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Is Dual-Task Training Clinically Beneficial to Improve Balance and Executive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with a History of Falls?

Associated data.

The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available because they are part of an ongoing project.

Purpose: To date, the effects of dual-task training on balance underlying cognitive function remain unclear. Therefore, this study was to verify the effects of cognitive–physical dual-task training on balance and executive function in community-dwelling older adults with a history of falls. Method: Fifty-eight participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group (EG) receiving cognitive–physical dual-task training (n = 29) or to the control group (CG) receiving functional balance training (n = 29). After 12 sessions for 6 weeks, the One Leg Standing Test (OLST), the Timed UP and Go (TUG), and part B of the Trail-Making Test (TMT-B) were implemented to examine static and dynamic balance and executive function. Results: After the 12 sessions, the EG showed a greater improvement in the OLST ( p < 0.001; η 2 = 0.332), the TUG ( p < 0.001; η 2 = 0.375), and the TMT-B ( p < 0.001; η 2 = 0.224) compared to the CG. Conclusion: These results indicate that dual-task training is clinically beneficial to improving static and dynamic balance as well as executive function in older adults with a history of falls. These findings shed new light on a clinical implication that executive function should be considered in balance training for older adults.

1. Introduction

Balance is an ability to properly control posture to adapt to various environments through the interaction of sensation, motor, and cognitive systems, which is significantly correlated with falls [ 1 ]. Specially, imbalance commonly occurs under dual-task conditions among older adults since cognitive function decreases with aging [ 2 ].

Dual-task refers to the ability to perform two or more cognitive and physical activities simultaneously [ 3 ]. Since both cognitive and physical functions decrease with aging, dual-task performance could deteriorate, resulting in falls in older adults while performing activities of daily living that require maintaining balance under dual-task conditions [ 4 ]. Falls result in fracture, concern about falls, and considerable morbidity, posing a major threat to the quality of life of older adults [ 5 ]. Therefore, treatments for reducing fall risks under dual-task conditions have gained a lot of attention [ 6 , 7 ].

A number of studies have identified the effects of dual-task training on improving balance and reducing fall risks in older adults, who are at a high risk of falls, such as people with stroke, Parkinson’s disease, or history of falls [ 2 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]. In most of the previous studies, dual-task training was conducted by performing cognitive tasks, such as word speaking or counting, while standing or walking on a treadmill or over the ground [ 3 ].

Although previous studies have reported positive effects of dual-task training, most of them explained its efficacy in balance in terms of improvements in physical components, such as velocity, step, and stride length, rather than cognitive components [ 6 , 11 , 12 ]. However, since cognitive factors significantly affect balance as well as physical components, the cognitive function underlying balance also needs to be investigated after dual-task training [ 3 ]. Indeed, recent studies have reported that high-level cognitive functions, such as attention shifting between movements and environments and inhibition of distracting stimuli, are necessary to maintain balance in complex environments while conducting different tasks simultaneously [ 4 , 8 , 13 ]. Specifically, given that a previous study showed that executive function deficits in older adults are closely associated with balance impairments, the effects of dual-task training on balance need to be established by executive function [ 14 ].

On the other hand, most of the previous studies indicated improvements in dynamic balance only [ 6 , 11 , 12 ]. Balance can be classified into static balance that enables to maintain posture without movement and dynamic balance required by adjusting a center for mass during movement [ 15 ]. Considering static balance also plays a crucial role for the prevention of falls in older adults [ 15 ], and it needs to be investigated after balance training.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dual-task training on static and dynamic balance and executive function in older adults with a history of falls. This study hypothesized that dual-task training would show greater improvements in balance and executive function compared to single-task training after 12 training sessions in older adults who experienced falls.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. study design.

This study was a single-blind study, and subjects were randomly assigned into the experimental group or the control group using random numbers generated by Python computer language. This assignment was conducted by an experimenter who was unaware of the purpose of the present study. All assessors, who are occupational therapists with abundant clinical experience and have familiarity with the outcome assessments, were blinded to the group assignment. This study was conducted for 6 weeks, and subjects were assessed pre- and post-intervention. All subjects provided written informed consent according to the Declaration of Helsinki (2004). The current study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board registered at the Thai Clinical Trials Registry (ID: TCTR20210720006).

2.2. Subjects

Between May 2021 and July 2021, subjects were recruited from local senior centers through a recruitment notice in Seoul. A total of 72 older adults were screened, and then 58 were finally selected ( Figure 1 ). The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) over 65 years of age, (2) those who have experienced falls in the last six months, (3) those who ambulate independently without any assistance devices, and (4) those who understand a simple instruction as confirmed by the Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination (≥24). The exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) those who have any neurological, orthopedic, or psychological disorders, (2) those who have visual or auditory impairments, and (3) those who have not participated in any programs for improving balance in the last six months. Exclusion criteria were confirmed through self-report with a promise that subjects only report the truth. The criteria were in accordance with a previous study [ 16 ].

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Flow diagram of subjects in the study.

The number of subjects was calculated using G*Power (Informer Technologies, Dusseldorf, Germany) [ 17 ]. With reference to a previous study [ 16 ], the effect size was set at 1.23, the α error at a probability of 0.05, and the power at 0.95, resulting in a minimum of 19 subjects required for each group.

2.3. Intervention

All sessions were conducted by one occupational therapist with seven years of clinical experience in local senior centers. All subjects carried out a 45 min training session, twice a week for 6 weeks, and they only received the training program, which is assigned to each group. All sessions were one-on-one with the subject. The duration and intensity of the training sessions were derived from previous studies reporting positive effects of dual-task training [ 2 ] and functional balance training [ 18 ] on balance in older adults, respectively. A five-minute warm-up period was given to all subjects before each training program.

In the EG, subjects receiving the dual-task training were instructed to practice balance tasks while simultaneously conducting cognitive tasks and were asked to maintain attention to both balance and cognitive tasks at all times. Detailed examples of the dual-task training program are described in Table 1 . In the CG, subjects conducted the balance training consisting of subprograms focusing on body stability, body stability combined with hand manipulation, body transport, and body transport combined with hand manipulation. Subjects in both groups completed all 12 sessions without missing, which resulted in a total of 12 sessions. Table 2 indicates detailed examples of the balance training program.

Dual-task training program.

Balance training program.

