How to Write a Report: A Guide
A report is a nonfiction account that presents and/or summarizes the facts about a particular event, topic, or issue. The idea is that people who are unfamiliar with the subject can find everything they need to know from a good report.
Reports make it easy to catch someone up to speed on a subject, but actually writing a report is anything but easy. So to help you understand what to do, below we present a little report of our own, all about report writing.
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What is a report?
In technical terms, the definition of a report is pretty vague: any account, spoken or written, of the matters concerning a particular topic. This could refer to anything from a courtroom testimony to a grade schooler’s book report .
Really, when people talk about “reports,” they’re usually referring to official documents outlining the facts of a topic, typically written by an expert on the subject or someone assigned to investigate it. There are different types of reports, explained in the next section, but they mostly fit this description.
What kind of information is shared in reports? Although all facts are welcome, reports, in particular, tend to feature these types of content:
- Details of an event or situation
- The consequences or ongoing effect of an event or situation
- Evaluation of statistical data or analytics
- Interpretations from the information in the report
- Predictions or recommendations based on the information in the report
- How the information relates to other events or reports
Reports are closely related to essay writing , although there are some clear distinctions. While both rely on facts, essays add the personal opinions and arguments of the authors. Reports typically stick only to the facts, although they may include some of the author’s interpretation of these facts, most likely in the conclusion.
Moreover, reports are heavily organized, commonly with tables of contents and copious headings and subheadings. This makes it easier for readers to scan reports for the information they’re looking for. Essays, on the other hand, are meant to be read start to finish, not browsed for specific insights.
Types of reports
There are a few different types of reports, depending on the purpose and to whom you present your report. Here’s a quick list of the common types of reports:
- Academic report: Tests a student’s comprehension of the subject matter, such as book reports, reports on historical events, and biographies
- Business reports: Identifies information useful in business strategy, such as marketing reports, internal memos, SWOT analysis, and feasibility reports
- Scientific reports: Shares research findings, such as research papers and case studies, typically in science journals
Reports can be further divided into categories based on how they are written. For example, a report could be formal or informal, short or long, and internal or external. In business, a vertical report shares information with people on different levels of the hierarchy (i.e., people who work above you and below you), while a lateral report is for people on the author’s same level, but in different departments.
There are as many types of reports as there are writing styles, but in this guide, we focus on academic reports, which tend to be formal and informational.
>>Read More: What Is Academic Writing?
What is the structure of a report?
The structure of a report depends on the type of report and the requirements of the assignment. While reports can use their own unique structure, most follow this basic template:
- Executive summary: Just like an abstract in an academic paper, an executive summary is a standalone section that summarizes the findings in your report so readers know what to expect. These are mostly for official reports and less so for school reports.
- Introduction: Setting up the body of the report, your introduction explains the overall topic that you’re about to discuss, with your thesis statement and any need-to-know background information before you get into your own findings.
- Body: The body of the report explains all your major discoveries, broken up into headings and subheadings. The body makes up the majority of the entire report; whereas the introduction and conclusion are just a few paragraphs each, the body can go on for pages.
- Conclusion: The conclusion is where you bring together all the information in your report and come to a definitive interpretation or judgment. This is usually where the author inputs their own personal opinions or inferences.
If you’re familiar with how to write a research paper , you’ll notice that report writing follows the same introduction-body-conclusion structure, sometimes adding an executive summary. Reports usually have their own additional requirements as well, such as title pages and tables of content, which we explain in the next section.
What should be included in a report?
There are no firm requirements for what’s included in a report. Every school, company, laboratory, task manager, and teacher can make their own format, depending on their unique needs. In general, though, be on the lookout for these particular requirements—they tend to crop up a lot:
- Title page: Official reports often use a title page to keep things organized; if a person has to read multiple reports, title pages make them easier to keep track of.
- Table of contents: Just like in books, the table of contents helps readers go directly to the section they’re interested in, allowing for faster browsing.
- Page numbering: A common courtesy if you’re writing a longer report, page numbering makes sure the pages are in order in the case of mix-ups or misprints.
- Headings and subheadings: Reports are typically broken up into sections, divided by headings and subheadings, to facilitate browsing and scanning.
- Citations: If you’re citing information from another source, the citations guidelines tell you the recommended format.
- Works cited page: A bibliography at the end of the report lists credits and the legal information for the other sources you got information from.
As always, refer to the assignment for the specific guidelines on each of these. The people who read the report should tell you which style guides or formatting they require.
How to write a report in 7 steps
Now let’s get into the specifics of how to write a report. Follow the seven steps on report writing below to take you from an idea to a completed paper.
1 Choose a topic based on the assignment
Before you start writing, you need to pick the topic of your report. Often, the topic is assigned for you, as with most business reports, or predetermined by the nature of your work, as with scientific reports. If that’s the case, you can ignore this step and move on.
If you’re in charge of choosing your own topic, as with a lot of academic reports, then this is one of the most important steps in the whole writing process. Try to pick a topic that fits these two criteria:
- There’s adequate information: Choose a topic that’s not too general but not too specific, with enough information to fill your report without padding, but not too much that you can’t cover everything.
- It’s something you’re interested in: Although this isn’t a strict requirement, it does help the quality of a report if you’re engaged by the subject matter.
Of course, don’t forget the instructions of the assignment, including length, so keep those in the back of your head when deciding.
2 Conduct research
With business and scientific reports, the research is usually your own or provided by the company—although there’s still plenty of digging for external sources in both.
For academic papers, you’re largely on your own for research, unless you’re required to use class materials. That’s one of the reasons why choosing the right topic is so crucial; you won’t go far if the topic you picked doesn’t have enough available research.
The key is to search only for reputable sources: official documents, other reports, research papers, case studies, books from respected authors, etc. Feel free to use research cited in other similar reports. You can often find a lot of information online through search engines, but a quick trip to the library can also help in a pinch.
3 Write a thesis statement
Before you go any further, write a thesis statement to help you conceptualize the main theme of your report. Just like the topic sentence of a paragraph, the thesis statement summarizes the main point of your writing, in this case, the report.
Once you’ve collected enough research, you should notice some trends and patterns in the information. If these patterns all infer or lead up to a bigger, overarching point, that’s your thesis statement.
For example, if you were writing a report on the wages of fast-food employees, your thesis might be something like, “Although wages used to be commensurate with living expenses, after years of stagnation they are no longer adequate.” From there, the rest of your report will elaborate on that thesis, with ample evidence and supporting arguments.
It’s good to include your thesis statement in both the executive summary and introduction of your report, but you still want to figure it out early so you know which direction to go when you work on your outline next.
4 Prepare an outline
Writing an outline is recommended for all kinds of writing, but it’s especially useful for reports given their emphasis on organization. Because reports are often separated by headings and subheadings, a solid outline makes sure you stay on track while writing without missing anything.
Really, you should start thinking about your outline during the research phase, when you start to notice patterns and trends. If you’re stuck, try making a list of all the key points, details, and evidence you want to mention. See if you can fit them into general and specific categories, which you can turn into headings and subheadings respectively.
5 Write a rough draft
Actually writing the rough draft , or first draft, is usually the most time-consuming step. Here’s where you take all the information from your research and put it into words. To avoid getting overwhelmed, simply follow your outline step by step to make sure you don’t accidentally leave out anything.
Don’t be afraid to make mistakes; that’s the number one rule for writing a rough draft. Expecting your first draft to be perfect adds a lot of pressure. Instead, write in a natural and relaxed way, and worry about the specific details like word choice and correcting mistakes later. That’s what the last two steps are for, anyway.
