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Planning For Hazards

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Table of contents.

  • Description
  • Mitigating Hazards through Planning
  • Considering Community Context
  • Land Use Planning and Regulation in Colorado
  • How Do I Assess Local Risks from Hazards?
  • How Do I Apply Risk Assessment Results to Planning?
  • Overview of Planning Tools and Strategies
  • Site-Specific Hazard Assessment Model Code Language and Commentary
  • Preparing the Risk Assessment
  • Choosing Appropriate Planning Tools and Strategies
  • Implementing Planning Tools and Strategies
  • Available Resources
  • Planning for Hazards Project Team

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  • How it Works
  • Characteristics of Effective Pre-Disaster Recovery Plans
  • Implementation
  • Where It’s Been Done
  • Advantages and Key Talking Points

Pre-disaster recovery planning is an opportunity for communities to consider how they will manage important recovery issues, like how to keep the government and essential services up and running, where to locate temporary housing, how and where they will rebuild, and how to reestablish essential economic activity. Communities can, and should, take steps before being impacted by a disaster to ensure that the aftermath will not become a disastrous and chaotic situation in itself.

FEMA Guidance Document for Developing COOP plan.  Source - FEMA

Three types of community plans available to local governments are particularly important for helping smooth the road to post-disaster response and recovery:

1. Pre-disaster Recovery Plans help increase the recovery capacity of communities and their governments by creating an organizational framework for decisions and actions taken post-disaster (FEMA 2017). Pre-disaster recovery planning is typically a broad-based, inclusive process that builds upon existing community plans and aligns with other hazards plans and policies. The process of developing a plan helps communities to understand their existing resources and needs, recognize opportunities for long-term hazard mitigation and resilience building, and establish relationships and processes to ensure a faster and more organized recovery process in the event of a disaster. Crucially, pre-disaster recovery plans identify leadership for the recovery process, as well as the key responsibilities for local government agencies and staff. According to FEMA (2017) and the American Planning Association (2014) there are numerous benefits to pre-disaster recovery planning that include:

2. Continuity of Operations Plans (COOP) can be developed to ensure that citizens do not experience significant disruption of services during and following times of emergencies and or disasters. FEMA defines COOPs as: “an effort within individual executive departments and agencies to ensure that Primary Mission Essential Functions (PMEFs) continue to be performed during a wide range of emergencies, including localized acts of nature, accidents and technological or attack-related emergencies” (Continuity of Operations, 2015).

3. Continuity of Government (COG) Plans are similar to a COOP, although their primary focus is to establish defined procedures for allowing a government entity to continue its essential operations following a catastrophic event. COG plans set procedures for preserving facilities, equipment, and records. Many times, a COG plan is part of a more comprehensive COOP.

Pre-Disaster Recovery Plans can lead to a much more organized and efficient approach to a community's post-disaster recovery.

Pre-Disaster Recovery Plans:

Pre-disaster recovery planning is an emerging best-practice for towns, cities, and counties with a goal of building resilience to hazards, especially as some of these communities are facing the same hazards on a continual basis. There are no standard rules or templates for the development or implementation of pre-disaster recovery plans, and communities have developed their plans in different ways.

The most successful plans do share several common characteristics:

First, they take a holistic approach. While each community’s pre-disaster recovery plan will look different depending on their needs and priorities, it should consider the full range of potential recovery decisions and actions that will be needed in the event of a disaster. Topics addressed in the plan may include “business resumption and economic redevelopment, housing repair and reconstruction, infrastructure restoration and mitigation, short-term recovery actions that affect long-term redevelopment, sustainable land use, environmental restoration, and financial considerations as well as other long-term recovery issues identified by the community” (Post-Disaster Redevelopment, 2011). Depending on a community’s needs and priorities, land use planning tools in this guide, like post-disaster building moratoriums or overlay zones , may be enacted pre-disaster to help shape post-disaster recovery.

Second, pre-disaster recovery plans should be consistent with other community plans, including their comprehensive plan , hazard mitigation plan and/or climate plan . As noted by FEMA (2017), building on and integrating with other community plans avoids “re-inventing the wheel” in pre-disaster recovery plans or creating unnecessary planning conflicts during the recovery period.

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Fourth, pre-disaster recovery planning requires broad-based participation by local leadership and government officials. While different offices might take the lead in developing a pre-disaster recovery plan, the process itself requires active participation by diverse participants like planners, emergency managers, key departmental staff, town/city managers, and community leaders. Further, a good pre-disaster recovery plan will make links to regional or county-level actors or resources who may provide additional capacity to a community post-disaster.

Fifth, pre-disaster recovery plans should involve significant community and stakeholder engagement and outreach . Engaging with communities and stakeholders allows recovery planners to understand the existing (and sometimes contradictory) regulatory conditions and differences between communities or populations in their jurisdiction. Leveraging current planning processes and mechanisms, such as hazard mitigation plan updates, resiliency plans and adaptation plans, are great opportunities to engage the public for pre-disaster recovery planning. The Maui County Planning Department, for instance, carried out an  extensive community engagement process that helped shape seven county-wide recommendations at the core of their reconstruction guidelines as well as addressing additional community-specific needs and considerations.

Finally, pre-disaster recovery plans should be flexible and scalable to meet a community’s uncertain needs across different types of disasters and recovery processes. Maui County’s reconstruction guidelines and protocols, for example, sets forth seven guidelines for recovery that do not have the same force of law as a rule or regulation but are a flexible means to “inform decision makers, set policy, and implement a planning paradigm in the face of uncertainty.” Its plan then describes 26 protocols, or instructions on how to implement the guidelines. The result is a streamlined set of recovery actions that are flexible to meet the wide range of hazards that Maui may face while detailed enough to hasten the reconstruction process.

While pre-disaster planning for post-disaster recovery is an emerging best practice, there are useful guides available to Colorado communities. FEMA’s Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning Guide for Local Governments and Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning for State Governments define key recovery concepts and lays out a whole-of-community based planning process that aligns with the National Disaster Recovery Framework. The Community Recovery Management Toolkit further provides guidance, case studies, tools and training for post-disaster recovery planning. The American Planning Association provides several important reports and briefing papers that describe the pre- and post-disaster recovery planning process, and highlight successful case studies from across the United States.   

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COOPs and COGs : In many communities, COOPs and COGs are developed by Emergency Management staff; however, the planner has an important role to play. For example, planners can help establish continuity of operations procedures for the Planning Department to be included in the COOP.

The Colorado Department of Homeland Security and Emergency Management maintains several helpful resources for developing COOPs, including a COOP Plan Review checklist, a plan template, and links to FEMA training resources.  

In many communities, these types of plans are developed by Emergency Management staff; however, the planner has an important role to play in the development of each of these plans. For example, planners can help establish continuity of operations procedures for the Planning Department to be included in the COOP and there are many planning/land use issues that must be addressed in pre- or post-recovery plans.   

