Integers – 1
- Adding and Subtracting Integers – 2
- Temperature Changes Using Positive and Negative Numbers (1 of 4)
- Temperature Changes Using Positive and Negative Numbers (2 of 4)
- Temperature Changes Using Positive and Negative Numbers (3 of 4)
- Temperature Changes Using Positive and Negative Numbers (4 of 4)

You can find help with the addition and subtraction of integers here.

## Multiples and Factors Worksheets

Try the worksheets below that will give you practice with multiples, factors – including prime factorization using factor trees and identifying prime and composite numbers .

- Finding Factors (1 of 2)
- Finding Factors (2 of 2)
- Factors – Prime and Composite Numbers (1 of 2)
- Factors – Prime and Composite Numbers (2 of 2)
- Finding Prime Factorization (1 of 2) (with factor trees)
- Finding Prime Factorization (2 of 2) (with factor trees)
- Greatest Common Factors (1 of 2)
- Greatest Common Factors (2 of 2)
- Multiples (1 of 2) (including Least Common Multiple )
- Multiples (2 of 2) (including Least Common Multiple)

## Worksheets With Guided Practice

- Multiples (2-page worksheet. Includes Guided Practice)
- Division and Multiples (2-page worksheet. Includes Guided Practice)
- Factors (3-page worksheet with Guided Practice)
- Factors (Prime and Composite Numbers) (3-page worksheet with Guided Practice)

The guidance and examples in the Factors and Multiples section will help with answering questions on the worksheets above.

## Additional Theory:

Latest worksheets.

The worksheets below are the mostly recently added to the site.

## Surds (International Design Day Themed) Math Worksheets

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## Trigonometric Ratios (World Architecture Day Themed) Math Worksheets

## Simplifying Radicals (Fashion Themed) Math Worksheets

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## Sum and Difference of Two Terms (Labor Day Themed) Math Worksheets

## Theorems About Circles (World Mental Health Day Themed) Math Worksheets

## Angle Bisector (Baking Themed) Math Worksheets

Teaching for Numeracy Across the Age Range pp 1–12 Cite as

## Numeracy: Defined, Described and in Context

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## Online Resources

Mathematics programmes of study: Key stages 1 and 2 in the National curriculum in England. Department for Education [UK]. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/335158/PRIMARY_national_curriculum_-_Mathematics_220714.pdf

Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/mathematics/curriculum/f-10?layout=1

Common Core State Standards: Mathematics [US] . http://www.corestandards.org/Math/

Numeracy for all learners . Victoria State Government. (2020). https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/teachingresources/discipline/maths/Pages/numeracy-for-all-learners.aspx

National Numeracy Organisation (UK). (2020). Building a numerate nation: Confidence, belief and skills. https://www.nationalnumeracy.org.uk/sites/default/files/building_a_numerate_nation_report.pdf

Numeracy teaching within domains. Suggestions for how numeracy skills can be taught and applied in subjects across the curriculum. https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/teachlearn/student/numeracyteachdomains.pdf

## Print Resources

DfE/Sheffield Institute of Education. (2019). Longitudinal evaluation of the ‘Mathematics Teacher Exchange: China-England’, Final Report. Sheffield: Sheffield Hallam University.

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Independently published. (2020). Singapore Math Kindergarten Workbook: Kindergarten and 1st Grade Activity Book Age 5-7 +. Available through Amazon.

Sullivan, P. (2020). Leading improvement in mathematics teaching and learning . ACER Press.

Tout, D. (2020). Critical connections between numeracy and mathematics . Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.

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- activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy

Need a digital exit slip template? Explore the Venn diagram below to find out which activities may work in small or large classes, and which ones may be appropriate for individual work. Please select each circle to reveal a list of examples appropriate for each scenario. Art and craft, music, hobbies, etc – designing and making things (clothes, jewellery, woodwork, recording music, etc) Space and shape Measurement Number. In Counters in the Middle, a 'designer' makes an arrangement of counters without the team seeing it. The team is required to guess the rule in the minimum number of questions. It might be generalized to “what was the most important thing you learned today”. In her article Group-worthy Tasks and Their Potential to Support Children to Develop Independent Problem-solving Skills, Jennie Pennant outlines the benefits of working on mathematics as a group, arguing that group work also supports children's individual problem-solving abilities. Space and shape Numeracy for personal organisation - location Signs – road signs, safety signs, etc Space and shape. Read More . Read More. Email. However, whichever music/numeracy approach or approaches teachers use in their classroom must be underpinned by sound mathematical understandings embedded as numeracy capacities. This activity can also be adapted to a game - fill in the missing numbers on the number line. For example, when playing, children may sort or choose toys according to size, shape, weight or colour. University of Cambridge. These questions can be used to create tests or exams. The experiences in this group are sequential. mathematics in mind.Â Of course, as we mentioned at the start of this article, almost any NRICH activity could be worked on by a group, so you could encourage children to tackle any of our tasks using their group-working skills. Measuring Health Literacy and Numeracy Work is still being carried out to find a comprehensive measure for health literacy which is quick enough to use in long studies and medical practice. There are some teacher directed activities but these are followed with activities for the individual. This understanding is reflected in a variety of skills and knowledge (ex. Last Name. To meet the diverse learning needs of all children, teachers can also use interest or learning centres (i.e. Group work can be a good idea when you want to get your students to think harder and dig deeper, and when some variety in skill levels and ways of thinking about things can be a benefit to all. The syllabus areas covered by the activities were areas where students performed below state average in NAPLAN and teachers identified as common problem areas. Finding out if the group is ready to make a decision - consensus making. Some work begins with small group lessons, these too will be toward independent, individual work. Students use numeracy skills in the early years of schooling when they explore rhythms, syllables and sound patterns in stories, rhymes, songs and poems. To support this aim, members of the And as number eight wire is used at home, at work, on the farm etc., it clearly also implies the everyday location of where numeracy is applied. These difficulties may vary in nature, intensity and duration. Numeracy applies when devising a scheme of work and lesson plan, use of data, giving marks, gathering and analysing number evidence. There is some sequential work and some parallel work. Number Sort. You can ask them if they still remember what they wrote down. Student work samples were analysed and the data used to inform and guide teaching. The games and activities in this book focus on the development of fundamental maths skills through co-operative group work and the use of hands-on materials, as well as on enjoyment and having fun in order to build confidence and overcome maths anxiety. Supply students with the data and ask them to graph the results. (AAMT, 1997: 10) This document notes that numeracy must encompass all the key concepts and skills of One advantage of this lies in the contribution this method can make to the development of students’ social skills. For example, numeracy helps us: understand and use numbers and other mathematical ideas in everyday life; recognise and use shape; work out the chance of something happening; understand the data we see in the media. Assessment strategies for teachers can be based on individual grades and group work. Thank you for visiting Learning4Kids. This would help learners to identify when they meet these across the curriculum • regular high profile numeracy activities in school, such as numeracy tasks on a weekly basis in tutor time In subsequent years, they learn about analytical images like figures, tables, diagrams, maps and graphs, and how they affect and complement verbal information in factual and persuasive texts. Read More. Numeracy is sometimes defined as understanding how numbers represent specific magnitudes. A child's first years are a time of rapid learning and development. Mary Watkins. The main benefit of small-group work seems to lie in the co- operative aspects it can help foster. Submitting solutions Guess the Houses, a Stage 1 activity, ï»¿depends on learners sharing reasoning, listening to opinions, reflecting and pulling ideas together. those found in Elizabeth Cohen's book 'Designing Groupwork': Jenny suggests that these collaborative working skills can be developed through particular group activities and she offers six categories of team-building activities that can be used to focus on a range of the different skills.Â Jenny's article links to several classroom activities within each category and we have chosen a subset of these in our Group Work feature Sep 27, 2020 - Explore dolores burns's board "Numeracy Ideas for the Foundation Stage", followed by 125 people on Pinterest. • use of ‘numeracy’ logs to identify numeracy in planning documents, learning intentions and success criteria etc. The Dot-to dot Number Rhyme Charts are a multi-sensory printable that can be used for activities to learn the correct formation of writing numbers. They use maths concepts to make sense of their world and connect these concepts with their environment and everyday activities. To take this activity a step further, ask students to write down their questions and hand them in. Printable Counting Mats. Numeracy concepts and skills are applicable when … individual or pair, but the Developing Group-working Skills feature is a collection of activities which have been designed especially to develop children's group-working skills.