2.4. Measurement

To assess static balance, the One Leg Standing Test (OLST) was used. In the OLST, subjects were asked to put their hands on their hips and raise one leg from the floor with their eyes closed. The amount of time was measured from when the leg was raised until the leg was set back down on the floor using a stopwatch. The measurement was repeated for the other leg, and the two times were averaged. It has high test–retest reliability (r = 0.96) [ 19 ].

The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was conducted to evaluate dynamic balance. In the TUG, subjects sitting on a chair with armrests were asked to make a round trip of 3 m and then sit on the chair. The amount of time for the trip was measured using a stopwatch. Its test–retest reliability is 0.96 [ 20 ].

To examine executive function, part B of the Trail-Making Test (TMT-B) was conducted. In the TMT-B, a sheet with 25 circle-shaped letters and numbers was presented, and subjects were instructed to connect the circles in alternating number–letter order. A maximum time of 300 s was given to complete it. The time to complete the task was recorded using a stopwatch [ 21 ].

2.5. Statistical Analysis

All data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 22.0) (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). The normal distribution of outcome variables was confirmed using the Shapiro–Wilk test. To compare subjects’ general characteristics between both groups, independent t -test and Chi-square analysis were used.

After 12 training sessions, a repeated two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was implemented to compare differences in outcome measurements between both groups. The effect size (ES) of each training was calculated using partial η 2 value. Partial η 2 ≥ 0.14 was considered a large effect; between ≥0.06 and <0.14 a moderate effect; and between ≥0.01 and <0.06 a small effect [ 22 ]. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

3.1. Subject’s Characteristics

There were no significant differences in general characteristics between both groups ( Table 3 ).

General characteristics of participants (N = 58).

MMSE-K: Mini-Mental Status Examination; SD: Standard deviation.

3.2. Balance

Repeated ANOVA showed that group × time interaction was significant for the OLST ( p < 0.001; η 2 = 0.332) and the TUG ( p < 0.001; η 2 = 0.375), indicating that subjects in the EG showed greater improvements in both static and dynamic balance compared with those in the CG ( Table 4 ).

Changes in static and dynamic balance (N = 58).

(A 95% confidence interval) for within and between-group changes. OLST, One Leg Standing Test; TUG, Timed Up and Go test. *** Significant group × time interaction ( p < 0.001).

3.3. Executive Function

There was a significant group × time interaction for the TMT-B ( p < 0.001; η 2 = 0.224). This finding revealed that subjects in the EG achieved a greater improvement in executive function compared with those in the CG ( Table 5 ).

(A 95% confidence interval) for within and between-group changes. TMT-B, Trail Making Test-B. *** Significant group × time interaction ( p < 0.001).

4. Discussion

This study examined whether cognitive–physical dual-task training could be beneficial to improve balance and executive function in community-dwelling older adults with a history of falls. The findings of this study show that dual-task training is clinically beneficial to improving balance, which supports the hypothesis that balance could be enhanced by dual-task training.

In this study, all subjects in both the EG and the CG were asked to achieve postural control while conducting physical activities inducing postural sway, such as throwing a ball and carrying a bag. These activities involve complex interactions among somatosensory, visual, and vestibular systems controlling the relationships between body segments and external environment [ 1 ], which has a positive effect on balance supported by the improvements in static and dynamic balance in both groups. Indeed, a previous study indicated that plantar perception training as a somatosensory system exercise resulted in clinical improvements in static and dynamic balance [ 23 ]. Similarly, a previous study demonstrated that eyeball training as a vestibular system exercise enhanced balance [ 24 ]. Taken together, it was demonstrated that training using interactions among these systems could be a way to improve balance.

On the other hand, the findings of this study show that subjects in the EG achieved greater improvements in both static and dynamic balance compared to subjects in the CG. This result indicates that dual-task training might be more effective in improving balance than functional balance training, which is consistent with previous studies including the study referred to for calculating the number of subjects [ 16 , 25 , 26 , 27 ]. Previous studies reported that postural instability could be caused by attention deficits [ 28 , 29 ]. A previous study showed that attentional demands are closely associated with postural control in older adults [ 8 ]. With aging, inputs for vision and somatosensory were reduced due to high thresholds for the sensations [ 30 ]. Therefore, older adults require more attentional resources to maintain balance to compensate for decreases in sensory inputs [ 8 ]. Indeed, although sensory inputs were reduced, older adults with high attention capacity showed less postural sway than those with low attention capacity, suggesting cognitive components could play a crucial role in balance [ 8 ]. In this study, subjects in the EG were asked to control balance while simultaneously conducting cognitive tasks, which requires paying continuous attention to both tasks and inhibit interferences between cognitive and physical tasks, which is the core of executive function [ 31 ]. In other words, executive function is essential for successful dual-task training, supported by the results of this study that subjects in the EG showed improvement in the TMT-B, which adds a dimension of attention shifting, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility consisting of executive function compared to the TMT-A. Consequently, dual-task training induced positive effects on balance by enhancing executive function, which is in line with a previous study [ 14 ].

A balance impairment is one of the hallmarks of falls in older adults [ 32 ], and a growing body of evidence has reported the importance of cognitive factors to a balance impairment in older adults [ 33 ]. Thus, it is important to establish evidence on effective interventions to improve balance in older adults by enhancing cognitive function. This study implies that an enhancement in executive function could be a useful way to improve balance in older adults. The findings of this study have a clinical significance in that dual-task training could be performed to improve balance in the elderly who are not suitable for balance training focusing on physical components due to decreased flexibility and muscle strength. In addition, maintaining balance under dual-task conditions in older adults has more ecological validity compared to conventional balance training because a variety of activities of daily living involve simultaneous performance of multiple tasks challenging cognitive and motor capacities [ 6 ]. Therefore, dual-task training could be considered to be more effective than conventional balance training considering its ecological validity.

The present study suggests that dual-task training could be an alternative option instead of conventional balance training given that a cognitive factor might be important to reduce fall risk. Specifically, considering that community-dwelling older adults with a history of falls are at high risk for falls, dual-task training would be clinically beneficial to improve balance by improving executive function with its ecological validity in community settings. Nevertheless, this study has some limitations. First, no follow-up assessments were implemented, which limits knowledge of how long subjects in the EG were able to maintain improved balance and executive function. Second, this study did not investigate balance improvements in real environments. Since balance was assessed in the environment in which the training was carried out, the similarity of the environment might influence the present results. Third, although most of the previous studies have consistently reported that learning effects could not appear clearly with only two trials of outcome measurements [ 11 , 12 , 14 ], it is impossible to exclude them as this study did not involve inactive controls. Finally, neuroimaging devices were not used to observe the changes in the prefrontal cortex, which is mainly in charge of executive function [ 34 ], so this study could not confirm the possibility that dual-task training could be used for facilitating neuroplasticity of the prefrontal cortex. Therefore, future studies need to investigate the long-term effects of dual-task training on balance in a variety of real environments and executive function by using neuroimaging devices.