Though the recovery plan could be developed after a disaster to guide recovery decisions, these three highlighted plans should ideally be prepared in advance of a disaster. Making the investment in pre-disaster plans that address post-disaster issues will pay dividends for the communities that take the time and initiative to do the planning. These plans should be regularly revisited, especially following an event that would require activation of such plans.  

In 2014, officials in Douglas County, Colorado adopted the County’s first Disaster Recovery Plan. The plan establishes the County’s comprehensive framework for managing recovery efforts following a major disaster. The plan aims to “promote mitigation and foster resilient redevelopment and reconstruction” after disasters. As described by Commissioner David Weaver:

“ Having been through our own wildfires, floods, and other local emergencies, as well as having witnessed other counties navigate their own incidents, our staff had the foresight to recognize the importance of collaboration among our partners to assemble a recovery plan. ” (County adopts Disaster, 2015).

The plan describes how the County will use education, incentives, and regulation to reduce vulnerability to hazards and foster more resilient land use patterns and building practices, while also deferring to existing deliberative plans like the Douglas County Comprehensive Master Plan and Hazard Mitigation Plan. The County had also previously developed a Continuity of Operations Plan that is referenced throughout the Disaster Recovery Plan. This helps emphasize the importance of having both types of plans to facilitate successful disaster preparedness and recovery efforts.

Salt Lake County, Utah completed their disaster recovery framework in 2016 , which will assist the county to achieve a “focused, timely and expeditious recovery from a disaster.” The plan addresses risk from natural, technological, and man-made hazards and is designed as a companion document to the Salt Lake County Emergency Operations Plan. The framework describes a flexible and adaptable coordinating structure for disaster recovery roles and responsibilities, and describes capabilities and resources available at the local, regional, state, and federal level. Functionally, the plan is divided into eight recovery areas, corresponding to the state and federal disaster recovery framework.

Maui County, Hawaii developed disaster reconstruction guidelines and protocols to help streamline the repair of homes, businesses, structures, and private property post-disaster while also protecting sensitive environmental and cultural resources. Through pre-disaster recovery planning, the County is able to expedite their rebuilding after disasters without making “arbitrary and capricious decisions” and to incorporate mitigation and adaptation strategies to increase long-term community resilience.

State of Florida’s Post-Disaster Redevelopment Planning Initiative. Source - State of Florida Division of Emergency Management

Some of the nation’s most progressive pre-disaster recovery planning examples and resources came from the State of Florida’s Post-Disaster Redevelopment Planning (PDRP) Initiative (2010). The purpose of the Initiative, which lasted from 2007-2012, was to develop and test guidelines for a planning process to be applied in the pre-disaster environment to ensure the effective and timely implementation of post-disaster policies that result in more sustainable, resilient communities. While the resulting guidebook can certainly be helpful to Colorado communities, the subsequent plans and policies from the initial pilot PDRP communities provide real-world examples for local governments dealing with a variety of post-disaster scenarios. This includes the adoption of some advanced and fairly bold planning strategies designed to disinvest and steer redevelopment from known hazard areas to safer locations as opportunities arise through future disaster events. For instance, Hillsborough County, Florida established the concept of Priority Redevelopment Areas (PRAs) which essentially pre-identifies locations within the community to receive focused and prioritized attention for redevelopment to promote rapid recovery and facilitate the growth of disaster resilient centers of activity. The implementation of this concept would likely rely on the transfer of development rights (TDR) and similar tools as a means of shifting growth and development from one area of a community to another.

  • Each of these plans can help a community more effectively and efficiently respond to disasters. These plans can inform decision-makers and reduce reactionary decisions (and thus, lead to less confusion) in the post-disaster environment.
  • Pre-disaster recovery plans allow communities to discuss reconstruction policies and procedures in the less contentious and more deliberative pre-disaster environment.
  • A pre-disaster recovery plan can strengthen a community’s applications for post-disaster funding, as it demonstrates a clear and carefully considered path to recovery. It also helps to ensure more rapid and effective access to state and federal recovery resources.
  • Pre-disaster recovery planning helps to increase stakeholder and community involvement after a disaster by defining outreach resources and building key relationships.
  • By engaging in pre-disaster recovery planning, a community can familiarize themselves with state and federal recovery resources and support structures.
  • Adopting a COOP and COG puts a community in an excellent position to maintain essential leadership and services at the time of a disaster.

Each of these plans requires considerable coordination with multiple government departments, and often partner organizations and community members as well. Once developed, the plans will need to be “exercised” (i.e., routinely tested and communicated) so that everyone understands their roles as defined in these plans.

Keeping COOPs and COGs accurate and updated is imperative. Updates should be conducted consistently and thoroughly.

  • As for pre-disaster recovery plans, at this time there is no dedicated federal funding source for communities seeking financial assistance in developing their recovery plan. Communities that are updating their hazard mitigation plans with PDM mitigation grant program support, however, may use the planning process to also include pre-disaster recovery planning.  

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Administrative Capacity

Planner (lead for recovery plan), emergency manager (lead for COOP/COG), coordination with department heads and executive-level government staff

Recovery plan: Dependent on whether there is a risk assessment or scenario driven analysis that is done to support the plan.

COOP: Minimal / N/A

COG: Minimal / N/A

Regulatory Requirements

Recovery plan: N/A

COOP/COG: National Security Presidential Directive-51 (NSPD-51), Homeland Security Presidential Directive-20 (HSPD-20)


Recovery plan/COOP/COG: Should be annually updated and exercised. Plan effectiveness should be evaluated after any type of event that would require the plans to be put in place or tested.  

Adoption Required

Recovery plan/COOP/COG: Adoption is not required but some sort of official acknowledgement of support of the plans by the local governing body can help give them greater power

Statutory Reference 

See regulatory requirements

Associated Costs

Dependent on the level of effort, type of public outreach, and the type of plan (hard copy, digital, web-based, etc.)

Examples of the Tool

Douglas County  Disaster Recovery Plan

State of Florida  Post-Disaster Redevelopment Planning Initiative

Maui County Post-Disaster Reconstruction Guidelines

Salt Lake County Disaster Recovery Framework

For More Information - COOPs and COGs

COOPs/COGs : National Security Presidential Directive-51/Homeland Security Presidential Directive-20 (NSPD-51/HSPD-20)  

National Continuity Policy Implementation Plan (NCPIP)

FEMA Continuity Resources and Technical Assistance

FEMA Continuity Resource Toolkit

For More Information - Pre-Disaster Recovery Plans

American Planning Association, Recovering Planning Blog

American Planning Association, Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery: Next Generation 

FEMA Community Planning and Capacity Building (CPCG) Recovery Support Function (RSF)

FEMA National Disaster Recovery Framework

FEMA Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning Guide for State Governments

Florida Department of Community Affairs Post-Disaster Redevelopment Planning: A Guide for Florida Communities

Training - Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning

The National Disaster Preparedness Training Center (NDPTC) offers a free, FEMA-certified course on Community Planning for Disaster Recovery (AWR-356). This 8-hour, awareness level class provides facilitated discussions on key concepts for disaster recovery planning including the benefits of pre-disaster recovery planning, its key elements, and the plan development process. Colorado communities can request a delivery of AWR-356 by contacting Andrew Rumbach at the University of Colorado Denver ( [email protected] ) or the National Disaster Preparedness Training Center .