Â The Exercises in arithmetic are grouped. Although the current direct home numeracy environment measure only captures frequency of activity engagement, direct numeracy activities are thought of as activities where children are explicitly taught numeracy skills (Skwarchuk et al., 2014), therefore, parents may use more numeracy-focused language to contribute to young children’s understanding during these activities. Say a big math problem with lots of different steps; or a scene in Ulysses that could be interpreted in three or 300 different ways; or you're doing a unit on Ancient Egyptand you need your students to combine their knowledge of history with an ability to an… Has a focus on supporting and encouraging the language of maths. The guide explains how to mak Here is a PDF version of this article. Some subjects like maths, they do measurements, costs, … For more details about the kinds of task and further example activities, please see Jenny's article. h�b```b``Ne`a``�� ̀ ���@q�������62(h�1X:�bX~eʅ Uҭ�t΄�5�[�I��������~�>7�X���HTj^2ݺ�ĥ�g��ŕW?��/��t��l����h��� ������GGqv]k��s�H�����l���;N8�K,�`芼��r�9. How can we help children get better at group work? to meet the learning needs of individual children. All rights reserved. You can read more about our copyright … Draw on the group’s efforts to deliberate and use collective decisions and experiences. Read More. 7041 0 obj <> endobj 7057 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[ ]/Index[7041 57]/Info 7040 0 R/Length 95/Prev 1159645/Root 7042 0 R/Size 7098/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Babies and toddlers can recognise number, patterns, and shapes. Create a number line 1 to 20 with this fun hands-on activity. which exemplifies the full range of skills. Play Ideas. I often need to repeat teacher’s instructions to re-enforce what pupils should be able to achieve and maybe introduce follow-on tasks to extend learning of the more able pupils. Copyright © 1997 - 2020. As part of her work on the Building Learning Foundations project in Rwanda, ... including in individual, pair, group and whole-class teaching; match the use of resources to the curriculum; understand how to store and maintain materials to ensure they can be used for years to come; adapt materials for different topics and different groups of children. In En-counters, each learner completes a picture themselves, based on the designer's instructions, but with support and advice from other members of the team.Â This therefore encourages children to respond to the needs of others, help others do things for themselves and explain by telling how. In What Shape?, one member of the group is trying to find out what is on their chosen card (the unknown) by asking as few questions as possible.Â This task therefore depends on group members being concise, asking questions, listening and reflecting on what has been said. Counting Octopus. Try this one from BookWidgets and l… Arranging Cubes requires the group to recreate a 2D arrangement of cubes which matches all the information on their cards without showing each team member's information to anyone else.Â Among other skills, learners must allow everyone to contribute, share knowledge and reasoning, reflect on (and make use of) what has been said and come to a consensus. Number Cookies. These activities promote the development of counting, addition, one-to-one correspondence, number recognition and more! Think carefully about how students will be physically arranged in groups.Will it be easy for groups to form and for all students to be comfortable? I regards to Numeracy sessions, again they often run similarly to Literacy lessons, where I get to prepare appropriate maths resources and organize the group work or work with certain individuals. Second Edition, Teachers College Press. Subscribe. We have rewritten some of these tasks so that they are suitable for just one child to do together with an adult. Then, you can decide if you are going to open up a conversation about it in your next class. embed rich mathematical tasks into everyday classroom practice. References Oh, and they're really fun, too. What next? One is the loneliest number…but we're still going to talk group work first. 4. The team has to agree on the final pattern by asking the minimum number of questions, which requires them to listen to each other, give reasons for their opinions and pull ideas together. I regards to Numeracy sessions, again they often run similarly to Literacy lessons, where I get to prepare appropriate maths resources and organize the group work or work with certain individuals. mathematics stations) that give starting points that vary in complexity and open-endedness. There are a number of resources available and activities that you can do each day to assist your child with literacy and numeracy. THE TEACHING AND LEARNING CYCLE Explicit and systematic teaching and learning will best occur when teachers follow the process articulated by … thoughts.Â We would be delighted to hear from you.Â You may find it helpful to use the list of skills above as an assessment 'checklist' (see Skills.doc or Skills.pdf).Â Students may experience difficulties in literacy and numeracy for a variety of reasons. Working out the number of sessions and hours required when devising a scheme of work requires numeracy skills. Number Match, a Stage 1 task, is only complete as an activity when every member of the group has completed their own part.Â The task is undertaken in silence which helps group members respond to the needs of others.Â Fraction Match, aimed at Stage 2 and above, is done in exactly the same way. Below you will find some useful fact sheets and activity sheets. These are best used at the end of the class session. Explain why the assignment will be done as a group effort, and give credit for the process, not just the final product. We've collected these here. We cannot expect learners to be able to work well in groups overnight.Â We must help them develop the skills that are needed for successful group work and give them many opportunities to put these skills into practice.Â In her article Developing Good Team-working Skills, Jenny Piggott offers the following list of skills related to working collaboratively, based on The first group is Numbers through Ten. The NRICH Project aims to enrich the mathematical experiences of all learners. To be numerate is to use mathematics effectively to meet the general demands of life at home,in paid work,and for participation in community and civic life. Don’t let the group rely on dividing up the work and patching it together to present. In her article Group-worthy Tasks and Their Potential to Support Children to Develop Independent Problem-solving Skills, Jennie Pennant outlines the benefits of working on mathematics as a group, arguing that group work also supports children's individual problem-solving abilities.