5. Conclusions

This study demonstrated that 12 training sessions of dual-task training are more helpful in improving balance in older adults with a history of falls compared with conventional balance training, suggesting the feasibility that dual-task training could be used as an alternative method to improve balance in older adults with its ecological validity in community settings. Moreover, this study implies that executive function could be considered as one of the factors for improving balance in older adults in everyday life and especially suggests that improving executive function is useful as balance training for physically frail older adults.

Funding Statement

This research was supported by a Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) grant funded by the Korean Government (MOTIE) (P0012724, The Competency Development Program for Industry Specialist), and the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund.

Institutional Review Board Statement

The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Soonchunhyang University (202104-SB-031).

Informed Consent Statement

This study was approved for deliberation exemption because it minimizes the risk to the study subjects and the general public, does not collect or record the identify information of the study subjects, and does not target the study subjects in a vulnerable environment.

Data Availability Statement

Conflicts of interest.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Perspective article, a current view on dual-task paradigms and their limitations to capture cognitive load.

other words for dual task

  • Department of Educational Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany

Dual-task paradigms encompass a broad range of approaches to measure cognitive load in instructional settings. As a common characteristic, an additional task is implemented alongside a learning task to capture the individual’s unengaged cognitive capacities during the learning process. Measures to determine these capacities are, for instance, reaction times and interval errors on the additional task, while the performance on the learning task is to be maintained. Opposite to retrospectively applied subjective ratings, the continuous assessment within a dual-task paradigm allows to simultaneously monitor changes in the performance related to previously defined tasks. Following the Cognitive Load Theory, these changes in performance correspond to cognitive changes related to the establishment of permanently existing knowledge structures. Yet the current state of research indicates a clear lack of standardization of dual-task paradigms over study settings and task procedures. Typically, dual-task designs are adapted uniquely for each study, albeit with some similarities across different settings and task procedures. These similarities range from the type of modality to the frequency used for the additional task. This results in a lack of validity and comparability between studies due to arbitrarily chosen patterns of frequency without a sound scientific base, potentially confounding variables, or undecided adaptation potentials for future studies. In this paper, the lack of validity and comparability between dual-task settings will be presented, the current taxonomies compared and the future steps for a better standardization and implementation discussed.


Empirical studies in educational research are often accompanied by the term cognitive load and its measurement. As a construct based on the Cognitive Load Theory ( Sweller et al., 1998 ), it is depicted to reflect the utilization of mental resources, in particular the working memory of an individual, via their level of exhaustion. It is assumed to vary between a higher or lower state, depending on the tasks performed, for instance, writing an essay versus reciting simple vocabulary. By identifying the parameters exhausting the mental resources, instructional settings can be adapted for a higher learning outcome. For this purpose, different methods to measure cognitive load have been developed over the years. Brünken et al. (2003) classify these methods based on their objectivity and causal relationship into four categories: subjective-direct, subjective-indirect, objective-direct, and objective-indirect methods.

Subjective measurements can be summarized as self-reports like questionnaires ( Leppink et al., 2013 ) to assess the perceived mental effort. It is not a method best used for continuous assessment as it is executed retrospectively ( Brünken et al., 2003 ) and seems to be influenced in the sensitivity and accuracy of its results by the timing and frequency of its use ( Chen et al., 2011 ; van Gog et al., 2012 ). Nonetheless, it is so far the only method to attempt to identify the cognitive load distinguished by its three dimensions intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load ( Brünken et al., 2010 ; Leppink et al., 2013 ; Klepsch et al., 2017 ). In contrast, objective measurements assess the performance of the individual simultaneously to the task and vary from physiological methods like electroencephalography ( Antonenko et al., 2010 ) or fMRI ( Whelan, 2007 ) to dual tasks ( Park and Brünken, 2018 ). Chen et al. (2011) found the objective measurements more lacking compared to subjective measurements, because of their lower sensitivity toward small changes in the cognitive load during a task. Brünken et al. (2003) , however, emphasized the difference in accuracy between indirect and direct measurements based on the causal relation of mental effort and experienced cognitive load. In that regard, indirect measurements tend to be unreliable in their interpretation as other factors might have influenced the reported responses ( Brünken et al., 2010 ). Objective-direct measurements like neuroimaging and dual tasks, however, relate directly to the experienced cognitive load ( Brünken et al., 2003 ). And while neuroimaging methods like fMRI seem promising, some limitations arise by the intrusiveness of the technical device. Dual tasks, often also referred to as secondary tasks, present an objective-direct measurement in which two tasks are to be performed simultaneously to observe performance drops in either task. There are two ways to conduct dual tasks, either to induce or to assess cognitive load ( Brünken et al., 2002 ; Klepsch et al., 2017 ). To induce cognitive load, the secondary task is designed to demand the mental resources needed for the primary task, for instance, by tapping or humming a melody ( Park and Brünken 2015 ; Sun and Shea, 2016 ). Therefore, the performance of the primary task is affected. In contrast, the cognitive load can also be assessed by simple decision-making tasks like mathematical tasks ( Lee et al., 2015 ; Tang et al., 2015 ), to observe the performance of the secondary task without influencing the primary task.

Due to these differences in objectivity and causal relation, dual tasks might be seen as an adequate alternative to assess cognitive load as a simultaneous, objective-direct measurement. However, the current state of research showcases a broad variety and heterogeneity of dual-task methods that lack standardization and continuity in their implementation. This in turn hinders the validity and comparability between studies as well as an accurate depiction of the cognitive load throughout the learning process. To further expand on this discrepancy between intent and implementation of dual tasks, this paper will discern the underlying cause of the lack of validity and comparability and present the current state on the taxonomy of dual tasks.