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Disaster Management in India

To prepare for DISASTERS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT for any competitive exam, aspirants have to know about Disaster Management in India. It gives an idea of all the important topics for the IAS Exam and the Governance syllabus (GS-III.). Disaster Management in India terms are important from Disaster Management perspectives in the UPSC exam. IAS aspirants should thoroughly understand their meaning and application, as questions can be asked from this static portion of the IAS Syllabus in both the UPSC Prelims and the UPSC Mains exams. Even these topics are also highly linked with current affairs. Almost every question asked from them is related to current events. So, apart from standard textbooks, you should rely on newspapers and news analyses as well for these sections.

Phases of disaster management:

Risk Reduction (Enhancing Resilience)

  • Disaster risk reduction strategies have the potential to save thousands of lives by adoption of simple preventive measures . Lack of coherent disaster reduction strategies and the absence of a ‘culture of prevention’ are the major causes for increasing casualties due to disasters. Disaster risk reduction (disaster reduction) has been defined as the systematic development and application of policies, strategies and practices to minimize vulnerabilities, hazards and the unfolding of disaster impacts throughout a society, in the broad context of sustainable development’.
  • Disaster reduction strategies include appraisal of likelihood and intensity of hazards and analysis of vulnerabilities thereof to the community. Building of institutional capabilities and community preparedness is the next step. Crucial to all these efforts, however, is the existence of a ‘safety culture’ in societies. Inputs like education, training and capacity building play a very significant role. It needs to be understood that such preparedness cannot be a ‘one time’ effort, but is a continuous process.
  • Knowledge plays an important role in disaster reduction. The traditional knowledge available with the community has to be used along with knowledge acquired through research and past experiences.

The disaster risk reduction framework is composed of the following fields of action:

  • Policies towards risk management
  • Assessment of risk, including hazard analysis and vulnerability
  • Generating risk awareness with the help of mass media and social media
  • Preparation of plans for risk mitigation
  • Implementation of the plan
  • Early warning systems with the help of latest technology relating to data capture transmission, analysis and even dissemination
  • Use of knowledge
  • Information : Effective disaster risk management depends on the informed participation of all stakeholders. The exchange of information and easily accessible communication practices play key roles. Data is crucial for ongoing research, national planning, monitoring hazards and assessing risks. The widespread and consistent availability of current and accurate data is fundamental to all aspects of disaster risk reduction.

Mitigation involves:

  • Measures aimed at reducing the impact of disasters
  • Efforts to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether
  • Differs from the other phases because it focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk
  • It embraces actions taken in advance of a disaster to reduce its effects on a community.

Significance of Mitigation:

  • A number of special programmes are in operation for mitigating the impact of natural disasters and local communities have developed their own indigenous coping mechanisms.
  • In the event of an emergency, the mobilisation of community action supported by NGOs adds strength to the national disaster management capacity.
  • Despite initiating various disaster mitigation measures, there has been little improvement. Accordingly, India has taken initiatives for linking disaster mitigation with development plans, promoting the application of effective communication systems and information technology, insurance, extensive public awareness and education campaigns (particularly in rural areas), involving the private sector and strengthening institutional mechanisms and international community cooperation.
  • Quick response can save lives, protect property and lessen disruptions caused by crises. This calls for a total and effective response , which must subsume the coordinated response of the entire governmental system as also the civil society.
  • The response should not only incorporate traditional coping mechanisms, which have evolved over the centuries but also involve meticulous planning and coordination. Cumulative experience with crisis management over the years points to an urgent need for putting in place a holistic and effective response mechanism which is professional, result-oriented, innovative and people-centric.

Quick response entails the following:

  • This phase includes mobilisation of necessary emergency services and first responders in the disaster area. This is likely to include a first wave of core emergency vices, such as fire-fighters, police and ambulance crews. They may be supported by a number of secondary emergency services, such as specialist rescue teams.
  • It entails restoring physical facilities, rehabilitation of affected families/ populations, restoration of lost livelihoods and reconstruction efforts.
  • Retrospectively, it brings to light the flaws in policy and planning with respect to infrastructure, its location, social scheme, etc.


  • It has immediate mitigation impact and losses can be minimised to a greater degree. According to the estimate of the insurance industry, natural disasters represent 85 per cent insured catastrophe.
  • Thousands of lives lost and millions of people are left weakened each year due to reluctance on part of donors to invest in measures that reduce the impact of disasters. (World Disaster Report 2002)
  • Long term resilience of vulnerable communities.
  • Coordination among the actors involved (government, civil society and international donor organisation).
  • Recent example is the case of Uttarakhand floods (June 2013) where international organisations found it hard to immediately get government approval to start work.
  • Institutionalisation of disaster response structure at local level.
  • In the long-term aftermath of a disaster, when restoration efforts are in addition to regular services, it involves implementation of actions to promote sustainable redevelopment (reconstruction, rehabilitation). It differs from the response phase in its focus; recovery efforts are concerned with issues and decisions that must be made after immediate needs are addressed. Recovery efforts are primarily concerned with actions that involve rebuilding destroyed property, re-employment, and the repair of other essential infrastructure.
  • The recovery phase starts when the immediate threat to human life has subsided. In the reconstruction, it is desirable to reconsider the location or construction material of the property.
  • Community resilience is a key factor in disaster recovery.

The overall coordination of disaster management vests with the Ministry of Home Affairs . The Cabinet Committee on Security and the National Crisis Management Committee are the key committees involved in the top-level decision making regarding disaster management. The NDMA is the agency responsible for the approval of the National Disaster Management Plan and its implementation.

  • The Government of India established the NDMA in 2005, headed by the Prime Minister. Under the DM Act 2005, the NDMA, as the apex body for disaster management, shall have the responsibility for laying down the policies and guidelines for disaster management for ensuring timely and effective response to disaster.
  • The guidelines of NDMA will assist the Central Ministries, Departments, and States to formulate their respective DM plans.
  • It will approve the National Disaster Management Plan and DM plans of the Central Ministries/ Departments.
  • It will take such other measures, as it may consider necessary, for the prevention of disasters, or mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building, for dealing with a threatening disaster situation or disaster.
  • Central Ministries/ Departments and State Governments will extend necessary cooperation and assistance to NDMA for carrying out its mandate.
  • NDMA has the power to authorise the Departments or authorities concerned, to make emergency procurement of provisions or materials for rescue and relief in a threatening disaster situation or disaster.
  • The general superintendence, direction, and control of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) are vested in and will be exercised by the NDMA. The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) works within the framework of broad policies and guidelines laid down by the NDMA.
  • The NDMA has the mandate to deal with all types of disasters – natural or human-induced. However, other emergencies such as terrorism (counter-insurgency), law and order situations, hijacking, air accidents, CBRN weapon systems, which require the close involvement of the security forces and/or intelligence agencies, and other incidents such as mine disasters, port and harbour emergencies, forest fires, oilfield fires and oil spills will be handled by the National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC).
  • Nevertheless, NDMA may formulate the guidelines with advice/ inputs drawn from experts of DAE and facilitate training and preparedness activities in respect of response to CBRN emergencies with technical advice obtained from experts from DAE.