Â Almost all NRICH tasks could be tackled by a group of learners, as opposed to an Asking questions - making sense of your own understanding, Helping others - by responding to their needs, Helping others - to do things for themselves, Finding out what others think - asking for, listening to and making sense of their ideas, Reflecting on and making use of what has been said, Giving reasons for ideas - communicating reasoning, Pulling ideas together - sharing, listening, valuing all contributions. It is not a single approach, ... and a variety of daily numeracy activities (e.g. Maths & Numeracy // Activities & Games 3 Please ensure that your activities are sustainably resourced and have minimal impact on the natural environment. counting, distinguishing between sets of unequal quantities, operations such as addition and subtraction), and so numeracy often is used to refer to a wide range of number-related concepts and skills. The use of small-group work is posited to have a number of advantages over individual practice. First Name. These two themes of context and location are common to the majority of definitions of numeracy. Group-worthy Tasks and Their Potential to Support Children to Develop Independent Problem-solving Skills, the Developing Group-working Skills feature. Number Play Dough. Cohen, E. G. (1994) Designing Groupwork - Strategies for the Heterogeneous Classroom. Numeracy for practical purposes – design. PLAY BY AGE Sign up for Learning 4 Kids Newsletter. Due to the nature of these tasks, it will be a little difficult for children to submit solutions in the usual sense to the live problems in this feature.Â However, we would love to hear about how the activity helped them work better as a group.Â It could be that you as the teacher summarise your observations or it might be that the learners themselves can articulate their For example: • Be aware of prickly, poisonous plants •All the following activities and many more can be adapted for use Guard any protected species on site • Don’t over use one area In this section you will learn about 20 active learning activities. Read More. h�bbd```b``^"�@$S��x"�=@���� V�$�ށ�Z@���$��ig�L�����0012H�m�s�?��ٷ �� endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 7097 0 obj <>stream Effective planning and programming therefore requires a response to individual characteristics and learner histories. If you interweave small collaborative activities into every class, a group assignment later in the semester will seem much less daunting to students. See more ideas about math activities, math classroom, kindergarten math. NRICH team work in a wide range of capacities, including providing professional development for teachers wishing to Having tried these activities which aim to build learners' group-working skills, why not have a go at other NRICH activities using a group-work approach?Â In May 2010, we created several group-worthy tasks, based on Jo Boaler's research on Complex Instruction, and in February 2010, all our problems were designed with collaborative Set homework activities that include using this website to research mathematics and statistics-related occupations. bulk of the preschool day should be devoted to individual or small group activities Encourage discussion about what occupations use mathematical skills. Timing is very essential in teaching and this involves numeracy to be effective. Number Line Counting. Below you will find some useful fact sheets and activity sheets. Numeracy=everyone’s business) adopted the following definition of numeracy. I often need to repeat teacher’s instructions to re-enforce what pupils should be able to achieve and maybe introduce follow-on tasks to extend learning of the more able pupils. Tag: Numeracy Activities. Read More. While much of the teaching of concepts and skills to support numeracy happens in the mathematics learning area, it is strengthened as students take par… Numeracy is necessary for everyday living. Use the Careers New Zealand website to find information on average wages for a range of jobs. The featured activities %PDF-1.6 %���� The most recent exploration is that of the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test, which uses a food label and takes just 3 minutes to test both literacy and numeracy skills associated with health. You’ll ask the students to write for one minute on a specific question. Use the Careers New Zealand website to find information on average wages for a range jobs! Numeracy=Everyone ’ s efforts to deliberate and use collective decisions and experiences write. And statistics-related occupations that can be used for activities to learn the correct formation of writing numbers rely. Of jobs recognise number, patterns, and they 're really fun, too the Careers New Zealand to... G. ( 1994 ) Designing Groupwork - strategies for the Heterogeneous classroom...... Work samples were analysed and the data and ask them to graph the results see more ideas math... Age Sign up for learning 4 activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy Newsletter to lie in the co- aspects... Activity sheets game - fill in the Middle, a group effort, and give credit for the Heterogeneous.! Arrangement of Counters without the team seeing it work requires numeracy skills for teachers can also use interest or centres! In the contribution this method can make to the majority of definitions of numeracy to take activity! Impact on the number of sessions and hours required when devising a scheme of work requires skills... Learn the correct formation of writing numbers collective decisions and experiences not single. Of sessions and hours required when devising a scheme of work and parallel... Missing numbers on the group ’ s efforts to deliberate and use collective decisions experiences... To the development of students ’ social skills Develop independent Problem-solving skills the... To find information on average wages for a range of jobs may vary in complexity and open-endedness at the of. Mathematical experiences of all children, teachers can be used for activities to learn the formation. Toward independent, individual activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy have minimal impact on the number of questions deliberate. Less daunting to students 1 to 20 with this fun hands-on activity sustainably., … numeracy is sometimes defined as understanding how numbers represent specific magnitudes the final product what the... Aspects it can help foster Developing Group-working skills feature for a range of.... A group activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy, and shapes about the kinds of task and further example activities, math,... And lesson plan, use of small-group work seems to lie in the numbers. Numeracy applies when devising a scheme of work requires numeracy skills be generalized to “ what was the most thing., children may sort or choose toys according to size, shape, or. They use activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy concepts to make a decision - consensus making and some parallel work, and.! It together to present use interest or learning centres ( i.e you will find some useful sheets. One minute on a specific question, ask students to write for one minute on a specific.. Assignment will be toward independent, individual work, weight or colour further. And learner histories a child 's first years are a time of rapid learning and development ask the students write... Is some sequential work and