The Lack of Validity and Comparability in Dual-Task Settings

For a better understanding of the proclaimed issues, the validation as formulated by Kane (2013) should be consulted. He states in his argument-based approach that two steps have to be executed to ensure validity: specifying the proposed interpretation or use of the test and evaluating these claims based on appropriate evidence. The evidence is collected through four inferences that build up from a single observation in a test setting, for instance, a multiple-choice question, to the implementation of the target score as a reflection of the real-life performance. In the dual-task setting, it is comparable to question who and what the task is going to assess, which parameters encompass the proposed interpretation and use and if the determined parameters result in its successful accomplishment. However, aside a few exceptions, there is a lack of empirical investigation of secondary tasks, not only regarding their psychometric properties but also in relation to their respective dual-task settings ( Watter et al., 2001 ; Jaeggi et al., 2010 ). Contrary to the assumption of validity being universal for every setting of its respective test ( Kane, 2013 ), validity has to be examined for each new proposed interpretation and use. A similar sentiment can be found in the study of Jaeggi et al. (2010) , where one of the more common secondary tasks, the n-back task, was examined on its validity. The mixed results showed not only difficulty in confirming its validity but also a further need for implementation and examination in different settings.

Another issue arises in the form of lacking comparability between the different dual-task studies. Currently, most dual tasks are custom-made for their specific instructional setting, without any reference to an evaluated and standardized method. Most often, the decision behind the choice of a dual-task method is not further discussed, which in turn might hinder future researchers in continuing or implementing these studies. The different types of dual task not only lack a framework by which a fitting task can be chosen but they also ignore natural limitations in combining different tasks, for instance, a primary motoric task of walking and a secondary task of typing on a phone. This setting would result in a reduced performance of the primary task as the secondary task is naturally intrusive by limiting the field of vision ( Lamberg and Muratori, 2012 ). Nor do they focus as much on the aspect that experience in multitasking can increase the ability to dual task ( Strobach et al., 2015 ) or that dual tasks are great to measure progress in novices but not experts ( Haji et al., 2015 ). Similarly, to the topic of experts, there can be confounding variables, for instance, response automatization ( van Nuland and Rogers, 2016 ) and age, in particular dementia, influencing the participants ( Toosizadeh et al., 2016 ; Sawami et al., 2017 ).

The Current Taxonomy of Dual Tasks

Despite the broad heterogeneity of dual-task methods in instructional settings, one common denominator can be found. A dual-task setting consists of two tasks: the primary task that the researcher wants to observe and the secondary task that has no connection to it beyond its competitive nature. The participant has to perform both tasks concurrently. Apart from that, most attempts at creating a systematic approach toward the variety of dual-task methods have been few and far between and lacking a holistic view.

One of the earlier taxonomies by Brown (1978) postulated four design factors to determine differences between dual-task methods: the information processing demand, the prioritized task performance, the temporal structure and the locus of interference. The first design factor focused on the demand the chosen secondary task puts onto the information processing – either by stimuli with constant or variable demands, for example, changing between easy and complex tasks, or by continuously variable and continuously constant demands not bound to specific stimuli. Another role played the priority given to the secondary task, which could be either primary, secondary, or of equal importance to the primary task. It could be compared to the priorly mentioned ways of inducing or assessing cognitive load ( Brünken et al., 2002 ; Klepsch et al., 2017 ). van Nuland and Rogers (2016) further recommended the task priority to be explicitly stated in the participants’ instructions, as there otherwise might be a task performance trade-off. The third design factor by Brown (1978) focused on the temporal structure of the secondary task, which was either force-paced by the experimental setting, self-paced by the participant or force-paced by the experimental setting within a specific time interval. Lastly, the locus of interference between both tasks could either be at the sensory input or motor output, within the process of the tasks or a combination of all three. He argued though that both sensory input and motor output should not be used as a locus of interference as the dual-task method intends to focus on the mental resources and therefore needs to be used during the process of the mental activity.

Another attempt at categorizing and standardizing dual tasks from a physician’s viewpoint has been made by McIsaac et al. (2015) . Three main categories were stated: tasks by action, task complexity, and task novelty. The category of tasks by action distinguishes between dual tasks consisting of both cognitive, both motor, and cognitive-motor or motor-cognitive primary and secondary task combinations. Therefore, the selection of the proper dual-task method does not only focus on finding a fitting secondary task contentwise but also on its execution in combination with the primary task. The second category, task complexity, is in general a relevant factor but not easy to standardize. The complexity of a task might be felt differently for someone that has never done it versus an experienced user. In this case, task novelty also plays a role as the experience influences the complexity and therefore also the measurement results ( Strobach et al., 2015 ).

Lastly, the recent taxonomy by Wollesen et al. (2019) focused on the different task types. They distinguished between reaction time tasks, controlled processing tasks, visuospatial tasks, mental tracking tasks, working memory tasks, and discrimination tasks. The reaction time tasks were defined as tasks that rely on the reaction time between the sensory stimulus and the behavioral response, for example, pressing a button whenever a light goes on. The controlled processing task expands the reaction time task by the addition of a decision-making process, for example, pressing a button only when a specific symbol appears. The visuospatial task focuses on detecting or processing visual information, for example, finding a symbol in a rotated position. The mental tracking tasks require the memorization of information and are split into two subcategories: the arithmetic tests, for example, counting backward in 3 s (n-back tasks), and the verbal fluency, for example, naming words starting with the same letter. The working memory tasks are a simpler form of the mental tracking tasks as they only require holding information but not processing it, for example, memorizing a picture that has to be found again afterward. Lastly, the discrimination tasks focus on the selective attention toward a specific stimulus, for example, the Go/NoGo tasks in which participants have to either provide or withhold a response depending on the stimulus ( Verbruggen and Logan, 2008 ).

Expanding on the visuospatial tasks presented by Wollesen et al. (2019) , a few more modality-related classifications can be found. The method of tapping or humming melodies ( Park and Brünken 2015 ; Sun and Shea, 2016 ), mathematical tasks ( Lee et al., 2015 ; Tang et al., 2015 ), and visual tasks like reading text or symbols ( Scerbo et al., 2017 ; Wirzberger et al., 2018 ) showcase that the modality between primary and secondary task can differ between auditory/vocally, visually, and motoric tasks. Furthermore, as mentioned by Brown (1978) and Wollesen et al. (2019) , there can be differences in the frequency of the dual task, from event- or interval-based tasks that appear, for example, every 3, 5, or 7 s to continuous tasks that constantly request the participants’ attention. Yet, there is not really a study to be found that uses dual tasks continuously. Most rely on either interval- or event-based frequency.