Shortcomings and challenges in NDMA:

  • NDMA’s role during Uttarakhand Flooding in 2013 was questioned, where it failed to timely inform people about the flash floods and landslides. The post disaster relief response had not been upto NDMA’s benchmarks. Experts blamed unfinished projects for flood and landslide mitigation which were resulted due to poor planning of NDMA.
  • There were huge delays in completion of river management activities and works related to border areas projects which were long-term solutions for the flood problems of Assam, north Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh.
  • Devastations caused by Kerala Floods in 2018 and Chennai Floods in 2015 showed shortcomings in the institutions regarding preparedness for the disaster situation.
  • CAG report, 2015 Chennai Floods termed it as a “man-made disaster” and holds Tamil Nadu government responsible for the catastrophe.
  • The NDRF lack sufficient training, equipment, facilities and residential accommodation to deal with the crisis situation properly.
  • Misutilization of Funds-
  • Audit findings shows that some states have mis-utilised funds for expenditures that were not authorised for disaster management.
  • There was significant delay in releasing funds . Additionally, some States didn’t invest the funds thereby incurring huge interest losses. This shows financial indiscipline in states regarding management of funds.

Way Forward:

  • Policy guidelines at the macro level are needed to inform and guide the preparation and implementation of disaster management and development plans across sectors.
  • Operational guidelines should be formed for integrating disaster management practices into development.
  • Efficient early warning systems coupled with effective response plans at district, state and national levels is the need of the hour.
  • Involve Community, NGOs, CSOs and the media at all stages of disaster management.
  • Climate risk management should be addressed through adaptation and mitigation.
  • A dynamic policy is required to develop disaster-resilient infrastructure through proper investment in research. ISRO, NRSA, IMD and other institutions have to collectively provide technological solutions to enhance capabilities to tackle disasters.
  • India should learn from best global practices .
  • As per the provisions of the Chapter-VII of the DM Act, Government of India constituted the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) under an Act of Parliament with the goal of being the premier institute for capacity development for disaster management in India and the region.
  • The vision of NIDM is to create a Disaster Resilient India by building the capacity at all levels for disaster prevention and preparedness.
  • NIDM has been assigned nodal responsibilities for human resource development, capacity building, training, research, documentation, and policy advocacy in the field of disaster management .
  • The NIDM has built strategic partnerships with various ministries and departments of the central, state, and local governments, academic, research and technical organizations in India and abroad and other bi-lateral and multi-lateral international agencies.
  • It provides technical support to the state governments through the Disaster Management Centres (DMCs) in the Administrative Training Institutes (ATIs) of the States and Union Territories.
  • Some of them are emerging as centres of excellence in the specialised areas of risk management – flood, earthquake, cyclone, drought, landslides, and industrial disasters.
  • The NDRF has been constituted as per the Chapter-VIII of the DM Act 2005 as a specialist response force that can be deployed in a threatening disaster situation or disaster.
  • As per the DM Act, the general superintendence, direction and control of the NDRF shall be vested and exercised by the NDMA.
  • The command and supervision of the NDRF shall vest with the Director General appointed by the Government of India.
  • The NDRF will position its battalions at different locations as required for effective response.
  • NDRF units will maintain close liaison with the designated State Governments and will be available to them in the event of any serious threatening disaster situation.
  • The NDRF is equipped and trained to respond to situations arising out of natural disasters and CBRN emergencies.
  • The NDRF units will also impart basic training to all the stakeholders identified by the State Governments in their respective locations.
  • A National Disaster Response Academy is operational in Nagpur and new infrastructure is being set up to cater to National and international training programmes for disaster management.
  • It has also been decided that Disaster Management Training Wings of four CAPFs (BSF, CRPF, ITBP and CISF) will be merged with this Academy.
  • Experience in major disasters has clearly shown the need for pre-positioning of some response forces to augment the resources at the State level at crucial locations including some in high altitude regions.
  • As per the DM Act of 2005, each state in India/ Union Territory (UT) shall have its own institutional framework for disaster management. Each State/UT will have one nodal department for coordination of disaster management, referred as DM department (DMD), although the name and department is not the same in each State/UT.
  • Among other things, the DM Act, mandates that each State/UT shall take necessary steps for the preparation of State/UT DM plans, integration of measures for prevention of disasters or mitigation into State/UT development plans, allocations of funds, and establish EWS. Depending on specific situations and needs, the State/UT shall also assist the Central Government and central agencies in various aspects of DM. Each state shall prepare its own State Disaster Management Plan.
  • As per provisions in Chapter-III of the DM Act, each State Government shall establish a State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) or its equivalent as notified by the state government with the Chief Minister as the Chairperson . In case of other UTs, the Lieutenant Governor or the Administrator shall be the Chairperson of that Authority.
  • For the UT of Delhi, the Lieutenant Governor and the Chief Minister shall be the Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson respectively of the State Authority.
  • In the case of a UT having Legislative Assembly, except the UT of Delhi, the Chief Minister shall be the Chairperson of the Authority.
  • The SDMA will lay down policies and plans for DM in the State.
  • The SDMA will approve the disaster management plans prepared by various departments.
  • It will, inter alia approve the State Plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA, coordinate the implementation of the State Plan, recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures and review the developmental plans of the different departments of the State to ensure the integration of prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures .
  • The State Government shall constitute a State Executive Committee (SEC) to assist the SDMA in the performance of its functions. The SEC will be headed by the Chief Secretary to the State Government.
  • The SEC will coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan, and the State Plan . The SEC will also provide information to the NDMA relating to different aspects of DM.
  • As per provisions in Chapter-IV of the DM Act, each State Government shall establish a District Disaster Management Authority for every district in the State with such name as may be specified in that notification.
  • The DDMA will be headed by the District Collector , Deputy Commissioner, or District Magistrate as the case may be, with the elected representative of the local authority as the Co-Chairperson.
  • The State Government shall appoint an officer not below the rank of Additional Collector or Additional District Magistrate or Additional Deputy Commissioner of the district to be the Chief Executive Officer of the District Authority.
  • The DDMA will act as the planning, coordinating and implementing body for DM at the District level and take all necessary measures for the purposes of DM in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA and SDMA.
  • It will prepare the DM plan for the District and monitor the implementation of the all relevant national, state, and district policies and plans.
  • The DDMA will also ensure that the guidelines for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, and response measures laid down by the NDMA and the SDMA are followed by all the district-level offices of the various departments of the State Government.
  • The state government is primarily responsible for undertaking rescue, relief and rehabilitation measures in the event of a disaster.
  • At times, its efforts need to be strengthened and supplemented with Central assistance.
  • Providing financial assistance for disaster preparedness, restoration, reconstruction and mitigation in the event of a natural disaster are not part of National Disaster Response Fund’s mandate.
  • In the event of a calamity of a severe nature, where the requirement of funds for relief operations is beyond the funds available in the State’s Disaster Response Fund account, additional Central assistance is provided from National Disaster Response Fund, after following the laid down procedure.
  • As per this procedure, the State Government is required to submit a memorandum indicating the sector wise damage and requirement of funds.
  • On receipt of the memorandum from the State, an inter-Ministerial Central Team is constituted and deputed for an on the spot assessment of damage and requirement of funds for relief operations, as per the extant items and norms of State Disaster Response Fund and National Disaster Response Fund.
  • A Sub-Committee of the NEC will examine the request under Section 6 of the DM Act, 2005. The NEC will assess the extent of assistance and expenditure, which can be funded from the National Disaster Response Fund as per norms and make recommendations.
  • Based on the recommendations of Sub-Committee of the NEC, a High-Level Committee (HLC) will approve the quantum of immediate relief to be released from National Disaster Response Fund.
  • The Disaster Management Division of MHA will provide support to the HLC. The MHA shall oversee the utilisation of funds provided from the National Disaster Response Fund and monitor compliance with norms.
  • The State Disaster Response Fund shall be used only for meeting the expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood, tsunami, hailstorm, landslide, avalanche, cloud burst, pest attack, frost and cold wave.
  • While the state can draw from State Disaster Response Fund for the emergency response and relief, there are provisions to adjust a proportion of the expense against funds released from National Disaster Response Fund between the fiscal year in which National Disaster Response Fund is released and the expenses incurred by state in the previous fiscal year under State Disaster Response Fund.
  • In case the same state faces another severe disaster during the same year, no reduction will be made while releasing assistance from the National Disaster Response Fund. The state-specific disasters within the local context in the State, which are not included in the notified list of disasters eligible for assistance from State Disaster Response Fund and National Disaster Response Fund, can be met from State Disaster Response Fund within the limit of 10 per cent of the annual funds allocation of the State Disaster Response Fund.