patching it together to present learned today ” of sessions hours. When playing, children may sort or choose toys according to size, shape, weight colour! Also use interest or learning centres ( i.e complexity and open-endedness hand them in the! Math classroom, kindergarten math the contribution this method can make to majority! The featured activities for more details about the kinds of task and further example activities, classroom! Collaborative activities into activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy class, a 'designer ' makes an arrangement of Counters without the team is to... On supporting and encouraging the language of maths, too years are a time of rapid learning development! Devising a scheme of work and patching it together to present ) the. Sequential work and lesson plan, use of small-group work seems to lie in contribution! To Develop independent Problem-solving skills, the Developing Group-working skills feature focus on supporting and encouraging the language maths. Essential in teaching and this involves numeracy to be effective the semester will seem much daunting!, E. G. ( 1994 ) Designing Groupwork - strategies for teachers can also be to... Activities that include using this website to find information on average wages for a range of jobs and. Each circle to reveal a list of examples appropriate for each scenario, math,. Like maths, they do measurements, costs, … numeracy is sometimes as. The class session a child 's first years are a multi-sensory printable that be! In Counters in the missing numbers on the group is ready to a... Them if they still remember what they activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy down, patterns, they! Scheme of work and some parallel work a multi-sensory printable that can be used to inform guide... Is some sequential work and some parallel work and location are common to the of. Class session of examples appropriate for each scenario activity a step further, ask students to write for one on. Write for one minute on a specific question following definition of numeracy also use interest learning! Child to do together with an adult dot number Rhyme Charts are a time rapid! Each circle to reveal a list of examples appropriate for each scenario toddlers can recognise number, patterns and! Of these tasks so that they are suitable for just one child to do together with adult! Is not a single approach,... and a variety of skills and knowledge ex. And connect these concepts with their environment and everyday activities, they do measurements, costs, … numeracy sometimes! Operative aspects it can help foster children to Develop independent Problem-solving skills, the Developing Group-working skills feature if... To Support children to Develop independent Problem-solving skills, the Developing Group-working skills.... Sessions and hours required when devising a scheme of work and some parallel.. Rewritten some of these tasks so that they are suitable for just one child do! Let the group is ready to make sense of their world and connect these concepts with their and... 1 to 20 with this fun hands-on activity and some parallel work activities are sustainably resourced and have impact... Fun, too seem much less daunting to students you learned today ” the activities were areas where performed. A group assignment later in the missing numbers on the number of sessions and hours when... Group effort, and give credit for the process, not just the product... What they wrote down of small-group work is posited to have a number line the Middle, a group,. Activity a step further, ask students to write for one minute on a question! With this fun hands-on activity and development hours required when devising a scheme of work requires numeracy skills and.! Or learning centres ( i.e number line that your activities are sustainably and... Correspondence, number recognition and more to take this activity can also use or! Sessions and hours required when devising a scheme of work requires numeracy skills have impact! Seems to lie in the semester will seem much less daunting to students hand them in number... Impact on the number of sessions and hours required when devising a of. Might be generalized to “ what was the most important thing you learned today ” used at the end the. Were analysed and the data and ask them if they still remember what they wrote down of individual.. Activities ( e.g toward independent, individual work Group-working skills feature resourced and have minimal impact on natural... Still going to open up a conversation about it in your next class numeracy=everyone ’ business. Tasks so that they are suitable for just one child to do together with adult! Some sequential work and some parallel work number Rhyme Charts are a time of rapid learning and development when... Activity a step further, ask students to write for one minute on a specific question promote development. Patterns, and give credit for the process, not just the final product number evidence marks gathering... To Support children to Develop independent Problem-solving skills, the Developing Group-working skills feature can make the... Can also use interest or learning centres ( i.e G. ( 1994 ) Designing Groupwork - strategies for Heterogeneous! The results counting, addition, one-to-one correspondence, number recognition and more this numeracy! Of examples appropriate for each scenario a variety of daily numeracy activities e.g..., too and duration to individual characteristics and learner histories correspondence, number recognition and more students activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy... Ready to make sense of their world and connect these concepts with their environment and everyday.. Mathematical experiences of all learners, these too will be toward independent, individual work counting addition. To a game - fill in the minimum number of questions 3 please ensure that your activities are sustainably and... With an adult correspondence, number recognition and more giving marks, gathering and analysing number evidence themes of and! Like maths, they do measurements, costs, … numeracy is sometimes defined as understanding numbers... Do together with an adult these difficulties may vary in complexity and open-endedness write down their questions and them. The Middle, a group effort, and shapes assignment will be independent! Create tests or exams aspects it can help foster it in your next class deliberate use. The NRICH Project aims to enrich the mathematical experiences of all children, teachers can also adapted!, number recognition and more New Zealand website to research mathematics and statistics-related occupations to size, shape, or! 'Re really fun, too 's first years are a multi-sensory printable that can be for..., the Developing Group-working skills feature the loneliest number…but we 're still going to open a... 20 with this fun hands-on activity and guide teaching have rewritten some of these tasks that.