6 Revise and edit your report
Once your rough draft is finished, it’s time to go back and start fixing the mistakes you ignored the first time around. (Before you dive right back in, though, it helps to sleep on it to start editing fresh, or at least take a small break to unwind from writing the rough draft.)
We recommend first rereading your report for any major issues, such as cutting or moving around entire sentences and paragraphs. Sometimes you’ll find your data doesn’t line up, or that you misinterpreted a key piece of evidence. This is the right time to fix the “big picture” mistakes and rewrite any longer sections as needed.
If you’re unfamiliar with what to look for when editing, you can read our previous guide with some more advanced self-editing tips .
7 Proofread and check for mistakes
Last, it pays to go over your report one final time, just to optimize your wording and check for grammatical or spelling mistakes. In the previous step you checked for “big picture” mistakes, but here you’re looking for specific, even nitpicky problems.
A writing assistant like Grammarly flags those issues for you. Grammarly’s free version points out any spelling and grammatical mistakes while you write, with suggestions to improve your writing that you can apply with just one click. The Premium version offers even more advanced features, such as tone adjustments and word choice recommendations for taking your writing to the next level.
How to Write a Report for an Assignment
Academic assignments are very unpredictable. There are various fields, for example, Computer Programming or MBA, that you can be tested on, and one of them is writing a report. Whereas writing an essay is rather general, when report writing, you have to concentrate on factual information while taking any scientific and technical courses. Want to know how to write a report for a university assignment?
This article contains the instructions and guidelines concerning report writing, its target audience, and the problems to be addressed while completing the task.
If you’re a student struggling with a report writing assignment, you might wonder, “ Who can write my assignment for me ?” It’s understandable to feel overwhelmed and seek assistance when faced with a challenging academic task. Fortunately, many online writing services can help you complete your report writing assignment. These services offer professional writers who are experts in various fields and can provide high-quality, original content within your deadline. Before choosing a writing service, research and read reviews to ensure that you select a reputable and trustworthy company. With the right assistance, you can successfully complete your report writing assignment and achieve academic success.
How to Write a Report-Type Assignment: 9 Key Elements to Consider
A report is a short, well-planned, concise document written to address a specific purpose (to analyze a situation or issue) and audience (educators, a chief, subordinates, etc.) When writing a report, you should ensure that you address the highlighted issue adequately, providing evidence for each and every fact you mention. However, if you struggle with any of these steps or don’t have the time to complete the assignment, you may consider using a homework writing service . If you ask, “How to write my report?” the following points will be useful for you:
- Title Page. Every paper should have the name given to a particular type of work. You can learn how to write academic-style titles from Mark Fullmer, a teacher of English writing 101/102. If we are speaking about a report, you should state it in the title. Other details that you may need to include are your name, the university, and the date of submission if you are a student. And if you’re a worker who prepares a report for a chief, don’t forget to mention the organization’s name.
Have a look at the example.
- Executive summary report. A good report should have a summary that is approximately ½ of a page. The main details that should be included are a briefing on the main ideas discussed in the report, the analysis methods used, findings, and conclusions/recommendations, if any. It is important to clarify this so that your tutor/chief understands what you are doing right from the start of the report.
- Table of content. There should be a page of your report where a list of chapters/subsections with headlines and the page numbers are presented. Make this guide useful for your readers as they will easily find what they will be interested in, whether the findings or research methods chapters.
- List of abbreviations and symbols. If you are writing, for example, a technical report, there should be a separate list of the abbreviations used in your report. The technical language can be comprehensible for you and your professor, but others will struggle with most technical terms . Moreover, if you use some formulas for calculating, provide these symbols in this list as well.
- Introduction. The first chapter of your report should introduce the topic under discussion, some known information, and your approaches to the topic and how they relate to the other works.
- The main body. A good report, the topic of which is well-researched, should have 3 sections in the main part – methods, results, and discussion. In this part, you should include the research methods that are used and procedures that are followed to achieve the results of your analysis, then, you are also required to discuss your findings.
- Conclusions and recommendations. The concluding chapter should include an overview of the main ideas discussed in the report. Highlight your most central findings without including new ideas. Additionally, you can make suggestions for further research in the field you report on.
- Reference list. Every academic paper should have references, and there is no exemption when writing a report. Even if you are supposed to consider a particular subject on your own, you can’t escape from someone’s findings or ideas. Provide a list of the sources you consulted when conducting your research. Details to be included in the reference list are the data of all books, papers, reports, etc., you refer to in the text. In general, all sources are listed in alphabetical order by the surname of the author.
- Appendices. This section comprises all derivations, details, schemes, and listings that make your research/analysis in-depth. You may ask why it is necessary to separate this section. Can you imagine how boring it will be to read your report when there are tables, tables, and schemes on its pages? There is such a page for that purpose, but it is not always obligatory to have it in reports.
How to Make a Good Report: 5 Skills Needed
You may think that you need just a pen and a piece of paper to write a report. Indeed, you must have a set of skills to complete this assignment successfully. What are they?
- The skill to estimate adequately the time needed to complete the assignment. Usually, a student may procrastinate till the last minute as he/she is sure that it is a very easy task to write a report. Or vice versa – he/she believes this work requires much time. As a result, they spend a week or even weeks entirely on writing a report. What happens, then? Demotivation in studying and a ‘jumpy’ eye are guaranteed to you. As you understand, you should apply all essential time management skills to boost your productivity.
- The skill to define the scope of the study. A full understanding of the field of study is very important, but it plays into your hands when you know all the points that should be covered in the research project. So, it has to be defined at a preliminary stage of writing a report to arrive at more logical findings/conclusions. Outline the limitations of your study and the data specifications for your research paper.
- The researching skills. The research process involves finding out more about the topic under the question. What does it include in researching? Firstly, using effective tools to collect information. Secondly, refining search queries to obtain better research results. Thirdly, evaluate information found in different sources based on accuracy, validity, and appropriateness for your report. If you have all these skills, you are close to professional report writing.
But what if you don’t have the time or the skills to complete the assignment? In this case, you can use a “do my homework” service to help you with your report. These services can provide expert assistance with research, analysis, and writing to help you produce a high-quality report that meets your requirements and deadlines. Be sure to choose a reputable service that provides original and plagiarism-free work. With the help of a “ do my assignment ” service, you can save time and get the grades you need.
- The skill to plan and structure a piece of writing. According to CogniFit , the skill to plan forms our executive functions. It is a process that allows us to choose what needs to be done and what doesn’t. If you can create a framework for your paper writing, it will help you be excellent at it. Even short pieces require planning to be concise and to the point. Your report should fulfill its purpose to answer the assignment question according to a specific structure.
- Proofreading and editing skills. You probably want to present your report in the best possible light. Without any doubt, you are tired when finishing the assignment. Without proofreading your work, you might submit a paper with numerous grammar errors, unpunctuated sentences, or spelling mistakes. Moreover, you should remember what style you are required to use – whether it is an APA, MLA, or Harvard. All of them have peculiarities you should pay attention to while producing a report.
After reading this article, don’t just sit and enjoy the victory over report writing. The battle has not started and has not even been won yet. Let today be the day when you know how to write good academic reports. Subsequently, you’ll start writing reports as required. Practice makes perfect!