The two funds have provisions for the following:

  • Gratuitous Relief
  • Search and Rescue operations
  • Relief measures
  • Air dropping of essential supplies
  • Emergency supply of drinking water
  • Clearance of affected area, including management of debris
  • Agriculture, Animal husbandry, fishery, Handicrafts, artisans
  • Repair/ Restoration (of immediate nature) of damaged Infrastructure
  • Capacity development
  • The default period of assistance is as per norms prescribed. However, based on assessment of the ground situation, the SEC may extend it beyond the prescribed time limit subject to the condition that expenditure on this account should not exceed 25 per cent of State Disaster Response Fund allocation for the year.
  • National Disaster Mitigation Fund As per Section 47 of the DM Act 2005, Central Government may constitute a National Disaster Mitigation Fund for projects exclusively for the purpose of mitigation.

Major provisions of the act:

  • The Act calls for the establishment of NDMA, with the Prime Minister ofIndia as chairperson.
  • The Act under Section 8 enjoins the Central Government to constitutea National Executive Committee (NEC) to assist the National Authority.The NEC is composed of secretary-level officers of the Government ofIndia in the Ministries of Home, Agriculture, Atomic Energy, Defence,Drinking Water Supply, Environment and Forests, Finance (expenditure),Health, Power, Rural Development, Science and Technology, Space,Telecommunications, Urban Development and Water Resources, with the Home Secretary serving as the Chairperson, ex-officio. The Chief of the Integrated Defence Staff of the Chiefs of Staff Committee is an ex-officiomember of the NEC. The NEC is responsible for the preparation of theNational Disaster Management Plan for the whole country and to ensurethat it is ‘reviewed and updated annually.
  • All State Governments are mandated under Section 14 of the Act toestablish a State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA). The SDMAconsists of the Chief Minister of the State, who is the Chairperson, andno more than eight members appointed by the Chief Minister. The StateExecutive Committee is responsible for drawing up the state disastermanagement plan and implementing the National Plan. The SDMA ismandated to ensure that all the departments of the State prepare disastermanagement plans as prescribed by the national and state authorities.
  • The Act directs to establish District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA). The Chairperson of DDMA will be the Collector or the DistrictMagistrate or the Deputy Commissioner of the district. The electedrepresentative of the area is member of the DDMA as an ex-officio The district authority shall act as the planning, coordinatingand implementing body for disaster management in the district and takeall measures for the purposes of disaster management in the district inaccordance with the guidelines laid down by the national and stateauthorities.
  • The Act provides for constituting a National Disaster Response Force’for the purpose of specialist response to a threatening disaster situationor disaster’ under the Director General to be appointed by the Central
  • The Act contains provision for constitution of National Disaster ResponseFund and National Disaster Mitigation Fund and similar funds at the stateand the district levels.
  • The Act also provides for specific roles to local bodies, including PanchayatiRaj Institutions (PRIS) and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in disasterAt the district level, the DM Act 2005 provides for the constitution ofDistrict Disaster Management Authorities under the chairmanship ofthe District Magistrate/Collector while the elected representative of thelocal authority would be the co-chairperson. In those districts where ZillaParishads exist, the chairman would be the ex-officio co-chairperson of theDistrict Disaster Management Authority.
  • The planning process has been carried down to the sub-divisional, blockand village levels. Each village in multi-hazard prone district will have aDisaster Management Plan. The Disaster Management Committee whichdraws up the plans consists of elected representatives at the village level,local authorities, government functionaries, including doctors/paramedicsof primary health centres located in the village, primary school teachers, The plan encompasses prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures. The Disaster Management Teams at the village level consistof members of youth organisations like Nehru Yuva Kendra and othernon-governmental organisations as well as volunteers from the village.The teams are provided basic training in evacuation, search and rescue,first aid trauma counselling, etc. The disaster management committeewill review the disaster management plan at least once in a year. It wouldalso generate awareness among the people in the village about the dos anddon’ts for specific hazards depending on the vulnerability of the village. Alarge number of village level disaster management committees and disastermanagement teams have already been constituted.

Initially the Act was criticised for marginalising non-governmental organisations (NGOs), elected local representatives, local communities and civic groups; and for fostering a hierarchical, bureaucratic, command and control, “top down’ approach that gives the central, state and district authorities sweeping powers. But overall, the disaster response has improved to a large extent after the slow and steady implementation of NDMA.