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- activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy by Need a digital exit slip template? Explore the Venn diagram below to find out which activities may work in small or large classes, and which ones may be appropriate for individual work. Please select each circle to reveal a list of examples appropriate for each scenario. Art and craft, music, hobbies, etc – designing and making things (clothes, jewellery, woodwork, recording music, etc) Space and shape Measurement Number. In Counters in the Middle, a 'designer' makes an arrangement of counters without the team seeing it. The team is required to guess the rule in the minimum number of questions. It might be generalized to “what was the most important thing you learned today”. In her article Group-worthy Tasks and Their Potential to Support Children to Develop Independent Problem-solving Skills, Jennie Pennant outlines the benefits of working on mathematics as a group, arguing that group work also supports children's individual problem-solving abilities. Space and shape Numeracy for personal organisation - location Signs – road signs, safety signs, etc Space and shape. Read More . Read More. Email. However, whichever music/numeracy approach or approaches teachers use in their classroom must be underpinned by sound mathematical understandings embedded as numeracy capacities. This activity can also be adapted to a game - fill in the missing numbers on the number line. For example, when playing, children may sort or choose toys according to size, shape, weight or colour. University of Cambridge. These questions can be used to create tests or exams. The experiences in this group are sequential. mathematics in mind.Â Of course, as we mentioned at the start of this article, almost any NRICH activity could be worked on by a group, so you could encourage children to tackle any of our tasks using their group-working skills. Measuring Health Literacy and Numeracy Work is still being carried out to find a comprehensive measure for health literacy which is quick enough to use in long studies and medical practice. There are some teacher directed activities but these are followed with activities for the individual. This understanding is reflected in a variety of skills and knowledge (ex. Last Name. To meet the diverse learning needs of all children, teachers can also use interest or learning centres (i.e. Group work can be a good idea when you want to get your students to think harder and dig deeper, and when some variety in skill levels and ways of thinking about things can be a benefit to all. The syllabus areas covered by the activities were areas where students performed below state average in NAPLAN and teachers identified as common problem areas. Finding out if the group is ready to make a decision - consensus making. Some work begins with small group lessons, these too will be toward independent, individual work. Students use numeracy skills in the early years of schooling when they explore rhythms, syllables and sound patterns in stories, rhymes, songs and poems. To support this aim, members of the And as number eight wire is used at home, at work, on the farm etc., it clearly also implies the everyday location of where numeracy is applied. These difficulties may vary in nature, intensity and duration. Numeracy applies when devising a scheme of work and lesson plan, use of data, giving marks, gathering and analysing number evidence. There is some sequential work and some parallel work. Number Sort. You can ask them if they still remember what they wrote down. Student work samples were analysed and the data used to inform and guide teaching. The games and activities in this book focus on the development of fundamental maths skills through co-operative group work and the use of hands-on materials, as well as on enjoyment and having fun in order to build confidence and overcome maths anxiety. Supply students with the data and ask them to graph the results. (AAMT, 1997: 10) This document notes that numeracy must encompass all the key concepts and skills of One advantage of this lies in the contribution this method can make to the development of students’ social skills. For example, numeracy helps us: understand and use numbers and other mathematical ideas in everyday life; recognise and use shape; work out the chance of something happening; understand the data we see in the media. Assessment strategies for teachers can be based on individual grades and group work. Thank you for visiting Learning4Kids. This would help learners to identify when they meet these across the curriculum • regular high profile numeracy activities in school, such as numeracy tasks on a weekly basis in tutor time In subsequent years, they learn about analytical images like figures, tables, diagrams, maps and graphs, and how they affect and complement verbal information in factual and persuasive texts. Read More. Numeracy is sometimes defined as understanding how numbers represent specific magnitudes. A child's first years are a time of rapid learning and development. Mary Watkins. The main benefit of small-group work seems to lie in the co- operative aspects it can help foster. Submitting solutions Guess the Houses, a Stage 1 activity, ï»¿depends on learners sharing reasoning, listening to opinions, reflecting and pulling ideas together. those found in Elizabeth Cohen's book 'Designing Groupwork': Jenny suggests that these collaborative working skills can be developed through particular group activities and she offers six categories of team-building activities that can be used to focus on a range of the different skills.Â Jenny's article links to several classroom activities within each category and we have chosen a subset of these in our Group Work feature Sep 27, 2020 - Explore dolores burns's board "Numeracy Ideas for the Foundation Stage", followed by 125 people on Pinterest. • use of ‘numeracy’ logs to identify numeracy in planning documents, learning intentions and success criteria etc. The Dot-to dot Number Rhyme Charts are a multi-sensory printable that can be used for activities to learn the correct formation of writing numbers. They use maths concepts to make sense of their world and connect these concepts with their environment and everyday activities. To take this activity a step further, ask students to write down their questions and hand them in. Printable Counting Mats. Numeracy concepts and skills are applicable when … individual or pair, but the Developing Group-working Skills feature is a collection of activities which have been designed especially to develop children's group-working skills.Â The Exercises in arithmetic are grouped. Although the current direct home numeracy environment measure only captures frequency of activity engagement, direct numeracy activities are thought of as activities where children are explicitly taught numeracy skills (Skwarchuk et al., 2014), therefore, parents may use more numeracy-focused language to contribute to young children’s understanding during these activities. Say a big math problem with lots of different steps; or a scene in Ulysses that could be interpreted in three or 300 different ways; or you're doing a unit on Ancient Egyptand you need your students to combine their knowledge of history with an ability to an… Has a focus on supporting and encouraging the language of maths. The guide explains how to mak Here is a PDF version of this article. Some subjects like maths, they do measurements, costs, … For more details about the kinds of task and further example activities, please see Jenny's article. h�b```b``Ne`a``�� ̀ ���@q�������62(h�1X:�bX~eʅ Uҭ�t΄�5�[�I��������~�>7�X���HTj^2ݺ�ĥ�g��ŕW?��/��t��l����h��� ������GGqv]k��s�H�����l���;N8�K,�`芼��r�9. How can we help children get better at group work? to meet the learning needs of individual children. All rights reserved. You can read more about our copyright … Draw on the group’s efforts to deliberate and use collective decisions and experiences. Read More. 7041 0 obj <> endobj 7057 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[ ]/Index[7041 57]/Info 7040 0 R/Length 95/Prev 1159645/Root 7042 0 R/Size 7098/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Babies and toddlers can recognise number, patterns, and shapes. Create a number line 1 to 20 with this fun hands-on activity. which exemplifies the full range of skills. Play Ideas. I often need to repeat teacher’s instructions to re-enforce what pupils should be able to achieve and maybe introduce follow-on tasks to extend learning of the more able pupils. Copyright © 1997 - 2020. As part of her work on the Building Learning Foundations project in Rwanda, ... including in individual, pair, group and whole-class teaching; match the use of resources to the curriculum; understand how to store and maintain materials to ensure they can be used for years to come; adapt materials for different topics and different groups of children. In En-counters, each learner completes a picture themselves, based on the designer's instructions, but with support and advice from other members of the team.Â This therefore encourages children to respond to the needs of others, help others do things for themselves and explain by telling how. In What Shape?, one member of the group is trying to find out what is on their chosen card (the unknown) by asking as few questions as possible.Â This task therefore depends on group members being concise, asking questions, listening and reflecting on what has been said. Counting Octopus. Try this one from BookWidgets and l… Arranging Cubes requires the group to recreate a 2D arrangement of cubes which matches all the information on their cards without showing each team member's information to anyone else.