However, even with practice, some students may still struggle with report writing for various reasons, such as a lack of time or poor writing skills. In such cases, an assignment writing service can come in handy. These services provide professional assistance with report writing, ensuring that you receive a well-structured and well-written report that meets your academic requirements. These services employ experienced writers with the necessary skills and knowledge to handle different reports.
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Ultimate Guide on How to Write a Report Tips and Sample
Defining a Report
A report is a type of writing that represents information, data, and research findings on a specific topic. The writer is expected to deliver a well-structured, credible, and informative text that dives into the small details of a certain topic, discussing its benefits and challenges.
Reports serve many important purposes. They provide recorded facts and findings. They are used to analyze data and draw insights that can be used for decision-making. Some reports serve as compliance checks to ensure that organizations meet certain standards and requirements. Also, reports are a formal way to communicate valuable information to decision-makers and stakeholders.
A report paper can be academic or about sales, science, business, etc. But unlike other texts, report writing takes much more than getting acquainted with the subject and forming an opinion about it. Report preparation is the most important stage of the writing process. Whether you are assigned to write an academic or a sales paper, before you start writing, you must do thorough research on the topic and ensure that every source of information is trustworthy.
Report writing has its rules. In this article, we will cover everything from how to start a report to how to format one. Below you will find a student research report sample. Check our paper writer service if you want one designed specifically for your requirements.
Student Research Report Sample
Before you read our article on how to write an act essay , see what an informative and well-structured report looks like. Below you will find a sample report that follows the format and tips we suggested in the article.
Explore and learn more about comprehensive but concise reports.
What are the Report Types
As mentioned, there are plenty of different types of report papers. Even though they are very formal, academic reports are only one of many people will come across in their lifetime. Some reports concentrate on the annual performance of a company, some on a project's progress, and others on scientific findings.
Next, we will elaborate more on different sorts of reports, their contents, and their purpose. Don't forget to also check out our report example that you can find below.
An academic report represents supported data and information about a particular subject. This could be a historical event, a book, or a scientific finding. The credibility of such academic writing is very important as it, in the future, could be used as a backup for dissertations, essays, and other academic work.
Students are often assigned to write reports to test their understanding of a topic. They also provide evidence of the student's ability to critically analyze and synthesize information. It also demonstrates the student's writing skills and ability to simply convey complex findings and ideas.
Remember that the report outline will affect your final grade when writing an academic report. If you want to learn about the correct report writing format, keep reading the article. If you want to save time, you can always buy essays online .
Every project has numerous stakeholders who like to keep an eye on how things are going. This can be challenging if the number of people who need to be kept in the loop is high. One way to ensure everyone is updated and on the same page is periodic project reports.
Project managers are often assigned to make a report for people that affect the project's fate. It is a detailed document that summarizes the work done during the project and the work that needs to be completed. It informs about deadlines and helps form coherent expectations. Previous reports can be used as a reference point as the project progresses.
Sales reports are excellent ways to keep your team updated on your sales strategies. It provides significant information to stakeholders, including managers, investors, and executives, so they can make informed decisions about the direction of their business.
A sales report usually provides information about a company's sales performance over a precise period. These reports include information about the revenue generated, the total number of units sold, and other metrics that help the company define the success of sales performance.
Sales report preparation is a meticulous job. To communicate information engagingly, you can put together graphs showing various information, including engagement increase, profit margins, and more.
If you were assigned a business report, something tells us you are wondering how to write a report for work. Let us tell you that the strategy is not much different from writing an academic report. A Strong thesis statement, compelling storytelling, credible sources, and correct format are all that matter.
Business reports can take many forms, such as marketing reports, operational reports, market research reports, feasible studies, and more. The purpose of such report writing is to provide analysis and recommendations to support decision-making and help shape a company's future strategy.
Most business reports include charts, graphs, and other visual aids that help illustrate key points and make complex information easy to digest.
Scientific reports present the results of scientific research or investigation to a specific audience. Unlike book reports, a scientific report is always reviewed by other experts in the field for its accuracy, quality, and relevance.
If you are a scientist or a science student, you can't escape writing a lab report. You will need to provide background information on the research topic and explain the study's purpose. A scientific report includes a discussion part where the researcher interprets the results and significance of the study.
Whether you are assigned to write medical reports or make a report about new findings in the field of physics, your writing should always have an introduction, methodology, results, conclusion, and references. These are the foundation of a well-written report.
An annual report is a comprehensive piece of writing that provides information about a company's performance over a year. In its nature, it might remind us of extended financial reports.
Annual reports represent types of longer reports. They usually include an overview of a company's activities, a financial summary, detailed product and service information, and market conditions. But it's not just a report of the company's performance in the sales market, but also an overview of its social responsibility programs and sustainability activities.
The format of annual report writing depends on the company's specific requirements, the needs of its stakeholder, and the regulation of the country it's based.
Writing Reports Are Not Your Thing?
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As we've seen throughout this article, various types of reports exist. And even though their content differs, they share one essential element: report writing format. Structure, research methods, grammar, and reference lists are equally important to different reports.
Keep in mind that while the general format is the same for every type, you still need to check the requirements of the assigned report before writing one. School reports, lab reports, and financial reports are three different types of the same category.
We are now moving on to discuss the general report format. Let's direct our attention to how to start a report.
Title : You need a comprehensive but concise title to set the right tone and make a good impression. It should be reflective of the general themes in the report.
Table of Contents : Your title page must be followed by a table of contents. We suggest writing an entire report first and creating a table of content later.
Summary : The table of contents should be followed by an executive report summary. To create a comprehensive summary, wait until you have finished writing the full report.
Introduction : A major part of the report structure is an introduction. Make sure you convey the main idea of the report in just a few words. The introduction section must also include a strong thesis statement.
Body : The central part of your work is called the report's body. Here you should present relevant information and provide supported evidence. Make sure every paragraph starts with a topic sentence. Here you can use bullet points, graphs, and other visual aids.
Conclusion : Use this part to summarize your findings and focus on the main elements and what they bring to the table. Do not introduce new ideas. Good report writing means knowing the difference between a summary and a conclusion.
Recommendations : A report is designed to help decision-makers or provide crucial information to the conversation, including a set of goals or steps that should be taken to further advance the progress.
Appendices : As a finishing touch, include a list of source materials on which you based the information and facts. If you want your report to get acknowledged, don't neglect this part of the report format.
How to Write a Report Like a PRO
Mastering the report writing format is only a fraction of the job. Writing an exceptional report takes more than just including a title page and references.
Next, we will offer report-writing tips to help you figure out how to write a report like a PRO. Meanwhile, if you need someone to review your physics homework, our physics helper is ready to take on the job.
Start With a Strong Thesis
A strong thesis is essential to a good paper because it sets the direction for the rest. It should provide a well-defined but short summary of the main points and arguments made in the report.
A strong thesis can help you collect your thoughts and ensure that the report has a course and a coherent structure. It will help you stay focused on key points and tie every paragraph into one entity.
A clear thesis will make your report writing sound more confident and persuasive. It will make finding supporting evidence easier, and you will be able to effectively communicate your ideas to the reader.
Use Simple Wording
Reports are there to gather and distribute as much information to as many people as possible. So, the content of it should be accessible and understandable for everyone, despite their knowledge in the field. We encourage you to use simple words instead of fancy ones when writing reports for large audiences.
Other academic papers might require you to showcase advanced language knowledge and extensive vocabulary. Still, formal reports should present information in a way that does not confuse.