Outlining a Holistic Taxonomy

The three taxonomies presented lack a holistic view of the dual-task setting and tend to either simplify or strongly limit the classification. For instance, McIsaac et al. (2015) categorizes tasks by action into cognitive or motor tasks even though the description of detecting a cognitive action outside of an fMRI setting seems contradictory. The participant needs to either act motoric or verbally to respond. In contrast, the taxonomy of Wollesen et al. (2019) expands on the task action by displaying a broader variety of secondary tasks but stays limited to only this one parameter. Furthermore, simply the difference between the two dual-task types of inducing and assessing cognitive load needs to be included in a taxonomy as it changes the intent and therefore the use of it. For this purpose, an attempt at a holistic taxonomy was made ( Figure 1 ).


Figure 1 . Holistic taxonomy of dual-task settings with exemplary selection paths.

Parameters relevant to the design of the dual-task setting were included in a stepwise order, ultimately resulting in the selection of the secondary task based on the chosen path. Most of the options are not unique at that, for instance, middle complex tasks can be event-based too. Following the yellow-colored path as an example, after selecting to induce the cognitive load, the stimulus modality and task action modality of the primary task have to be regarded. For instance, choosing a verbal primary task would in turn either hinder a verbal secondary task or restrict the option of higher frequency types in the subsequent parameters. These selections are followed by the complexity of both tasks, and lastly the possible frequency types, frequency rate, and content of the secondary task. Lastly, the task action should show the possible options regarding the prior selections, in this case to either tap or push a button after the sound event, as the secondary task was intended to be auditory in its stimulus but motoric in its action. However, it should be noted that the taxonomy needs to be standardized to be usable as a guide or framework in designing a dual-task setting. The variations of the parameters need to be tested and validated, which, aside from a few exceptions, has yet to be done.

So far, the classifications of the current dual-task paradigms show a mix of different factors without a theoretical framework. Most studies lack a detailed explanation of the reasoning behind the implementation or adaptation of a secondary task, aside the general assumption of using a fitting cognitive load measurement. The presented taxonomies show a broad range of parameters but do not find a common ground. While McIsaac et al. (2015) summarize the different tasks by their action of cognitive versus motoric tasks, the complexity and the novelty of the task, Wollesen et al. (2019) go a bit further and categorize dual tasks by their execution, but with no regards to other parameters. In addition, both taxonomies need to be further specified for a profound framework, especially regarding the different modalities and frequency of dual tasks ( Brown, 1978 ). According to the dual-coding theory ( Paivio, 1971 , 1991 ), both verbal information and nonverbal/visual information interact for a better recall, but their information is processed differently in their own channel. Therefore, there should be a higher regard toward the selection of the task modalities and their influence on the cognitive load measurement. Using the same modalities in primary and secondary tasks might contribute to a higher cognitive load measurement because the information is not already distinguished simply by its sensory input. Further influences might be found in the different temporal structure of dual tasks, in particular the frequency in which the secondary task should be used. So far, even empirical studies that describe their task as continuous, end up being high-interval tasks or tasks that cannot be done over a longer time frame because of physical exhaustion, for instance, constant humming or tapping ( Park and Brünken 2015 ; Sun and Shea, 2016 ). This bears the question on how to change the lack of continuous dual tasks as this particular ability makes it a noteworthy measurement for the cognitive load. Furthermore, it not only needs to be usable over a longer period but also have more variations to be applicable in different settings. For this, it is advisable to look back at the modalities and the restrictions they contain as the physical strain and execution interfere with a continuous dual task. For example, humming a melody might influence an emotional reaction ( Schellenberg et al., 2013 ), but also simply put a physical strain over a longer period. Visual dual tasks would be hard to be kept up in a continuous setting as it would be hard to split the focus of the eyes toward two different tasks, see split-attention effect ( Ayres and Cierniak, 2012 ). A solution might be the use of eye-tracking to adapt the secondary task into a less intrusive method, for example, by changing colors and symbols in the background of the instructional setting to observe the eye movement. In motoric tasks, primary tasks usually cannot be physical as it tends to disturb the secondary task and heightens the physical strain. An exception can be created with physical tasks that work disconnected from each other, for example, tapping on a pedal while sitting and repairing machinery.

Conclusively, future research in relation to dual-task paradigms should take a step back in creating or expanding the different methods of dual tasks and firstly focus on creating a profound and universal taxonomy. Furthermore, the currently existing methods should be evaluated and adapted to create a standardized and reliable use. This of course needs an extensive analysis of the instructional settings and the possibilities to implement dual tasks based on pre-defined variables so that in the future researchers can more easily choose the fitting dual-task paradigms. Dual tasks should furthermore work more toward creating truly continuous tasks to ensure the direct measurement of cognitive load that it proclaims to be ( Brünken et al., 2003 ).

Data Availability Statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, and further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

Author Contributions

The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest

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Keywords: cognitive load, dual task, secondary task, measurement, validity, comparability, cognitive load measurement, taxonomy

Citation: Esmaeili Bijarsari S (2021) A Current View on Dual-Task Paradigms and Their Limitations to Capture Cognitive Load. Front. Psychol . 12:648586. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648586

Received: 31 December 2020; Accepted: 28 April 2021; Published: 20 May 2021.

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Copyright © 2021 Esmaeili Bijarsari. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari, [email protected]

This article is part of the Research Topic

Recent Approaches for Assessing Cognitive Load from a Validity Perspective

  • Original Article
  • Published: 29 April 2019

Common and distinct neural correlates of dual-tasking and task-switching: a meta-analytic review and a neuro-cognitive processing model of human multitasking

  • Britta Worringer 1 , 2   na1 ,
  • Robert Langner 3 , 4   na1 ,
  • Iring Koch 5 ,
  • Simon B. Eickhoff 3 , 4 ,
  • Claudia R. Eickhoff 4 , 6 &
  • Ferdinand C. Binkofski 1 , 7 , 8  

Brain Structure and Function volume  224 ,  pages 1845–1869 ( 2019 ) Cite this article

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Although there are well-known limitations of the human cognitive system in performing two tasks simultaneously (dual-tasking) or alternatingly (task-switching), the question for a common vs. distinct neural basis of these multitasking limitations is still open. We performed two Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies on dual-tasking or task-switching and tested for commonalities and differences in the brain regions associated with either domain. We found a common core network related to multitasking comprising bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), left dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and right anterior insula. Meta-analytic contrasts revealed eight fronto-parietal clusters more consistently activated in dual-tasking (bilateral frontal operculum, dPMC, and anterior IPS, left inferior frontal sulcus and left inferior frontal gyrus) and, conversely, four clusters (left inferior frontal junction, posterior IPS, and precuneus as well as frontomedial cortex) more consistently activated in task-switching. Together with sub-analyses of preparation effects in task-switching, our results argue against purely passive structural processing limitations in multitasking. Based on these findings and drawing on current theorizing, we present a neuro-cognitive processing model of multitasking.