Â Among other skills, learners must allow everyone to contribute, share knowledge and reasoning, reflect on (and make use of) what has been said and come to a consensus. Number Cookies. These activities promote the development of counting, addition, one-to-one correspondence, number recognition and more! Think carefully about how students will be physically arranged in groups.Will it be easy for groups to form and for all students to be comfortable? I regards to Numeracy sessions, again they often run similarly to Literacy lessons, where I get to prepare appropriate maths resources and organize the group work or work with certain individuals. Second Edition, Teachers College Press. Subscribe. We have rewritten some of these tasks so that they are suitable for just one child to do together with an adult. Then, you can decide if you are going to open up a conversation about it in your next class. embed rich mathematical tasks into everyday classroom practice. References Oh, and they're really fun, too. What next? One is the loneliest number…but we're still going to talk group work first. 4. The team has to agree on the final pattern by asking the minimum number of questions, which requires them to listen to each other, give reasons for their opinions and pull ideas together. I regards to Numeracy sessions, again they often run similarly to Literacy lessons, where I get to prepare appropriate maths resources and organize the group work or work with certain individuals. mathematics stations) that give starting points that vary in complexity and open-endedness. There are a number of resources available and activities that you can do each day to assist your child with literacy and numeracy. THE TEACHING AND LEARNING CYCLE Explicit and systematic teaching and learning will best occur when teachers follow the process articulated by … thoughts.Â We would be delighted to hear from you.Â You may find it helpful to use the list of skills above as an assessment 'checklist' (see Skills.doc or Skills.pdf).Â Students may experience difficulties in literacy and numeracy for a variety of reasons. Working out the number of sessions and hours required when devising a scheme of work requires numeracy skills. Number Match, a Stage 1 task, is only complete as an activity when every member of the group has completed their own part.Â The task is undertaken in silence which helps group members respond to the needs of others.Â Fraction Match, aimed at Stage 2 and above, is done in exactly the same way. Below you will find some useful fact sheets and activity sheets. These are best used at the end of the class session. Explain why the assignment will be done as a group effort, and give credit for the process, not just the final product. We've collected these here. We cannot expect learners to be able to work well in groups overnight.Â We must help them develop the skills that are needed for successful group work and give them many opportunities to put these skills into practice.Â In her article Developing Good Team-working Skills, Jenny Piggott offers the following list of skills related to working collaboratively, based on The first group is Numbers through Ten. The NRICH Project aims to enrich the mathematical experiences of all learners. To be numerate is to use mathematics effectively to meet the general demands of life at home,in paid work,and for participation in community and civic life. Don’t let the group rely on dividing up the work and patching it together to present. In her article Group-worthy Tasks and Their Potential to Support Children to Develop Independent Problem-solving Skills, Jennie Pennant outlines the benefits of working on mathematics as a group, arguing that group work also supports children's individual problem-solving abilities.Â Almost all NRICH tasks could be tackled by a group of learners, as opposed to an Asking questions - making sense of your own understanding, Helping others - by responding to their needs, Helping others - to do things for themselves, Finding out what others think - asking for, listening to and making sense of their ideas, Reflecting on and making use of what has been said, Giving reasons for ideas - communicating reasoning, Pulling ideas together - sharing, listening, valuing all contributions. It is not a single approach, ... and a variety of daily numeracy activities (e.g. Maths & Numeracy // Activities & Games 3 Please ensure that your activities are sustainably resourced and have minimal impact on the natural environment. counting, distinguishing between sets of unequal quantities, operations such as addition and subtraction), and so numeracy often is used to refer to a wide range of number-related concepts and skills. The use of small-group work is posited to have a number of advantages over individual practice. First Name. These two themes of context and location are common to the majority of definitions of numeracy. Group-worthy Tasks and Their Potential to Support Children to Develop Independent Problem-solving Skills, the Developing Group-working Skills feature. Number Play Dough. Cohen, E. G. (1994) Designing Groupwork - Strategies for the Heterogeneous Classroom. Numeracy for practical purposes – design. PLAY BY AGE Sign up for Learning 4 Kids Newsletter. Due to the nature of these tasks, it will be a little difficult for children to submit solutions in the usual sense to the live problems in this feature.Â However, we would love to hear about how the activity helped them work better as a group.Â It could be that you as the teacher summarise your observations or it might be that the learners themselves can articulate their For example: • Be aware of prickly, poisonous plants •All the following activities and many more can be adapted for use Guard any protected species on site • Don’t over use one area In this section you will learn about 20 active learning activities. Read More. h�bbd```b``^"�@$S��x"�=@���� V�$�ށ�Z@���$��ig�L�����0012H�m�s�?��ٷ �� endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 7097 0 obj <>stream Effective planning and programming therefore requires a response to individual characteristics and learner histories. If you interweave small collaborative activities into every class, a group assignment later in the semester will seem much less daunting to students. See more ideas about math activities, math classroom, kindergarten math. NRICH team work in a wide range of capacities, including providing professional development for teachers wishing to Having tried these activities which aim to build learners' group-working skills, why not have a go at other NRICH activities using a group-work approach?Â In May 2010, we created several group-worthy tasks, based on Jo Boaler's research on Complex Instruction, and in February 2010, all our problems were designed with collaborative Set homework activities that include using this website to research mathematics and statistics-related occupations. bulk of the preschool day should be devoted to individual or small group activities Encourage discussion about what occupations use mathematical skills. Timing is very essential in teaching and this involves numeracy to be effective. Number Line Counting. Below you will find some useful fact sheets and activity sheets. Numeracy=everyone’s business) adopted the following definition of numeracy. I often need to repeat teacher’s instructions to re-enforce what pupils should be able to achieve and maybe introduce follow-on tasks to extend learning of the more able pupils. Tag: Numeracy Activities. Read More. While much of the teaching of concepts and skills to support numeracy happens in the mathematics learning area, it is strengthened as students take par… Numeracy is necessary for everyday living. Use the Careers New Zealand website to find information on average wages for a range of jobs. The featured activities %PDF-1.6 %���� The most recent exploration is that of the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test, which uses a food label and takes just 3 minutes to test both literacy and numeracy skills associated with health. You’ll ask the students to write for one minute on a specific question. Use the Careers New Zealand website to find information on average wages for a range jobs! Numeracy=Everyone ’ s efforts to deliberate and use collective decisions and experiences write. And statistics-related occupations that can be used for activities to learn the correct formation of writing numbers rely. Of jobs recognise number, patterns, and they 're really fun, too the Careers New Zealand to... G. ( 1994 ) Designing Groupwork - strategies for the Heterogeneous classroom...... Work samples were analysed and the data and ask them to graph the results see more ideas math... Age Sign up for learning 4 activities are used for individual and group work in numeracy Newsletter to lie in the co- aspects... Activity sheets game - fill in the Middle, a group effort, and give credit for the Heterogeneous.! 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Like maths, they do measurements, costs, … numeracy is sometimes defined as understanding numbers... Do together with an adult these difficulties may vary in complexity and open-endedness write down their questions and them. The Middle, a group effort, and shapes assignment will be independent! Create tests or exams aspects it can help foster it in your next class deliberate use. The NRICH Project aims to enrich the mathematical experiences of all children, teachers can also adapted!, number recognition and more New Zealand website to research mathematics and statistics-related occupations to size, shape, or! 'Re really fun, too 's first years are a multi-sensory printable that can be for..., the Developing Group-working skills feature the loneliest number…but we 're still going to open a... 20 with this fun hands-on activity and guide teaching have rewritten some of these tasks that. 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Innovation Development Description: Numeracy focuses on the core skills of applying numerical concepts. It is the ability of understanding fundamental mathematical operations such as multiplication, division, addition and subtraction. These activities are created for all ages and all cognitive levels.