If you are wondering how to make report that is easy to read and digest, try finding simpler alternatives to fancy words. For example, use 'example' instead of 'paradigm'; Use 'relevant' instead of 'pertinent'; 'Exacerbate' is a fancier way to say 'worsen,' and while it makes you look educated, it might cause confusion and make you lose the reader. Choose words that are easier to understand.
Present Only One Concept in Each Phrase
Make your reports easier to understand by presenting only one concept in each paragraph. Simple, short sentences save everyone's time and make complex concepts easier to digest and memorize.
Report writing is not a single-use material. It will be reread and re-used many times. Someone else might use your sales report to support their financial report. So, to avoid confusion and misinterpretation, start each paragraph with a topic sentence and tie everything else into this main theme.
Only Present Reliable Facts
You might have a strong hunch about future events or outcomes, but a research report is not a place to voice them. Everything you write should be supported by undisputed evidence.
Don't forget that one of the essential report preparation steps is conducting thorough research. Limit yourself to the information which is based on credible information. Only present relevant facts to the topic and add value to your thesis.
One of our report writing tips would be to write a rough draft and eliminate all the information not supported by reliable data. Double-check the credibility of the sources before finalizing the writing process.
Incorporate Bullet Points
When writing a research report, your goal is to make the information as consumable as possible. Don't shy away from using visual aids; this will only help you connect with a wider audience.
Bullet points are a great way to simplify the reading process and draw attention to the main concepts of the report. Use this technique in the body part of the report. If you notice that you are writing related information, use bullet points to point out their relation.
Incorporating bullet points and other visual aids in your report writing format will make a report easy to comprehend and use for further research.
While you are busy coming up with effective visual aids, you may not have enough time to take care of other assignments. Simply say, ' write my argumentative essay ,' and one of our expert writers will answer your prayer.
Review the Text for Accuracy and Inconsistencies
After completing report preparation and writing, ensure you don't skip the final stage. Even the greatest writers are not immune to grammatical mistakes and factual mix-ups.
Reviewing what you wrote is just as important as the research stage. Make sure there are no inconsistencies, and everything smoothly ties into the bigger scheme of events. Look out for spelling mistakes and word count.
If you want to further advance your writing skills, read our article about how to write a cover letter for essay .
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- Updated on
- Nov 4, 2023
The term “report” refers to a nonfiction work that presents and/or paraphrases the facts on a specific occasion, subject, or problem. The notion is that a good report will contain all the information that someone who is not familiar with the subject needs to know. Reports make it simple to bring someone up to speed on a subject, but actually writing a report is far from simple. This blog will walk you through the fundamentals of report writing, including the structure and practice themes.
This Blog Includes:
What is a report, reporting formats, newspaper or magazine reports, business reports, technical reports, what is report writing, report writing: things to keep in mind, structure of report writing, magazine vs newspaper report writing format, report writing format for class 10th to 12th, report writing example, report writing for school students: practice questions, report writing slideshare.
- Report Writing in 7 steps
Also Read: Message Writing
A report is a short document written for a particular purpose or audience. It usually sets out and analyses a problem often recommended for future purposes. Requirements for the precise form of the report depend on the department and organization. Technically, a report is defined as “any account, verbal or written, of the matters pertaining to a given topic.” This could be used to describe anything, from a witness’s evidence in court to a student’s book report.
Actually, when people use the word “report,” they usually mean official documents that lay out the details of a subject. These documents are typically written by an authority on the subject or someone who has been tasked with conducting research on it. Although there are other forms of reports, which are discussed in the following section, they primarily fulfil this definition.
What information does reporting contain? All facts are appreciated, but reports, in particular, frequently contain the following kinds of information:
- Information about a circumstance or event
- The aftereffects or ongoing impact of an incident or occurrence
- Analytical or statistical data evaluation
- Interpretations based on the report’s data
- Based on the report’s information, make predictions or suggestions
- Relationships between the information and other reports or events
Although there are some fundamental differences, producing reports and essays share many similarities. Both rely on facts, but essays also include the author’s personal viewpoints and justifications. Reports normally stick to the facts only, however, they could include some of the author’s interpretation in the conclusion.
Reports are also quite well ordered, frequently with tables of contents of headers and subheadings. This makes it simpler for readers to quickly scan reports for the data they need. Essays, on the other hand, should be read from beginning to end rather than being perused for particular information.
Depending on the objective and audience for your report, there are a few distinct types of reports. The most typical report types are listed briefly below:
- Academic report: Examines a student’s knowledge of the subject; examples include book reports, historical event reports, and biographies.
- Identifies data from company reports, such as marketing reports, internal memoranda, SWOT analyses, and feasibility reports, that is useful in corporate planning.
- Shares research findings in the form of case studies and research articles, usually in scientific publications.
Depending on how they are written, reports can be further categorised. A report, for instance, could be professional or casual, brief or lengthy, and internal or external. A lateral report is for persons on the author’s level but in separate departments, whereas a vertical report is for those on the author’s level but with different levels of the hierarchy (i.e., people who work above you and below you).
Report formats can be as varied as writing styles, but in this manual, we’ll concentrate on academic reports, which are often formal and informational.
Also Read: How to Write a Leave Application?
Major Types of Reports
While the most common type of reports corresponds to the ones we read in newspapers and magazines, there are other kinds of reports that are curated for business or research purposes. Here are the major forms of report writing that you must know about:
The main purpose of newspaper or magazine reports is to cover a particular event or happening. They generally elaborate upon the 4Ws and 1H, i.e. What, Where, When, Why, and How. The key elements of newspaper or magazine report writing are as follows:
- Headline (Title)
- Report’s Name, Place, and Date
- Conclusion (Citation of sources)
Here is an example of a news report:
Business reports aim to analyze a situation or case study by implementing business theories and suggest improvements accordingly. In business report writing, you must adhere to a formal style of writing and these reports are usually lengthier than news reports since they aim to assess a particular issue in detail and provide solutions. The basic structure of business reports includes:
- Table of Contents
- Executive summary
The main purpose of the technical report is to provide an empirical explanation of research-based material. Technical report writing is generally carried out by a researcher for scientific journals or product development and presentation, etc. A technical report mainly contains
- Experimental details
- Results and discussions
- Body (elaborating upon the findings)
Must Read: IELTS Writing Tips
A report is a written record of what you’ve seen, heard, done, or looked into. It is a well-organized and methodical presentation of facts and results from an event that has already occurred. Reports are a sort of written assessment that is used to determine what you have learned through your reading, study, or experience, as well as to provide you with hands-on experience with a crucial skill that is often used in the business.
Before writing a report, there are certain things you must know to ensure that you draft a precise and structured report, and these points to remember are listed below:
- Write a concise and clear title of the report.
- Always use the past tense.
- Don’t explain the issue in the first person, i.e. ‘I’ or ‘Me’. Always write in the third person.
- Put the date, name of the place as well as the reporter’s name after the heading.
- Structure the report by dividing it into paragraphs.
- Stick to the facts and keep it descriptive.
Must Read: IELTS Sample Letters
The format of a report is determined by the kind of report it is and the assignment’s requirements. While reports can have their own particular format, the majority use the following general framework:
- Executive summary: A stand-alone section that highlights the findings in your report so that readers will know what to expect, much like an abstract in an academic paper. These are more frequently used for official reports than for academic ones.
- Introduction: Your introduction introduces the main subject you’re going to explore in the report, along with your thesis statement and any previous knowledge that is necessary before you get into your own results.