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We thank all contacted authors who contributed results of relevant contrasts not explicitly reported in the original publications, and we apologize to all authors whose eligible papers we might have missed.

This study was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (LA 3071/3-1 to R.L. and S.B.E.; EI 816/4-1 to S.B.E.), the National Institute of Mental Health (R01-MH074457 to S.B.E.), the Helmholtz Portfolio Theme “Supercomputing and Modeling for the Human Brain” (S.B.E.), and the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant agreement no. 604102 (S.B.E.).

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Britta Worringer and Robert Langner contributed equally to this work.

Authors and Affiliations

Clinical and Cognitive Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany

Britta Worringer & Ferdinand C. Binkofski

Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Center for Health and Society, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany

Britta Worringer

Institute of Systems Neuroscience, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, Düsseldorf, Germany

Robert Langner & Simon B. Eickhoff

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-7), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany

Robert Langner, Simon B. Eickhoff & Claudia R. Eickhoff

Institute of Psychology, RWTH Aachen University, Jägerstr. 17-19, 52066, Aachen, Germany

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany

Claudia R. Eickhoff

Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Research Center Jülich, Pauwelsstr. 30, Jülich, Germany

Ferdinand C. Binkofski

Jülich Aachen Research Alliance JARA-BRAIN, Pauwelsstr. 30, Aachen, Germany

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Supplementary material 2 (docx 49 kb), appendix 1: overview of all task-switching experiments included in the analysis.

  • CTI cue–trial interval, ITI intertrial interval, vis visual, man manual
  • a No significant switch costs were observed, b univalent switches-repetitions, c bivalent switch repetitions, d incongruent shifting > neutral non-shifting, e neural shifting > incongruent non-shifting, f S–R at T0, g S–R at T1, h shift > repeat, i high-response conflict switches > low-response conflict switches, j high-stimulus conflict switches > low-stimulus conflict switches, k color switch targets > color repeat targets, l switch targets > speed repeat targets, m rule switch > exploitation, n meta-rule switch > exploitation

Appendix 2: Overview of all dual-tasking experiments included in the analysis

  • vis visual, man manual, aud auditory
  • a Younger participants, b older participants, c Set-4, d Set-8, e Set-4, f Set-8, g high load > single task, h low load > single task

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Worringer, B., Langner, R., Koch, I. et al. Common and distinct neural correlates of dual-tasking and task-switching: a meta-analytic review and a neuro-cognitive processing model of human multitasking. Brain Struct Funct 224 , 1845–1869 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-019-01870-4

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-019-01870-4

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Gray matter loss relates to dual task gait in Lewy body disorders and aging


  • 1 Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, 7-112J CSB, 11350-83 Ave NW, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G3, Canada.
  • 2 Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute (NMHI), University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
  • 3 Department of Psychiatry, Douglas Mental Health University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
  • 4 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
  • 5 CERVO Brain Research Center, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
  • 6 Cumming School of Medicine, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
  • 7 Department of Medicine (Division of Neurology), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
  • 8 Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
  • 9 Movement Disorders Research and Rehabilitation Centre, Carespace Health and Wellness, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
  • 10 Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
  • 11 Gait and Brain Lab, Parkwood Institute Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada.
  • 12 Department of Medicine and Division of Geriatric Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, ON, Canada.
  • 13 Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
  • 14 Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, 7-112J CSB, 11350-83 Ave NW, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G3, Canada. [email protected].
  • 15 Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute (NMHI), University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. [email protected].
  • PMID: 37902878
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00415-023-12052-y

Background: Within the spectrum of Lewy body disorders (LBD), both Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by gait and balance disturbances, which become more prominent under dual-task (DT) conditions. The brain substrates underlying DT gait variations, however, remain poorly understood in LBD.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between gray matter volume loss and DT gait variations in LBD.

Methods: Seventy-nine participants including cognitively unimpaired PD, PD with mild cognitive impairment, PD with dementia (PDD), or DLB and 20 cognitively unimpaired controls were examined across a multi-site study. PDD and DLB were grouped together for analyses. Differences in gait speed between single and DT conditions were quantified by dual task cost (DTC). Cortical, subcortical, ventricle, and cerebellum brain volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer. Linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between gray matter volumes and DTC.

Results: Smaller amygdala and total cortical volumes, and larger ventricle volumes were associated with a higher DTC across LBD and cognitively unimpaired controls. No statistically significant interaction between group and brain volumes were found. Adding cognitive and motor covariates or white matter hyperintensity volumes separately to the models did not affect brain volume and DTC associations.

Conclusion: Gray matter volume loss is associated with worse DT gait performance compared to single task gait, across cognitively unimpaired controls through and the LBD spectrum. Impairment in DT gait performance may be driven by age-related cortical neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Dual task; Gait; Lewy body disorder: aging; MRI.

© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.

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Synonyms of task

  • as in purpose
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Thesaurus Definition of task

 (Entry 1 of 2)

Synonyms & Similar Words

  • responsibility
  • undertaking
  • participation
  • involvement

Thesaurus Definition of task  (Entry 2 of 2)

Synonym Chooser

How does the noun task contrast with its synonyms?

Some common synonyms of task are assignment , chore , duty , job , and stint . While all these words mean "a piece of work to be done," task implies work imposed by a person in authority or an employer or by circumstance.

When can assignment be used instead of task ?

The words assignment and task can be used in similar contexts, but assignment implies a definite limited task assigned by one in authority.

When might chore be a better fit than task ?

While in some cases nearly identical to task , chore implies a minor routine activity necessary for maintaining a household or farm.

When would duty be a good substitute for task ?

The meanings of duty and task largely overlap; however, duty implies an obligation to perform or responsibility for performance.

Where would job be a reasonable alternative to task ?

The synonyms job and task are sometimes interchangeable, but job applies to a piece of work voluntarily performed; it may sometimes suggest difficulty or importance.

In what contexts can stint take the place of task ?

While the synonyms stint and task are close in meaning, stint implies a carefully allotted or measured quantity of assigned work or service.

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  • take to task

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“Task.” Merriam-Webster.com Thesaurus , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/thesaurus/task. Accessed 9 Nov. 2023.