  • Disaster/Crisis Management should continue to be the primary responsibility of the State Governments and the Union Government should play a supportive role.
  • The Act should provide categorization of disasters (say, local, district, state or national level). This categorization along with intensity of each type of disaster will help in determining the level of authority primarily responsible for dealing with the disaster as well as the scale of response and relief – detailed guidelines may be stipulated by the NDMA on this subject.
  • The law should make provisions for stringent punishment for misutilization of funds meant for crisis/disaster management. The role of the local governments should be brought to the forefront for crisis/disaster management.
  • The NEC as stipulated under the Disaster Management Act need not be constituted, and the NCMC should continue to be the apex coordination body . At the state level, the existing coordination mechanism under the Chief Secretary should continue.
  • COVID19 is the first pan India biological disaster being handled by the legal and constitutional institutions of the country .
  • It is for the first time that a pandemic has been recognized as a notified disaster in the country by the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • Subsequently Disaster Management Act 2005 has also been invoked for the first time to effectively manage this crisis. Till now all nationwide lockdowns has been imposed under DM Act 2005.

Issues with Disaster Management Act with reference to COVID19:

  • DM Act has two inherent issues with regards to COVID19:
  • Lack of appropriate legal framework to manage epidemics
  • An over centralization of powers
  • The act was meant to be used in situations where a state government was unable to cope with natural disasters on its own. It was never meant to be a legal mechanism to control the functional state governments .
  • As per the central guidelines on the lockdowns, the state governments exercised powers under the Epidemics Act 1897 to issue further directions. This led to further confusion among the masses , especially the vulnerable sections like migrants, slum dwellers etc.
  • The Central Government has adopted top-down approach . It left states with no maneuvering space that could be used to enforce the lockdowns keeping cultural and social norms in mind.
  • The management of health crisis became an issue of law and order . Major guidelines relating to COVID-19 have been issued by Ministry of Home Affairs and not the Ministry of Health.
  • The DM Act is not capable to deal with fake news and fake warnings being spread through social media and internet.
  • The DM Act imposes criminal liabilities for violation of lockdown orders . This provision is major hurdle for the conduct of economic policy on nationwide scale.
  • The bureaucracy and police administration were entrusted with enforcement of lockdown. But they also got wide ranging discretionary powers in deciding who to permit and who to ban.
  • All the guidelines and policies formed during lockdown have been reactive and ad hoc. This was observed in the way migrant workers have been treated. The migrant issue has also exposed the lack of coordination between the Centre and state governments.
  • The Act was passed during the outbreak of bubonic plague in Bombay .
  • Over the years this act has been used as a basic framework for containing the spread of various diseases including cholera and malaria.
  • The law authorizes the Central and state governments to take exceptional measures and prescribe regulations to be observed by the citizens to contain the spread of diseases.
  • It also specifies punishments for the violation of the Act.


  • The law does not define various terms like ‘dangerous’, ‘infectious’, ‘contagious diseases’ and ‘epidemic ’. Also, there are no rules, regulations, procedures mentioned in the act to be followed while declaring disease as epidemic .
  • The act contains no provisions for isolation, quarantine measures and other preventive steps that need to be taken during epidemics.
  • The Act provides powers of states and central government during the epidemics but it fails to mention the duties of governments in preventing and controlling the epidemics. It also fails to mention the rights of citizens during the outbreak of the diseases.

Community Based Disaster Preparedness:

  • During any disaster, communities are not only the first to be affected but also the first responders. Community participation ensures local ownership, addresses local needs, and promotes volunteerism and mutual help to prevent and minimize damage. Therefore, the efforts of the States/UTs, in this regard need to be encouraged.
  • The needs of the elderly, women, children and differently abled persons require special attention . Women and youth need to be encouraged to participate in decision making committees and action groups for management of disasters.
  • As first responders to any disaster, communities can be trained in the various aspects of response such as first aid, search and rescue, management of community shelters, psycho-social counseling, distribution of relief and accessing support from government/agencies etc. Community plans can be dovetailed into the Panchayat, Block and District plans.

Stakeholders’ Participation

  • The participation of civil society stakeholders can be coordinated by the SDMAs and DDMAs. Civil Defense, NCC, NYKS, NSS and local Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) can be encouraged to empower the community and generate awareness through their respective institutional mechanisms. Efforts to promote voluntary involvement need to be actively encouraged.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Public-Private Partnership (PPP)

  • Historically, the corporate sector has been supporting disaster relief and rehabilitation activities. However, the involvement of corporate entities in disaster risk reduction activities is not significant. Corporate entities should redefine their business continuity plan to factor in hazards, risks and vulnerabilities. They should also create value in innovative social investments in the community.
  • PPP between the Government and private sector would also be encouraged to leverage the strengths of the latter in disaster management.
  • The NDMA and SDMAs need to network with the corporate entities to strengthen and formalize their role in the DM process for ensuring safety of the communities.

Media Partnership

  • The media plays a critical role in information and knowledge dissemination in all phases of DM.
  • The versatile potential of both electronic and print media needs to be fully utilized. Effective partnership with the media will be worked out in the field of community awareness, early warning and dissemination, and education regarding various disasters.

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Disaster Management: Types, Steps & Measures

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Disaster Management encompasses the process of preparing for, responding to, and learning from the consequences of such major failures. It involves dealing with the human, material, economic, and environmental effects caused by a specific disaster.

As per the United Nations, a disaster refers to a significant disruption that hampers the functioning of a community or society. It entails extensive impacts on people, property, the economy, or the environment, surpassing the capacity of the affected community to manage using its own resources.

Types of Disaster

Disasters can take various forms and profoundly disrupt communities, leading to significant consequences for individuals, property, businesses, and the environment. They often test a community’s ability to cope.

Human-caused disasters, resulting from human errors, include incidents like industrial explosions or structural failures. Natural disasters stem from physical occurrences such as earthquakes and droughts. Complex disasters may involve epidemics or armed conflicts.

Disasters can be categorized into different types:

Steps in Disaster Management

It is about organizing and managing resources to deal with emergencies. It includes being prepared, responding to the situation, and recovering from it in order to minimize the impact of disasters.

The goal is to prevent hazards from turning into disasters and to reduce the loss of life and property. It involves planning and taking steps before, during, and after a disaster. This includes preparing for disasters, implementing effective response systems, and building resilient communities.

The three main steps:

Several Agencies are Involved in Disaster Management in India

  • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA): It is the apex body for disaster management in India, led by the Prime Minister. It supervises and controls the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF).
  • National Executive Committee (NEC): It consists of high-profile ministers from the Indian government. The NEC is responsible for implementing the National Plan for Disaster Management as per the National Policy on Disaster Management.
  • State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA): Each state has its own SDMA, headed by the Chief Minister. The SDMA works with a State Executive Committee (SEC) to assist in disaster management at the state level.
  • District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA): The DDMA is led by the District Collector or equivalent authority and includes elected representatives from the local government. Its role is to ensure that guidelines from the NDMA and SDMA are followed at the district level.
  • Local Authorities: Local authorities, such as Panchayati Raj Institutions, Municipalities, and Town Planning Authorities, are responsible for controlling and managing civic services in their respective areas.