- Body: Using headings and subheadings, the report’s body discusses all of your significant findings. The majority of the report is made up of the body; in contrast to the introduction and conclusion, which are each only a few paragraphs long, the body can span many pages.
- In the conclusion, you should summarize all the data in your report and offer a clear interpretation or conclusion. Usually, the author inserts their own personal judgments or inferences here.
Report Writing Formats
It is quintessential to follow a proper format in report writing to provide it with a compact structure. Business reports and technical reports don’t have a uniform structure and are generally based on the topic or content they are elaborating on. Let’s have a look at the proper format of report writing generally for news and magazines and the key elements you must add to a news report:
To Read: How to Learn Spoken English?
The report writing structure for students in grades 10 and 12 is as follows.
- Heading : A title that expresses the contents of the report in a descriptive manner.
- Byline : The name of the person who is responsible for drafting the report. It’s usually included in the query. Remember that you are not allowed to include any personal information in your response.
- (introduction) : The ‘5 Ws,’ or WHAT, WHY, WHEN, and WHERE, as well as WHO was invited as the main guest, might be included.
- The account of the event in detail : The order in which events occurred, as well as their descriptions. It is the primary paragraph, and if necessary, it can be divided into two smaller paragraphs.
- Conclusion : This will give a summary of the event’s conclusion. It might include quotes from the Chief Guest’s address or a summary of the event’s outcome.
Now that you are familiar with all the formats of report writing, here are some questions that you can practice to understand the structure and style of writing a report.
- You are a student of Delhi Public School Srinagar handling a campus magazine in an editorial role. On the increasing level of global warming, write a report on the event for your school magazine.
- On the Jammu-Srinagar highway, a mishap took place, where a driver lost his control and skidded off into a deep gorge. Write a report on it and include all the necessary details and eyewitness accounts.
- As a reporter for the Delhi Times, you are assigned to report on the influx of migrants coming from other states of the country. Take an official statement to justify your report.
- There is a cultural program in Central Park Rajiv Chowk New Delhi. The home minister of India is supposed to attend the event apart from other delegates. Report the event within the 150-200 word limit.
- Write today’s trend of COVID-19 cases in India. As per the official statement. include all the necessary details and factual information. Mention the state with a higher number of cases so far.
- In Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in New Delhi, a table tennis tournament was held between Delhi Public School New Delhi and DPS Punjab. Report the event in 250-300 words.
Also Read: Formal Letter Format, Types & Samples
Report Writ ing in 7 steps
- Choose a topic based on the assignment
- Conduct research
- Write a thesis statement
- Prepare an outline
- Write a rough draft
- Revise and edit your report
- Proofread and check for mistakes
Make sure that every piece of information you have supplied is pertinent. Remember to double-check your grammar, spelling, tenses, and the person you are writing in. A final inspection against any structural criteria is also important. You have appropriately and completely referenced academic work. Check to make sure you haven’t unintentionally, purposefully, or both duplicated something without giving credit.
Any business professional’s toolkit must include business reports. Therefore, how can you create a thorough business report? You must first confirm that you are familiar with the responses to the following three questions.
Every company report starts with an issue that needs to be fixed. This could be something straightforward, like figuring out a better way to organise procuring office supplies, or it could be a more challenging issue, like putting in place a brand-new, multimillion-dollar computer system.
You must therefore compile the data you intend to include in your report. How do you do this? If you’ve never conducted in-depth research before, it can be quite a daunting task, so discovering the most efficient techniques is a real plus.
Hopefully, this blog has helped you with a comprehensive understanding of report writing and its essential components. Aiming to pursue a degree in Writing? Sign up for an e-meeting with our experts at Leverage Edu and we will help you in selecting the best course and university as well as sorting the admission process to ensure that you get successfully shortlisted.
A writer with more than 10 years of experience, including 5 years in a newsroom, Ankita takes great pleasure in helping students via study abroad news updates about universities and visa policies. When not busy working you can find her creating memes and discussing social issues with her colleagues.
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- WRITING SKILLS
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Some academic assignments ask for a ‘report’, rather than an essay, and students are often confused about what that really means.
Likewise, in business, confronted with a request for a ‘report’ to a senior manager, many people struggle to know what to write.
Confusion often arises about the writing style, what to include, the language to use, the length of the document and other factors.
This page aims to disentangle some of these elements, and provide you with some advice designed to help you to write a good report.
What is a Report?
In academia there is some overlap between reports and essays, and the two words are sometimes used interchangeably, but reports are more likely to be needed for business, scientific and technical subjects, and in the workplace.
Whereas an essay presents arguments and reasoning, a report concentrates on facts.
Essentially, a report is a short, sharp, concise document which is written for a particular purpose and audience. It generally sets outs and analyses a situation or problem, often making recommendations for future action. It is a factual paper, and needs to be clear and well-structured.
Requirements for the precise form and content of a report will vary between organisation and departments and in study between courses, from tutor to tutor, as well as between subjects, so it’s worth finding out if there are any specific guidelines before you start.
Reports may contain some or all of the following elements:
- A description of a sequence of events or a situation;
- Some interpretation of the significance of these events or situation, whether solely your own analysis or informed by the views of others, always carefully referenced of course (see our page on Academic Referencing for more information);
- An evaluation of the facts or the results of your research;
- Discussion of the likely outcomes of future courses of action;
- Your recommendations as to a course of action; and
Not all of these elements will be essential in every report.
If you’re writing a report in the workplace, check whether there are any standard guidelines or structure that you need to use.
For example, in the UK many government departments have outline structures for reports to ministers that must be followed exactly.
Sections and Numbering
A report is designed to lead people through the information in a structured way, but also to enable them to find the information that they want quickly and easily.
Reports usually, therefore, have numbered sections and subsections, and a clear and full contents page listing each heading. It follows that page numbering is important.
Modern word processors have features to add tables of contents (ToC) and page numbers as well as styled headings; you should take advantage of these as they update automatically as you edit your report, moving, adding or deleting sections.
Getting started: prior preparation and planning.
The structure of a report is very important to lead the reader through your thinking to a course of action and/or decision. It’s worth taking a bit of time to plan it out beforehand.
Step 1: Know your brief
You will usually receive a clear brief for a report, including what you are studying and for whom the report should be prepared.
First of all, consider your brief very carefully and make sure that you are clear who the report is for (if you're a student then not just your tutor, but who it is supposed to be written for), and why you are writing it, as well as what you want the reader to do at the end of reading: make a decision or agree a recommendation, perhaps.
Step 2: Keep your brief in mind at all times
During your planning and writing, make sure that you keep your brief in mind: who are you writing for, and why are you writing?
All your thinking needs to be focused on that, which may require you to be ruthless in your reading and thinking. Anything irrelevant should be discarded.
As you read and research, try to organise your work into sections by theme, a bit like writing a Literature Review .
Make sure that you keep track of your references, especially for academic work. Although referencing is perhaps less important in the workplace, it’s also important that you can substantiate any assertions that you make so it’s helpful to keep track of your sources of information.
The Structure of a Report
Like the precise content, requirements for structure vary, so do check what’s set out in any guidance.
However, as a rough guide, you should plan to include at the very least an executive summary, introduction, the main body of your report, and a section containing your conclusions and any recommendations.
The executive summary or abstract , for a scientific report, is a brief summary of the contents. It’s worth writing this last, when you know the key points to draw out. It should be no more than half a page to a page in length.
Remember the executive summary is designed to give busy 'executives' a quick summary of the contents of the report.