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Britannica English: Translation of task for Arabic Speakers

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synonyms for task

  • responsibility
  • undertaking
  • daily grind
  • fun and games
  • long row to hoe

See also synonyms for: tasked tasking tasks

antonyms for task

Most relevant

  • irresponsibility
  • entertainment
  • good health
  • unemployment

Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group.

How to use task in a sentence

They provide response playbooks, help assign tasks to the correct team members, and help capture records of how and when your company took action.

The beauty of it all is that once your papers are organized, your space is cleaner and your tasks are accomplished quicker.

A hashtag challenge is a unique TikTok’s content format where brands ask users to post a certain task using a specific hashtag.

Today’s technologies aren’t up to the task of deep decarbonization.

You can also right-click on the app and choose End task from there.

In 2011 LGBT media outlet Queerty took the app to task for allegedly deleting accounts that made reference to being trans.

Detectives with a fugitive task force caught up with Polanco and a friend on a Bronx street in the early afternoon.

Sabrine is a trained lawyer, likely a helpful quality when your task is to push politicians.

It was a complex task they were asked to do, and every cultural and experiential advantage would be required.

Before dying in 1219, Marshal would begin the task of rebuilding England after decades of war.

And it was no light task , then, for six hundred men to keep the peace on a thousand miles of frontier.

Will the new issues promptly retire when their special task is over?

He sighed as he laid the papers on the table; for he thought the task would be a harder one than even his own immolation.

Having accomplished his task within three months Datto Mandi withdrew with all his men, except two who wished to settle at Pardo.

Through the beautiful, windy autumn days, he labored at his difficult task , the task of telling a story.

Choose the synonym for crotchety

Words Related To task

  • Mom and pops
  • corporations
  • establishments
  • fly-by-night operations
  • institutions
  • organizations
  • partnerships
  • shoestring operations
  • safekeeping
  • call the signals
  • give directions
  • give orders
  • lay down the law
  • put foot down
  • requisition
  • take charge
  • take the lead
  • calls the signals
  • gives directions
  • gives orders
  • lies down the law
  • puts foot down
  • requisitions
  • takes charge
  • corporation
  • establishment
  • involvement
  • organization
  • commissions
  • commitments
  • engagements
  • minding the stores
  • obligations
  • occupations
  • taking care of businesses
  • undertakings
  • minding the store
  • taking care of business
  • performance
  • pet project
  • proposition
  • speculation


  • follow throughs
  • performances
  • pet projects
  • propositions
  • speculations
  • Synonyms For
  • Antonyms For
  • Related Words

A Dual Book Launch with Peter Carlaftes & Kat Georges

New York Public Library Jefferson Market Branch and Three Rooms Press present 

Celebrating the release of their new poetry collections


with special guests

Andrei Codrescu • Uche Nduka • Puma Perl

Karen Hildebrand • Jane LeCroy • Sophie Malleret

The event takes place in the Willa Cather program room on the first floor

other words for dual task

High Praise for Peter Carlaftes and LIFE IN THE PAST LANE

“Audacious!” The New York Times Book Review

ˆ A stunning work of memoir rendered in totally original poetry .

You won't find any of the artifices of academic verse here. This is real.

These are to-the-bone poems .” —W.K. Stratton, author, Los Angeles Times bestseller The Wild Bunch

“ Peter Carlaftes is an energetic, generous, and anarchic poet. His iconoclasm is priceless. ” —Uche Nduka, author, Bainbridge Island Notebook

“ Fun and entertaining, faster than on the road of prosaic tail lights. A shift into high .” —Charles Plymell, poet, Benzedrine Highway


“Brilliant .” —Library Journal

“ This book dazzles with its visionary witnessing, spiritual epiphanies, refreshing humor, anthems,  and odes to love, reminding the reader that all life is holy .” —Lisa Panepinto, poet, On This Borrowed Bike

“ Georges is a keen observer of urban life. It’s not that she doesn’t see the grit, but she hears a siren as a soprano .” —Karen Hildebrand, poet, Crossing Pleasure Avenue

“ This is poetry at its finest. ” Richard Modiano, Director Emeritus Beyond Baroque Literary/Arts Center 


Peter Carlaftes is author of five books including the poetry collections Drunkyard Dog and I Fold With the Hand I Was Dealt and two collections of plays: Teatrophy and Triumph for Rent. He is co-editor of the annual contemporary dada journal, Maintenant and editor of The Faking Of The President: Nineteen Stories of White House Noir. His poetry has recently appeared in NYC from the Inside, Love, Love, Chorus: A Literary Mixtape and many more. He is co-director of Three Rooms Press.

Kat Georges is an internationally-acclaimed New York City-based author, poet, playwright, and graphic designer. Her previous books include of Our Lady of the Hunger: Poems and Three Somebodies: Plays about Notorious Dissidents, along with multiple chapbooks. Her poems and short stories appear in Arriving at a Shoreline, Love Love Magazine, Ladyland, Signs of Life, Have a NYC and Have a NYC 2 (NYC noir), and many more anthologies. She lives in Greenwich Village, New York City


  1. Dual-task exercise training after a stroke

    other words for dual task

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    other words for dual task

  3. Schematic illustration of the Dual-Task paradigm. The figure

    other words for dual task

  4. Dual-task exercise training after a stroke

    other words for dual task

  5. What is Dual-Task Paradigm

    other words for dual task

  6. Dual Task Training in TBI

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  1. 3 Tips for a Powerful 2023


  3. Trittsicher Dual Task Training

  4. Words with dual meaning

  5. Balancing exercise on Gym ball in hemiplegia#physio #physiotherapy#strokerecovery Contact-9760799933

  6. NeuroTracker Dual Task training


  1. Dual Task synonyms

    Synonyms for Dual Task (other words and phrases for Dual Task). Synonyms for Dual task. 14 other terms for dual task- words and phrases with similar meaning. Lists. synonyms. antonyms. definitions. sentences. thesaurus. suggest new. do double duty. double duty. double work. dual challenge. dual function. twin objectives.

  2. Multitask synonyms

    perform multiple tasks simultaneously. v. # performance. walk and chew gum at the same time. # slang , negative. do several jobs at the same time. # work , performance. execute several tasks simultaneously. # computer.

  3. Dual Tasks synonyms

    Synonyms for Dual Tasks (other words and phrases for Dual Tasks). Synonyms for Dual tasks. 14 other terms for dual tasks- words and phrases with similar meaning. Lists. synonyms. antonyms. definitions. sentences. thesaurus. suggest new. double works. double duty. doubled responsibilities.