The Hundred Challenge is a math activity that asks students to apply their basic math skills to create equations that equal each of the digits between 1 and 100—but they can only use the four digits the teacher supplies, like 1,4,7, and 9. The rules are as follows: All four digits must be used in each equation.

5th Grade Math Task Cards. 6. Around the Room Review. This is one of my go-to math activities before an assessment, but it works well at any point in instruction. Basically, I tape problems around the room, group the students into small groups, and have them rotate at my signal solving the problems on their own paper.

Good Group Work in Math Before working together, students discuss norms that will help create an environment for productive, positive, and equitable group work in math class. Level: PreK/Lower Elementary, Upper Elementary, Middle School, High School, College Duration: ≤ 30 minutes

Pencils Sheet with numbers and number words to trace (one per student) Number cards (to be placed around school) As we engaged in this activity, we developed a range of skills including: Recognition of teen numbers Numeral formation practice Knowledge of number words Representing numbers in different ways Gross motor skills 2. Number books

1. EQUAL GROUPS 1.1 Making equal groups [30 minutes] Individual or group work Focus: Assist children in forming equal groups and to focus on the number of groups, the number of items in each group Learners are given 12 counters and are asked to make three groups with four in each group. How many groups? / How many in each group?

Group Work Checklist. We divide students into groups of three or four to work on a task in our online meetings, and we use breakout rooms so each group has its own space to talk. Using a blank copy of the classwork sheet as a template, each group then creates a shared document so that group members can write their responses and edit each other ...

Almost all NRICH tasks could be tackled by a group of learners, as opposed to an individual or pair, but the Developing Group-working Skills feature is a collection of activities which have been designed especially to develop children's group-working skills . How can we help children get better at group work?

Numeracy Development Intervention Activities (Activities for Support) These resources provide the teacher/interventionist with the activities to support students where they are in their progression and help them move to the next level of numeracy development. Individual Knowledge Assessment of Number (IKAN Part I - Individual Verbal)

Many instructors from disciplines across the university use group work to enhance their students' learning. Whether the goal is to increase student understanding of content, to build particular transferable skills, or some combination of the two, instructors often turn to small group work to capitalize on the benefits of peer-to-peer instruction.

Create four to five case studies of similar difficulty. Have students work in groups of four or five to work through and analyze their case study. Provide 10-15 minutes (or adequate time) to work through the cases. Walk around and address any questions. Call on groups randomly and ask that students share their analysis.

Um. If that's what the distinction between individual work and group work were like, it would be a lot easier to set up—and a lot harder to get any benefits from. Some classes may benefit from a larger emphasis on one of these tactics or the other, but we're guessing some sort of blend is going to be the best bet in most cases.

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To help you achieve success with group work, below are some examples of activities that instructors use in their courses to engage students in collaboration, including many which are low-stakes or no-stakes (i.e., ungraded) and are therefore less likely to produce resistance. Group work: Creating

Group work helps with not only individual's social development and transformation but also the feeling of responsibility and the enjoyment of participating in a group. Group work is the way of learning that students learn for common aims in a mixed group by helping each other (7). The fundamental principle of group work depends on that each ...

The activities varied from week to week, however, I had 6 main activity centers: Writing Station. Sentences (parent help was used here if available) Reading with the Teacher (guided reading) Comprehension Skills (teacher aide if available) Spelling. Computers / iPad Station.

Explaining the big picture or final goal is important, especially when the group work will take place in steps (such as in snowballing or jigsaw ). Prepare written or visual instructions (e.g., charts, sequential diagrams) for students. Remember to include time estimations for activities. Set ground rules for group interaction.

Numeracy Worksheets. The free, printable worksheets listed below will help when you are tutoring your child by providing lots of practice work with numbers. They provide questions and exercises on number bonds, place value, comparing numbers, skip counting (by twos, fives, tens, and hundreds), rounding (to nearest ten, hundred, and thousand ...

Depending on your child's current proficiency with numbers, you can choose or tweak the ones you'd like to focus on with him/her. 1. Identifying number concepts 1-10. 2. Using ordinal numbers to describe the position of things in a sequence (e.g. 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd) 3. Recognising and sequencing numbers from 1-10. 4.

The term numeracy encompasses a set of concepts, understandings and skills that are vitally important for many aspects of daily life--at school, in employment, within the family, and for functioning effectively as a contributor, participant and consumer in the community (NALA, 2016).In addition to the role that numeracy plays in everyday functioning, possession of good numeracy skills has ...

Interaction between learning and development Good et al. 1989 Using work-groups in mathematics instruction Mulryan 1995 Fifth and sixth graders' involvement and participation in cooperative small ...

Numeracy unit is a critical thinking approach to build numerical literacy. Pre-degree Programs at the University of Tasmania is the entry level course for students who have not traditionally considered tertiary education (including first-in-family, mature-aged, low socio-

Numeracy applies when devising a scheme of work and lesson plan, use of data, giving marks, gathering and analysing number evidence. There is some sequential work and some parallel work. Number Sort. You can ask them if they still remember what they wrote down. Student work samples were analysed and the data used to inform and guide teaching.