The introduction sets out what you plan to say and provides a brief summary of the problem under discussion. It should also touch briefly on your conclusions.
Report Main Body
The main body of the report should be carefully structured in a way that leads the reader through the issue.
You should split it into sections using numbered sub-headings relating to themes or areas for consideration. For each theme, you should aim to set out clearly and concisely the main issue under discussion and any areas of difficulty or disagreement. It may also include experimental results. All the information that you present should be related back to the brief and the precise subject under discussion.
If it’s not relevant, leave it out.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The conclusion sets out what inferences you draw from the information, including any experimental results. It may include recommendations, or these may be included in a separate section.
Recommendations suggest how you think the situation could be improved, and should be specific, achievable and measurable. If your recommendations have financial implications, you should set these out clearly, with estimated costs if possible.
A Word on Writing Style
When writing a report, your aim should be to be absolutely clear. Above all, it should be easy to read and understand, even to someone with little knowledge of the subject area.
You should therefore aim for crisp, precise text, using plain English, and shorter words rather than longer, with short sentences.
You should also avoid jargon. If you have to use specialist language, you should explain each word as you use it. If you find that you’ve had to explain more than about five words, you’re probably using too much jargon, and need to replace some of it with simpler words.
Consider your audience. If the report is designed to be written for a particular person, check whether you should be writing it to ‘you’ or perhaps in the third person to a job role: ‘The Chief Executive may like to consider…’, or ‘The minister is recommended to agree…’, for example.
A Final Warning
As with any academic assignment or formal piece of writing, your work will benefit from being read over again and edited ruthlessly for sense and style.
Pay particular attention to whether all the information that you have included is relevant. Also remember to check tenses, which person you have written in, grammar and spelling. It’s also worth one last check against any requirements on structure.
For an academic assignment, make sure that you have referenced fully and correctly. As always, check that you have not inadvertently or deliberately plagiarised or copied anything without acknowledging it.
Finally, ask yourself:
“Does my report fulfil its purpose?”
Only if the answer is a resounding ‘yes’ should you send it off to its intended recipient.
Continue to: How to Write a Business Case Planning an Essay
See also: Business Writing Tips Study Skills Writing a Dissertation or Thesis
Homework Center: Writing a Book Report
- Book Report--Middle and High School Level
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How to Write a Report
- Introduction of your chosen topic
- Content of your chosen topic
- The results of your findings
- Closing it with the conclusion of the report
What Is the Purpose of a Report?
21. effective formal report writing example.
22. Basic Audit Report Writing Example
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The Difference between Essay and Report Writing
How to prepare a report writing.
- The first thing that you should do to prepare when writing a report is of course the chosen topic that you’re going to be reporting.
- Study and understand the chosen topic that you would be writing a report about in order make an effective and informative report.
- Start writing your report to actually experience it on a more hands-on way. You may also see writing examples in doc
How To Write a Report in 7 Steps
- Determine the Purpose: Clearly understand the report’s purpose, whether it’s to inform, analyze, persuade, or recommend.
- Collect Information: Gather relevant data, facts, and evidence through research, surveys, interviews, or observations.
- Organize and Structure: Create a logical structure with sections like an introduction, background, methodology, findings, analysis, and conclusion.
- Write an Introduction: Start with a concise introduction that outlines the report’s purpose and what readers can expect.
- Present Findings: Present your data and findings systematically. Use clear, concise language, and support your points with evidence.
- Provide Analysis: Interpret the data and explain its significance. Discuss implications, trends, and insights.
- Conclude and Recommend: Summarize the key points and findings. If applicable, provide recommendations or a call to action.
What is an example of report writing?
- 40% of respondents favored Brand A.
- 30% preferred Brand B.
- 20% had no specific brand preference.
- 10% liked other brands.
- 60% of participants emphasized camera quality.
- 25% considered battery life a top priority.
- 15% prioritized processing speed.
- 70% of respondents were willing to pay up to $500 for a mobile phone.
- 20% were willing to spend between $500 and $800.
- 10% indicated a budget of over $800.
How do you write a work report example?
- Total sales revenue for October: $500,000, surpassing the target of $450,000.
- Sales team achieved a 15% growth in the Southeast region.
- Successful launch of a new product, contributing $50,000 in revenue.
- Increased competition in the Southwest region resulted in a 5% decline in sales.
- Delays in product shipments from the supplier affected inventory levels.
- Customer complaints regarding product quality and delivery times increased by 10%.
- Sales team members achieved their individual sales targets, with an average of 110% attainment.
- The top-performing sales representative for the month was [Name], exceeding their target by 20%.
- Address quality and delivery issues to improve customer satisfaction.
- Implement a proactive inventory management system to avoid future supply chain disruptions.
- Introduce sales training on objection handling and customer relationship management to enhance performance.
How do you structure a report format?
- Title of the report.
- Your name or the name of the author.
- Date of submission.
- Any relevant organizational or departmental information.
- A brief overview of the report’s main points, findings, and recommendations.
- Usually, this section is written last but placed at the beginning.
- Clearly state the purpose and scope of the report.
- Provide background information and context.
- Present the main data, facts, or findings in a structured and organized manner.
- Use headings, subheadings, and visuals like charts and tables to enhance clarity.
- Interpret the data and explain its significance.
- Discuss trends, patterns, or relationships observed in the findings.
- Offer suggestions or solutions based on the analysis.
- Provide actionable steps for improvement or decision-making.
How do I start writing a report writing?
- Begin with a concise introduction that states the purpose of the report.
- Provide some context or background information about the topic.
- Write each section one at a time, starting with findings or methodology if appropriate.
- Present your data or analysis in a logical and structured manner.
- Use clear headings and subheadings to guide the reader.
- Discuss patterns, trends, or relationships in the findings.
- Summarize the main points and findings in the conclusion section.
- Reinforce the report’s purpose and significance.
What are the do’s and don’ts of report writing?
- Understand Your Audience: Tailor your report to the knowledge and needs of your intended readers.
- Clarify the Purpose: Clearly define the report’s purpose, whether it’s to inform, analyze, persuade, or recommend.
- Organize Information: Structure your report logically, with clear headings and subheadings for easy navigation.
- Use a Formal Tone: Maintain a professional and formal writing style throughout the report.
- Be Clear and Concise: Use plain language and avoid jargon. Express your ideas in a straightforward manner.
- Cite Sources: If you use external sources, provide proper citations and a reference section.
- Proofread and Edit: Review your report for grammar, spelling, and formatting errors.
- Include Visuals: Use charts, graphs, and tables to enhance data presentation.
- Use Appendices Sparingly: Include supplementary materials only when necessary for clarity.
- Include an Executive Summary: Begin with a concise summary at the beginning for readers seeking a quick overview.
- Avoid Ambiguity: Ensure that your statements are clear and unambiguous. Avoid vague or unclear language.
- Don’t Overcomplicate: Keep sentences and paragraphs concise. Avoid overly complex sentences or lengthy paragraphs.
- Avoid Personal Opinions: Stick to facts and data; avoid personal opinions or emotional language.
- Don’t Overload with Information: Include only relevant data and details. Avoid irrelevant information that may confuse the reader.
- Don’t Plagiarize: Never present someone else’s work as your own. Properly cite all external sources.
- Don’t Skip Proofreading: Neglecting proofreading can result in errors that undermine your report’s credibility.
- Avoid Contradictions: Ensure that your report maintains a consistent tone, style, and message throughout.