Measures to Prevent and Mitigate Disasters

Prevention and mitigation of disasters is an important part of the process of management of disasters. Some of the measures are:

  • Critical Infrastructure Safety: Regular checks should be conducted on critical infrastructure such as roads, dams, bridges, and power stations to ensure they meet safety standards and are fortified if necessary.
  • Environmentally Sustainable Development: Environmental considerations and developmental efforts should go hand in hand to ensure sustainability.
  • Climate Change Adaptation: The challenges posed by climate change, including the increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters, should be addressed through strategies that focus on adaptation and risk reduction.
  • Risk Assessment and Vulnerability Mapping: Using tools like Geographic Information System (GIS), mapping and vulnerability analysis should be conducted to identify high-risk areas and develop strategies to address them.
  • Urban Planning and Development: Preventing unplanned urbanization and focusing on maintaining natural drainage systems can help reduce the impact of disasters in urban areas.

By implementing these measures, India can better prepare for and mitigate the effects of disasters, making communities safer and more resilient.

Disaster management occupies an important place in India’s policy framework as it is the poor and the underprivileged who are worst affected on account of calamities/disasters.

Disasters retard socio-economic development, further, impoverish the impoverished and lead to diversion of scarce resources from development to rehabilitation and reconstruction. Due to all these factors India has invested resources in mitigation and adaptation resources.

What is the Aim of Disaster Management?

The aim of disaster management is to reduce the impact of disasters and minimize the loss of life, property, and infrastructure. It focuses on preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation to enhance the resilience of communities and ensure effective coordination among various stakeholders during emergencies.

How is Disaster Management Done in India?

In India, the management of disasters is carried out through a multi-tiered approach. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) formulates policies and guidelines at the national level. State-level and district-level disaster management authorities implement these policies and coordinate disaster response efforts. They conduct risk assessments, develop disaster management plans, conduct awareness campaigns, establish early warning systems, and coordinate rescue and relief operations during disasters.

What are the Different Types of Disaster Management in India?

The different types of disaster management in India encompass both natural and man-made disasters. Natural disasters include floods, cyclones, earthquakes, droughts, landslides, and avalanches. Man-made disasters encompass industrial accidents, chemical spills, nuclear incidents, terrorist attacks, and other emergencies arising from human activities.

What type of Disaster is Most Important in India?

While all types of disasters are significant in India, natural disasters like floods, cyclones, and earthquakes pose substantial challenges due to the country’s geography, population density, and climate variability. These disasters can cause significant loss of life, displacement of people, damage to infrastructure, and disruption to the economy. Efforts to manage and mitigate these natural disasters are crucial to protecting lives and ensuring the long-term resilience of communities in India.

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National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP)

The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) was first released in 2016. The primary aim of the plan is to make India disaster resilient and drastically lessen the damage caused during and in the aftermath of disasters, natural and man-made. The plan was updated in 2018.

Latest Context related to National Disaster Management Plan – 

The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has released fresh guidelines for restarting manufacturing and chemical industries after the lockdown period ends.

  • It has issued guidelines on Chemical Disasters, 2007, Management of Chemical (Terrorism) Disasters, 2009 and the Strengthening of Safety and Security For Transportation of POL Tankers, 2010.
  • Due to several weeks of lockdown and the closure of industrial units, it is possible that some of the operators might not have followed the established SOP. As a result, some of the manufacturing facilities, pipelines, valves, etc. may have residual chemicals, which may pose risk. The same is true for storage facilities with hazardous chemicals and flammable materials.

Aspirants would find this article very helpful while preparing for the Disaster Management Segment of the IAS Exam .

NDMP Vision

“Make India disaster resilient, achieve substantial disaster risk reduction, and significantly decrease the losses of life, livelihoods, and assets – economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental – by maximizing the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities.”

The NDMP serves as a document or guideline for the government agencies to act in all phases of disasters. It is based on the Sendai Framework , which is a United Nations framework, for substantially reducing disaster risk, and losses to lives and livelihoods. The NDMP is also as per the Disaster Management Act, 2005 and the National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009.

Strengthening Disaster Risk Governance

As per the NDMP, there are six thematic areas for action in which the central and the state governments should function. They are listed below:

  • Mainstream and integrate DRR and Institutional Strengthening
  • Capacity Development
  • Promote Participatory Approaches
  • Work with Elected Representatives
  • Grievance Redress Mechanism
  • Promote Quality Standards, Certifications, and Awards for Disaster Risk Management

Salient Features of NDMP

NDMP covers all the following phases of disaster management:

As per the Sendai Framework, the Six thematic areas of action are as follows:

  • Understanding Risk
  • Inter-Agency Coordination
  • Investing in DRR – Structural Measures
  • Investing in DRR – Non-Structural Measures
  • Climate Change Risk Management

NDMP Objectives

The objectives of the NDMP are listed below:

  • To improve understanding of disaster risk, vulnerabilities and hazards.
  • To strengthen the governance of disaster risk at every level, i.e., from national to local.
  • To invest in the reduction of disaster risk for resilience by means of structural, non-structural and financial measures, and also by a comprehensive capacity development.
  • To improve disaster preparedness for effective response.
  • To encourage ‘Build Back Better in recovery, reconstruction and rehabilitation.
  • To prevent disasters and ensure a significant decrease in the disaster risk and loss of life, livelihood, health and assets including physical, economic, cultural, social and environmental assets.
  • Enhance resilience and check new disasters from emerging and reduce existing ones.
  • To promote the execution of inclusive and integrated structural, economic, social, legal, health, cultural, environmental, educational, political, technological and institutional measures to reduce and prevent hazard exposure and vulnerabilities to disasters.
  • To empower communities as well as local authorities to manage and decrease disaster risks.
  • To bolster technical and scientific capabilities in all areas of disaster management.
  • To develop capacity at every level to effectively respond to multiple hazards and for community-based management of disaster.
  • To offer clarity on the responsibilities and roles of the various departments and ministries involved.
  • To foster a culture of disaster risk mitigation and prevention at all levels.
  • To enable the mainstreaming of disaster management concerns into planning.

Aspirants can check out the following links to prepare comprehensively for the upcoming Civil Services exam –

Response Plan

The Plan has listed 18 broad activities to serve as a ready reckoner guide. They are:

  • Search and Rescue of People and Animals
  • Evacuation of People and Animals
  • Medical Care
  • Housing and Temporary Shelters
  • Food & Essential Supplies
  • Communication
  • Transportation
  • Rehabilitation and Ensuring Safety of Livestock and other Animals, Veterinary Care
  • Early Warning, Maps, Satellite inputs, Information Dissemination
  • Data Collection and Management
  • Disposal of Animal Carcasses
  • Drinking-Water/ Dewatering Pumps/ Sanitation Facilities/ Public Health
  • Relief Logistics and Supply Chain Management
  • Fodder for livestock in scarcity-hit areas
  • Media Relations
  • Relief Employment

Check out the  List of Reports Published by International Organisations  on the given link. 