  4. Synonyms for dual task in English

    Noun dual role dual responsibility double role double feature double bill double hat Standard Suggestions task dual Discover interesting words and their synonyms tenure, affair, drawing, want, leakage, sight, safe, chamber, relocation, man's, solid, proposal, secret, nexus, lying, bench, ideal, underlying, creation, bleed. Download our free app

  5. Is Dual-Task Training Clinically Beneficial to Improve Balance and

    Dual-task refers to the ability to perform two or more cognitive and physical activities simultaneously . Since both cognitive and physical functions decrease with aging, ... In other words, executive function is essential for successful dual-task training, supported by the results of this study that subjects in the EG showed improvement in the ...

  6. Frontiers

    Dual tasks, often also referred to as secondary tasks, present an objective-direct measurement in which two tasks are to be performed simultaneously to observe performance drops in either task.

  7. The dual-task practice advantage: Empirical evidence and cognitive

    To pursue the aim of looking for mechanisms of improved dual-task performance with practice, the present paper evaluates the robustness of one specific phenomenon: the dual-task practice advantage (DTPA), an idea going back to the empirical findings of Hirst, Spelke, Reaves, Caharack, and Neisser as well as to the theoretical assumptions of Damos and Wickens (): "[single-task skills] fail ...

  8. Common and distinct neural correlates of dual-tasking and task

    Although there are well-known limitations of the human cognitive system in performing two tasks simultaneously (dual-tasking) or alternatingly (task-switching), the question for a common vs. distinct neural basis of these multitasking limitations is still open. We performed two Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies on dual-tasking or task-switching and tested ...

  9. Gray matter loss relates to dual task gait in Lewy body ...

    Background: Within the spectrum of Lewy body disorders (LBD), both Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by gait and balance disturbances, which become more prominent under dual-task (DT) conditions. The brain substrates underlying DT gait variations, however, remain poorly understood in LBD. ...

  10. Time Course of Dual-task Interference in the Brain in ...

    Due to the brain's limited cognitive capacity, simultaneous execution of multiple tasks can lead to performance impairments, especially when the tasks occur closely in time. This limitation is known as dual-task interference. We aimed to investigate the time course of this phenomenon in the brain, utilizing a combination of EEG, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), and drift diffusion ...

  11. 20 Words and Phrases for Dual Task Interface

    Another way to say Dual Task Interface? Synonyms for Dual Task Interface (other words and phrases for Dual Task Interface).

  12. 5 Synonyms & Antonyms for MULTITASK

    Find 5 different ways to say MULTITASK, along with antonyms, related words, and example sentences at Thesaurus.com.

  13. Multi-task synonyms

    n. multitasker n. tasking multimedia-tasking multiskilling n. polyvalence n. Another way to say Multi-task? Synonyms for Multi-task (other words and phrases for Multi-task).

  14. Synonyms for Dual task

    Synonyms for 'Dual task'. Best synonyms for 'dual task' are 'double work', 'do double duty' and 'dual function'.

  15. PDF Time Course of Dual-task Interference in the Brain in ...

    In other words, it is crucial to determine when exactly the interference occurs and how long it lasts. To address this question, we conducted a study using the combination of ... all dual task trials, the tone task was presented first. There was a total of eight dual-task conditions: two SOAs (short and long) x two lane-change directions (shift ...

  16. 12 Synonyms & Antonyms for DUAL

    On this page you'll find 20 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to dual, such as: bifold, binal, binary, coupled, double, and doubleheader. Quiz Synonym Of The Day Quiz: Find Out What The Allure Is! Start the Quiz How to use dual in a sentence

  17. 103 Words and Phrases for Multiple Tasks

    Multiple Tasks synonyms - 103 Words and Phrases for Multiple Tasks several tasks n. many tasks n. various tasks n. complex tasks n. different tasks diverse tasks dozens of errands many task many work n. more tasks more than one process multi task multi tasking multiple actions multiple deeds multiple directives multiple functions multiple test n.

  18. task

    noun These are words and phrases related to task. Click on any word or phrase to go to its thesaurus page. Or, go to the definition of task. The clerk was given several tasks to be completed by the end of the day. Synonyms chore job duty work labor stint mission assignment charge responsibility errand business undertaking

  19. TASKS Synonyms: 66 Similar Words

    Synonyms for TASKS: duties, assignments, jobs, chores, projects, responsibilities, missions, functions, errands, endeavors

  20. TASK Synonyms: 66 Similar Words

    Synonyms of task task 1 of 2 noun Definition of task 1 as in job a piece of work that needs to be done regularly one of my tasks in the morning is to make lunches for everyone in the family Synonyms & Similar Words Relevance job duty assignment project chore mission function responsibility endeavor errand undertaking operation post enterprise

  21. 6 Words and Phrases for Multi Task Job

    Another way to say Multi Task Job? Synonyms for Multi Task Job (other words and phrases for Multi Task Job). Synonyms for Multi task job. 6 other terms for multi task job- words and phrases with similar meaning. Lists. synonyms. antonyms. definitions. sentences. thesaurus. suggest new. multi task. multi functional. multi mission.

  22. What is another word for task?

    A piece of work or assignment to be done or undertaken assignment duty job business charge exercise labor US labour UK mission commission enterprise function occupation undertaking errand responsibility work detail employment endeavor US endeavour UK engagement brief goal objective project quest venture vocation

  23. 141 Words and Phrases for Additional Task

    Another way to say Additional Task? Synonyms for Additional Task (other words and phrases for Additional Task). Synonyms for Additional task. 141 other terms for additional task- words and phrases with similar meaning. Lists. synonyms. antonyms. definitions. sentences. thesaurus. words. phrases. Parts of speech. nouns.

  24. 78 Synonyms & Antonyms for TASK (Page 2)

    Find 78 different ways to say TASK, along with antonyms, related words, and example sentences at Thesaurus.com (Page 2 of 6).

  25. A Dual Book Launch with Peter Carlaftes & Kat Georges

    Kat Georges is an internationally-acclaimed New York City-based author, poet, playwright, and graphic designer. Her previous books include of Our Lady of the Hunger: Poems and Three Somebodies: Plays about Notorious Dissidents, along with multiple chapbooks. Her poems and short stories appear in Arriving at a Shoreline, Love Love Magazine ...