- Don’t Overuse Technical Jargon: Avoid excessive technical terms and jargon that your audience may not understand.
- Don’t Omit Important Data: Include all relevant information and findings, even if they challenge your conclusions.
- Avoid Neglecting Visuals: If visual aids can enhance understanding, use them. However, don’t overcomplicate with excessive visuals.
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REPORT WRITING - 11 WORKSHEETS WITH ANSWERS
Age range: 7 - 14
Resource type: Worksheet/Activity
9 March 2019
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A set of 11 ready to use worksheets with answers on report writing.
After working with these worksheets students will be able to:
- Gain knowledge of report writing techniques.
- Apply authorial technique to write varied reports.
- Analyse author’s use of language and the impact of it in writing a report.
- Demonstrate the knowledge of reporting in writing.
This download includes worksheets on:
- Identifying the report types of the given reports.
- Identifying the parts of a newspaper report.
- Writing a lead for a newspaper report.
- Preparing an information report on an animal of your choice.
- Demonstrating knowledge of reporting in writing.
- Reporting an accident.
- Answering multiple choice report writing questions.
- Preparing a report based on given prompt.
- Preparing a report based on bar graph.
- Reporting a crime.
- Identifying the key elements of a newspaper report.
Here are some possible uses for these in your classroom:
- To challenge early finishers
- For effective tutoring
- As ESL stations and sub tubs
- As holiday work and homework
- For small group collaborations
- For an end of unit assessments
- For reinforcement and enrichment
Tes paid licence How can I reuse this?
Get this resource as part of a bundle and save up to 53%
A bundle is a package of resources grouped together to teach a particular topic, or a series of lessons, in one place.
WRITING WORKSHEETS AND TASK CARDS BUNDLE
A package that contains 20 sets of worksheets and task cards for writers. This download includes exercises on: * Imaginative Writing * Narrative Writing * Biography Writing * Article Writing * Report Writing * Argumentative Writing * Descriptive Writing * Diary Writing * Persuasive Writing * Summary Writing * Review Writing * Paragraph Writing * Dialogue Writing * Creating Writing * Autobiography Writing * Factual Description * Play-Script Writing * Poem Writing * Using Textual Prompts to Write * Non-chronological Report Here are some possible uses for these in your classroom: * To challenge early finishers * For effective tutoring * As ESL stations and sub tubs * As holiday work and homework * For small group collaborations * For an end of unit assessments * For reinforcement and enrichment
REPORT WRITING - CLASSROOM RESOURCES - BUNDLE
A bundle of 4 resources on report writing. After completing this lesson, the students will be able to: * Gain knowledge of report writing techniques. * Apply authorial technique to write varied reports. * Analyse author's use of language and the impact of it in writing a report. * Demonstrate the knowledge of reporting in writing. This download includes: * Handouts: Vocabulary, Scaffolding Notes, Rubrics * Worksheets, Exercises, and Task Cards * Lesson Plan with Resources * Ready to use PowerPoint Presentation Here are some possible uses for these in your classroom: * To challenge early finishers * For effective tutoring * As ESL stations and sub tubs * As holiday work and homework * For small group collaborations * For an end of unit assessments * For reinforcement and enrichment
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Homework Reports Samples For Students
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Do you feel the need to examine some previously written Reports on Homework before you start writing an own piece? In this free collection of Homework Report examples, you are granted a thrilling opportunity to examine meaningful topics, content structuring techniques, text flow, formatting styles, and other academically acclaimed writing practices. Applying them while composing your own Homework Report will definitely allow you to complete the piece faster.
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Sample report on no longer can i be late, since the time will be effectively used;, personal improvement process.
Vision/mission statements The main goal I am determined to achieve is the correction and improvement of homework delivery process due to my usual lateness in this field, thus the vision statement is to improve timing of my homework delivery. At first, it is necessary to create the system of values, principles, standards, according to which I will be acting as well as measuring the effectiveness my activity, namely the mission statements (Talbot 2003). The following mission statements, aimed at proper regulation of homework delivery process, can be set:
Development Plan Report Example
Personal development plan.
This paper is a presentation of my personal development plans that shows the knowledge I have gained following this program of study. It includes a brief account of selected lecture activities and a clear well structured evaluation of the learning experience through the entire period of this course. First of all I will focus on my life purpose, dreams, short term and long term goals, values, beliefs, mistakes, lessons learnt, and success milestone.
Personal goals values and beliefs
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Feedback Is Central To Student Learning At University Report Samples
Inspiring report about person perceptionyour first name your last name, lean person, report on academic personal & professional development, list of figures.
Figure 1: A representation of an action plan on academic skills 8
Good field observation report example, an analysis of the current and future use of internet technologies of british airways report sample, introduction:, explanation report example, math websites.
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A- Study the following report example
Our school citizenship club organized a seminar about dropping out of school in rural areas. It took place in the activities room of the school on April 25th, 2022.
About 100 people including students, teachers, parents, and political officials attended this seminar. There were different activities during this event such as presentations, mini-lectures, and workshops.
To conclude, the event was very informative and successful.
B- Use the following information to complete the report :
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How To Write A Report
Table of contents, content of this article.
- How to write a good report
- Difference from essay
- Tips for good writing
1. How To Write A Good Report
A report is a form of writing that is systematic, organized, and often tries to define or analyze a problem or an event. The problem or event analyzed can also be within a body of literature belonging to either a single document or several documents. The sole purpose of a report is to objectively present readers with all the relevant information in relation to a particular issue. Writers are expected to shelve their personal feelings or shield themselves from issues that might render the report subjective because the use of reports is at times beyond aiming to impress the author’s readership. A report has three distinct attributes which help to distinguish it from other forms of writing.
- Pre-defined structure.
- The existence of Independent sections.
- Reaching impartial and balanced conclusions.
The above makes report writing a different endeavor, but it is still a significant part of academic writing.
A report should always be:
- Accurate (be filled with reliable information)
- Concise (direct and to the point)
- Clear (writers must maintain consistency and avoid being ambiguous)
- Well-structured (writers must follow the standard structure)
Straying from the above disqualifies an author’s piece or article from being a report.
2. Report vs Essay. What is the difference
A report differs greatly from a conventional essay.
- First of all, reports have a specific structure, and writers are always asked to adhere to it while essays follow the conventional introduction, body, and conclusion structure.
- Reports also use different sections and these should always have subheadings. These sections serve a certain purpose within a report and cannot be left out.
- Essays, on the other hand, do not have sections and while writers may need to have subheadings within their essays, they are not conventional.
- The purpose of each form of writing also differs. In reports, writers aim at conveying a particular piece of information to their audience while in essays the main goal is to showcase the writer’s comprehension of the teacher’s instructions.
The above exquisitely and explicitly show the differences between essays and reports. Understanding these differences is the first step to learning how to write a report.
3. Topic selection for a report
Topic selection separates bad report writers from good report writers as well as from excellent report writers. In many instances, readers are attracted to certain documents because of their topics. Getting the right report topic is of the essence if writers are to maintain their readership. Many writers forget the issue of scope when selecting a topic. The scope is indeed an important consideration that calls for patience and careful consideration of the general subject suggested before settling on a specific report topic. Exceptional report writers understand the significance of scope and thus focus on specific aspects of a subject or topic before they decide on a topic. Writers are often advised to focus on the vitalities of a subject and only present that to their readers.