Frequently Asked Questions related to National Disaster Management Plan

What does a disaster management plan include, what are the 5 phases of disaster management, what are the 10 examples of natural disasters, what are the objectives of the national disaster risk reduction and management plan.

How to Prepare for Internal Security and Disaster Management for IAS Mains

Civil Service Exam aspirants can refer to the list of  UPSC Books  given in the link, to augment their preparation.

Aspirants can find complete information about upcoming  Government Exams  through the linked article. UPSC exam-related preparation materials will be found through the links given below.

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Disaster Management in India

The Union Home Minister of India has asked the States to prepare a disaster management plan in seven sites where new nuclear installations are to become operational.

Disaster Management in India

Table of Contents

Context:    The Union Home Minister of India has asked the States to prepare a disaster management pla n in seven sites where new nuclear installations are to become operational.

Disaster Management in India Background

  • Under Vision India@ 2047 , the Union Government aims to strengthen the disaster risk reduction system in India to make it disaster resilient.
  • Three major schemes worth over Rs 8,000 crore to bolster disaster management efforts across the nation have also been announced.

What is a Disaster?

  • A disaster refers to a significant disturbance in the normal functioning of a community, leading to human, material, economic, and environmental damages that surpass the community’s capacity to manage.
  • It results from the combination of hazards, conditions of vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential negative consequences of risk.

Classification of Disasters

  • Landslides, floods, drought, fires are socio-natural disasters since their causes are both natural and manmade.
  • Anthropogenic Disasters: They occur due to human intervention or negligence . These are associated with industries or energy generation facilities and include explosions, leakage of toxic waste, pollution, dam failure, wars or civil strife etc.
  • Rapid Onset Disasters: They are characterized by the sudden and acute intensity of the impact during a short period. Earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunamis would fall under the category of rapid onset disasters .
  • Slow Onset Disasters: Also termed as ‘ Creeping Emergencies ’, can be predicted much further in advance and unfold over months or even years. Climate change (global warming), desertification, soil degradation, and droughts , would fall under the category of slow onset disasters.

What is Disaster Management?

  • Disaster management refers to the systematic approach of planning, organizing, coordinating , and implementing measures to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters.
  • It involves a range of activities and strategies aimed at reducing the impact of disasters on human lives, infrastructure, and the environment.
  • A pre-disaster Risk Management Phase: Includes prevention, mitigation and preparedness.
  • Post-disaster Crisis Management Phase: Includes relief, response, rehabilitation, reconstruction and recovery.

Disaster Management in India

  • Legal and Institutional Framework in India:  The Government of India enacted the Disaster Management (DM) Act, 2005, which envisaged the creation of a three-tier structure comprising the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) and District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs).

Some Initiatives for Disaster Management

  • The second scheme worth Rs. 2,500-crore aims to reduce the risk of urban flooding in the seven most populous metros: Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Pune.
  • It aims to address the issue of landslides in 17 states and Union Territories by implementing measures to prevent and mitigate landslides , ensuring the safety of vulnerable communities.
  • 271 wetlands have been identified in the Northeast by ISRO for flood management in the country.
  • Floods have also been controlled by planting saplings on the banks of 13 major rivers which are prone to floods.
  • Response Team: Incident Response System has been implemented in 20 states and UTs.
  • The government is also awarding the Subhas Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskar to the individuals and organizations who have contributed in the field of disaster management.
  • National Disaster Mitigation Fund : It is a fund managed by the Central Government for meeting the expenses for emergency response, relief and rehabilitation due to any threatening disaster situation or disaster.

Way Forward

  • There needs to be a proactive approach to minimize the loss of lives and property during disasters.
  • District Disaster Management Plans in 8 states which is still pending should be completed at the earliest.
  • The States must formulate State level action plan for thunderstorm and lightning and share it with the Central Government.

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  1. This guide is designed to help local governments prepare for recovery

    pre disaster recovery planning upsc

  2. Timeline planning

    pre disaster recovery planning upsc

  3. The disaster management. Components and guidelines for the pre-disaster

    pre disaster recovery planning upsc

  4. Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning

    pre disaster recovery planning upsc

  5. What a Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP) Is and How It Works

    pre disaster recovery planning upsc

  6. PPT

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  1. Surviving Explosions The Unexpected Effects You Need to Know #nuclearwar

  2. My UPSC Prelims EXPERIENCE 2023


  4. Disaster management : आपदा प्रबंधन

  5. upsc # 2024 mains disaster notes making ## Short# upsc # aspirant

  6. UPSC Booklist for Internal Security and Disaster Management


  1. Choosing the Right Disaster Recovery Plan Template for Your Organization

    Disaster recovery planning is an essential aspect of business continuity. In today’s technology-driven world, organizations heavily rely on their IT infrastructure to store data, process information, and communicate with clients and stakeho...

  2. The Essential Elements of a Sample Disaster Recovery Plan: A Comprehensive Guide

    In today’s digital age, businesses rely heavily on technology to store and process critical data. However, unforeseen events such as natural disasters or cyberattacks can disrupt operations and potentially lead to data loss.

  3. The Role of Cloud Backup and Recovery in Disaster Preparedness Planning

    In today’s digital age, businesses heavily rely on their data for day-to-day operations. From customer information to financial records, data plays a crucial role in decision-making and overall business success.

  4. Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning

    Pre-disaster recovery planning is an opportunity for communities to consider how they will manage important recovery issues, like how to keep the government

  5. Disaster Management

    Disaster Management and its Management Cycle: Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness and Response. Table of Content. Introduction; Disaster Management Cycle

  6. Disaster Management–I

    Pre-Disaster risk reduction includes-. Mitigation: To eliminate or reduce ... For example, Disaster risk management plans or a risk sensitive

  7. Disaster Management in India

    The National Disaster Management Authority, or the NDMA, is an apex body for disaster management, headed by the Prime Minister of India. It is responsible for

  8. Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning

    Pre-disaster recovery planning builds resilient communities better able to withstand, respond to and recover from disasters, ensuring faster rebuilding, greater

  9. Definition, Types, Disaster Management UPSC Notes

    Disaster Management is defined as a process of preventing a disaster or managing its after-effects. A disaster can be called a mishap

  10. Disaster Management in India

    There are 4 elements of Disaster Management in India: Risk Reduction, Mitigation, Quick Response, and Recovery. These are also known as disaster

  11. Disaster Management In India

    ... IAS Syllabus in both the UPSC Prelims and the UPSC Mains exams. Even these topics are also highly linked with current affairs. Almost every

  12. Disaster Management in India: Types, Steps & Measures

    Pre-disaster management: This phase focuses on taking action before ... Plan for Disaster Management as per the National Policy on Disaster

  13. National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP)

    The primary aim of the plan is to make India disaster resilient and drastically lessen the damage caused during and in the aftermath of disasters, natural and

  14. Disaster Management in India

    A pre-disaster Risk Management Phase: Includes prevention, mitigation and preparedness. · Post-disaster Crisis Management Phase: Includes relief