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- J Postgrad Med
- v.63(3); Jul-Sep 2017
Writing a model research paper: A roadmap
Department of Pediatrics, Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Publishing in biomedical journals is considered as a scholarly activity and merits academic credit.[ 1 , 2 ] The issue of publications has come to forefront ever since the Medical Council of India (MCI) has mandated two research publications in certain indexed journals for each step of promotion of medical faculty.[ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ] This has led to many medical teachers who are due for promotion trying to achieve their publications’ target. Publication is essentially writing up a report of a research study in a “particular” format for a “particular” scientific journal. In general, one should try to publish in an easily accessible, widely read, and prestigious indexed journal. Regularly reading and analyzing research articles in one's own specialty in various journals helps in learning how to write manuscripts.[ 8 ] Mentoring by successful and seasoned authors can ease the task of publications for the beginners.[ 1 , 4 ] In addition, attending research methodology and writing workshops/trainings in medical writing helps beginners in learning the ABCs of writing medical manuscripts.[ 4 , 5 , 9 ] Improvement in institutional support and infrastructure can improve research output and aid in improving the quality of publications.[ 4 , 5 ] This editorial attempts to offer useful tips for the prospective authors to get their research papers published in eminent peer-reviewed journals (which have a high standing in the academic field) with a greater success rate.
Preparing the Manuscript
The basic IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) structure is maintained by all journals while publishing original research.[ 2 , 9 , 10 , 11 ] The draft of the manuscript consists of the title page (including the acknowledgments and disclosures), abstract and keywords, main text (introduction, methods, results, and discussion), references, tables and figures, and the legends to figures.[ 1 , 2 , 9 , 12 ]
The title page gives the title, names of all the authors, author affiliations (and highest degree), institution where the work was done, author emails, author contributions, funding/support for the research, conflicts of interest, the name and address/contact of the corresponding author, short title/running head, word counts of text and abstract, the number of tables and figures, and the acknowledgments. The title page is submitted as a separate file to prevent identifying the authors and institution (by the reviewers and editorial board members) during the review process.
Title of the research paper
Since the research paper's “title” is the first one to be read (in the table of contents of a journal), it needs to be attractive.[ 1 , 13 ] It needs to provoke curiosity and it should accurately convey what the paper is about.[ 1 , 10 , 13 ] At the same time, it needs to be simple, concise, and easily understood without jargon.[ 13 ] This exercise should preferably be done at the end of drafting the paper. Some journals mandate that the study design (randomized, crossover, observational) should be included in the title itself.
Criteria for authorship
Authorship is the “currency” of academic life and it should be conferred with great responsibility.[ 2 , 13 ] Only those who have made substantial scientific contribution (doing the research as well as writing the paper) qualify to be authors.[ 1 , 2 , 13 , 14 ] The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has expressed that all four of the following criteria should be satisfied to qualify for authorship:[ 2 ]
- Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work
- Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content
- Final approval of the version to be published
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
All the individuals who meet the first criterion should have the opportunity to participate in the review, drafting, and final approval of the manuscript so that they qualify for authorship and get the credit for their contribution.[ 2 ] Thus, the ICMJE criteria should not be used for disqualifying colleagues from authorship by denying them opportunity to meet criteria 2 and 3.[ 2 ] Accountability is not only for the part of the work that an individual author has done, but also every author should be able to identify which co-author(s) are responsible for specific other parts of the work.[ 2 ] In addition, every author should be assured of the contributions of the co-authors.[ 2 ] The above principles apply to both the primary draft and all the subsequent revisions that the paper would undergo. Authorship is the responsibility of all authors, and “gift authorships” as well as “ghost authors” are ethically incorrect.[ 10 , 13 , 15 ] The author order should be decided early in the course of the research itself.[ 1 , 2 , 13 ] One cannot delete or add an author after submission of the paper.[ 1 , 2 ] Editors would find this practice disappointing and will insist on appropriate explanation.[ 1 , 2 ] Many journals now publish the exact contribution that each author has made to the research (and writing) and ask to state the “guarantor” for the study.[ 1 , 2 , 13 , 15 ] The “guarantor” is usually the principal investigator of the research study.
The corresponding author (who need not be the guarantor) is primarily responsible for submission, coordinating the revision(s), fulfilling the administrative requirements (conflict of interest forms, copyright forms, and preserving ethics permission) as well as coordinating the postpublication queries.[ 2 ] A middle-cadre faculty/investigator with experience in publishing should take up this responsibility as a nascent author may not know how to effectively deal with editors and reviewers while the senior author may not have the necessary time to spare. Needless to say that conflict of interests (financial/commercial supports, grants, personal relations/rivalries, academic competition) need to be declared by every author (on the title page).[ 1 , 2 ] The important role that the corresponding author plays in the publication process has been duly recognized in the recent Government of India (MCI) gazette amendment notification (dated June 5, 2017 – No. MCI-12 (1)/2017-Med. Misc./115698), which states that only the first author or the corresponding author will get the credit of a research publication for the purpose of promotion.[ 16 ]
Other members of the research team who have helped in doing the study but who do not satisfy all the four authorship criteria are the ones who need to be acknowledged. These include financial support, departmental chair, administrative support, help in technical/language editing, material help, writing assistance, and help in proofreading.[ 1 , 2 , 13 , 15 ] The acknowledgment has to be done in a separate paragraph specifying the role of the acknowledged person with written permission from the person to be acknowledged.[ 2 ] Some journals place the acknowledgments’ section after the main text (i.e., just before the references) in the final published paper. Not mentioning the people who qualify to be acknowledged would be ethically incorrect.