It is essential for authors to ask themselves the following questions to help in narrowing the scope of a subject:
- What are the specific aspects of a topic that appear interesting to the writer?
- What do you think will interest your audience/readers?
- What information can you find regarding the selected subject?
The above questions are indeed essential and help a writer to find or settle on a topic they are familiar with and also feel strongly about. Knowing what interests the readers is of course of the essence because it gifts the writer with a sense of direction and purpose. Finally, report writing needs to be factual and well cited. It is thus important to ensure the selected topic is adequately referenced for purposes of building a credible and reliable argument .
Below are some good topics for a report:
- Global Warming
- Nuclear Fusion
- The Shift to Solar Energy
- Breast Cancer
- US-Japan Relations since the 1945 atomic bombing
- The Big Bang Theory
- The History of Christianity
- History of Buddhism
- History of Foot Binding in China
- The Power Struggle in the East
- Causes of the 2007/2009 Recession
- History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
4. Typical structure of a report
As already said, a report structure is formal and must be strictly adhered to by all writers. Deviating from this structure only leads to reduced marks or a bored and angry audience.
Below are the elements that form the structure of a report:
An executive summary or an abstract mainly provides a summary of the entire report. While some writers write it immediately after commencing their report, it is always advisable to write it last. This section is of great importance and makes it easier for the readers to quickly understand the main points or the focus of the report.
A table of contents is simply a list of all the sections the writer decided to include in their report. Its sole purpose is to prepare readers for what to expect when reading the report and also to make it easier for them to access some of the sections directly.
Like other introductions, a report introduction ushers in the readers by providing them with a brief but accurate summary of the topic or issue under study. From the introduction, readers should be able to understand the writer’s focus or perspective.
The body mainly contains the bulk of information which builds on or supports the thesis statement from the introduction. Unlike the body of essays, the body of a report can be divided into sections depending on the topic being reviewed. Some of the sections include a literature review, a methods section, a findings section, and finally a discussion of the findings section.
Conclusion and Recommendations
A report conclusion must be included, and it contains the inferences or the points the writer withdrew from the report. How to conclude a report is indeed essential because it provides writers with the opportunity of restating and insisting on their main point.
Recommendations are always included, and here the writer is expected to include their suggestions of how, for example, the investigation can be improved in the future or how a problem can be averted in the future. If in case the writer’s recommendations have financial associations, then he/she must provide estimations or the projected costs of whatever issue they were discussing in their report.
Exceptional report writers consult journals and articles which are relevant to their topic. Later, these articles and journals need to be included under the reference list section. A reference list, therefore, contains all the materials the writer used to conduct their research.
While this is not a mandatory inclusion, it adds to one’s analysis and should hence be included whenever necessary.
Once the writer has completed the report, it is important first to review it before submitting or printing it. Proofreading the finished report is indeed essential because it helps the writer to identify some of the mistakes they could have made. For example, one could have gotten some statistical facts wrong, and it is only through proofreading that such mistakes can be identified and corrected. Grammatical errors should also be avoided, and while currently there are software varieties that can help with this, the human mind is still miles ahead, and one should identify and correct such mistakes while proofreading. Reading the report to an audience can also help a writer to avoid some mistakes while also maintaining the focus and purpose of the report. Two heads will always be better than one and consulting one’s friends or co-workers could help a writer avoid re-writing the entire report in case it is found defective later.
5. Some good tips for a report writing
Report writing tips are readily available on the Internet.
Below are some of those tips:
- Avoid ambiguity when writing a report.
- The use of simple language is also of great importance.
- Clarity and accuracy are also essential.
- Avoid guessing or using information that cannot be confirmed.
- Use recent material as sources of one’s information.
- Always start with a report outline and draft.
Like the tips above, report writing help can be readily found on the Internet. However, it is essential to be involved in the entire process lest one gets what they did not ask for.
- Try for free
Report Card Comments & Phrases—Work and Study Habits
Report Card Comments & Phrases—Work Habits
Report card comments.
As I have explained in my previous reports, ________ does not use his/her time wisely in class. Please help him/her to understand that we study in class and play at only certain times in school.
When _______ is able to settle down, he/she does much better work. However, he/she is often seeking the attention of his/her classmates, which causes distraction for everyone.
As we have discussed in previous meetings, __________ must continue to improve his/her study habits. We need to encourage him/her to be much more serious about the work he does.
_______ loves artistic activities. However, I am concerned about the amount of time he/she spends drawing when he/she has other work to do. Can we please meet to discuss strategies to help _________ correct this issue?
________ is doing grade-level work at this time. However, I am sure he is capable of turning in better work. When he improves his concentration abilities, I know the work will improve.
_______ misuses much of his work time daydreaming and then does not complete the work in time. He is capable of finishing the work in the allotted time and needs to start doing so.
________ has been doing good work at times, but it is not consistent. She can be very social and restless and often does not finish his/her work on time. Thank you for your help at home. Please continue to work with him/her on this issue.
________ is very anxious to get his/her work done, yet he/she tends to be bothersome to other students around him/her. Although he/she has shown progress in this area over the past month, he/she still needs to work on it.
_______ is having difficulty because he frequently talks out loud and disturbs the other students. He is trying to improve this bad habit and has shown some growth in the past few weeks.
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Report Card Phrases
______ works well in groups, planning and carrying out activities.
______ needs to work democratically with others in groups.
______ needs to develop a better sense of responsibility.
______ wants responsibilities and follows through.
______ now accepts responsibility well.
______ is an attentive student.
______ is gaining self-confidence.
______'s work habits are improving.
______ has the ability to follow directions.
______ requires incentives.
______'s assignments and/or homework are incomplete and/or late.
______ needs to pay attention in class.
______ needs better study skills.
Please encourage him/her to do things on his/her own.
______ is learning to listen to directions more carefully.
______ is learning to be a better listener.
______ is learning to share and listen.
______ listens carefully.
______ is a good worker and an attentive listener.
______ evaluates what he/she hears.
______ needs to listen to all directions.
______ has difficulty following directions.
______'s hand work is beautifully done.
______ enjoys doing neat, careful work.
______'s work is neatly and accurately done.
______ does colorful and interesting art work.
______ takes pride in work well done.
______ makes careless errors.
______ is disorganized.
______ needs to proofread work.
______ is learning to occupy his time constructively.
______ always uses his/her time wisely.
______ never completes assignments in the allotted time.
______ is becoming more dependable during work periods.
______ is gaining independence.
______ is becoming more self-reliant.
______ works independently on assignments.
______ fails to finish independent assignments.
______ comprehends well, but needs to work more quickly.
______ needs to be urged.
______ lacks independence.
______ is too easily distracted.
______ works too slowly.
______ does not complete assignments in the allotted time.
______ seems unable to finish required work.
______ often completes work early.
______ is not very appreciative of the value of time.
______ is sacrificing accuracy for unnecessary speed in his written work.
______ has great potential and works toward achieving it.
______ is working to full capability.
______ is a steadfast, conscientious worker.
______ is enthusiastic about work in general.
______ seeks information.
______ is a hard-working student.
______ is extremely conscientious.
______ is a pleasant, conscientious student.
______ is a hard worker.
______ is an enthusiastic worker during the ____ period.
______ is a polite and conscientious pupil.
______ must improve work habits if he is to gain the fundamentals needed for ___ grade work.
______ is inconsistent in his/her efforts, especially in _______.
______ makes little effort when not under direct supervision.
______ is anxious to please.
More Report Card Comments and Phrases.
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