The abstract is a concise and accurate summary (of about 250 words) of the paper.[ 1 , 2 , 10 , 13 ] It is an independent (stand-alone) and structured summary (background, aims, methods, results, and conclusions) which is read carefully by the editors to choose the reviewers.[ 2 , 13 ] It would be included in all abstracting services (where the journal is listed) and helps readers browse and often decide on whether they wish to read the contents of the paper.[ 10 , 13 ] The abstract is the second most common part read after the “title” and needs to reflect the content of the article accurately without any disagreement with the text (especially after a revision).[ 2 , 13 ] The keywords (three to ten key words or short phrases that capture the main topic) follow the abstract and should be terms mentioned in the Medical Subject Headings list ( https://meshb.nlm.nih.gov/search ).
The introduction should be brief (up to 150 words) and consists of the rationale for the study, adequate background information (context to allow a reader to understand and evaluate need for the study without referring to previous published work), and should state the research question and the aims.[ 1 , 2 , 10 , 11 , 14 ] This section needs to be concise and not unduly elaborate.
The methods section needs to answer three questions - What has been done? How was it done? and What did the authors look for? It should be organized in a meaningful way to provide sufficient details for the work to be replicated by other interested researchers. The methods section consists of ethical aspects (permission from ethics committee and institutional review board, consent, and assent), description of the study setting, participants, design, treatments/procedures/interventions, end points, and outcomes.[ 1 , 2 , 10 , 11 , 14 ] The statistical methods employed for various variables and the software package used should also be mentioned here.[ 1 , 2 , 10 ] The authors should preferably get this section checked by a biostatistician to ensure that it accurately describes the statistics used in their paper. In addition, the authors should have ensured that their study is registered in the Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI) [ www.ctri.nic.in ] before enrolling the first patient.[ 17 ] The CTRI website states that “today, any researcher who plans to conduct a trial involving human participants, of any intervention such as drugs, surgical procedures, preventive measures, lifestyle modifications, devices, educational or behavioral treatment, rehabilitation strategies as well as trials being conducted in the purview of the Department of AYUSH ( http://indianmedicine.nic.in/ ), is expected to register the trial in the CTRI before enrollment of the first participant.”[ 17 ]
The results section essentially answers the question - What did the authors find? Hence, the results section consists of answers to all points raised in methods, results for all end points (in a logical sequence), reporting of actual P values with the 95% confidence intervals, accounting for all observations as well as using tables and figures judiciously.[ 1 , 2 , 10 , 11 ] The authors should not include any new parameters that are not mentioned in the methods section and must avoid nontechnical uses of statistical terms (such as random, correlate, significant, and sample).[ 1 , 2 , 10 , 11 ] Most journals provide facility for uploading of supplementary files if the results are vast or lengthy.[ 2 ] These supplementary files undergo the review process and may be “e-published” on the website of the journal (instead of the print journal).[ 2 ] The authors should note that precise facts are best mentioned in the text section and in tables. However, graphs and illustrations (wherever indicated) should be included as they arouse interest and create a unique impact.
The discussion section is used to put the study results into proper perspective. Hence, in this section, one should state the meaning of the main findings in text form without mentioning the details of the actual numbers or percentages or P values (as these have already been stated in the results), harp on the new and important aspects of the study, compare with previous similar research, explore plausible explanations for conflicting results, discuss the practical implications, and clearly state the limitations and biases in the study.[ 1 , 2 , 10 , 11 , 14 ] Finally, the authors should mention the main conclusion of their study (briefly). This is followed by a short paragraph wherein the authors can explore the generalizability of their findings, give a take-home message, and suggest directions for further research.[ 1 , 2 , 11 ] A re-review of literature may be required if the original review of literature was done some time ago to include recent publications as references.[ 9 ] The authors should write the discussion in their own language after interpreting the earlier papers so that even accidental “plagiarism” is prevented. Authors should check their final manuscript on iThenticate ® (or any other similar software before submission) and must ensure that their manuscript's “similarity index” does not cross the upper limit of 20%.[ 18 ] In case the similarity index crosses 20%, it is possible that an editor may find this unacceptable and reject the manuscript.[ 18 ] Some free websites which an author can use to check the similarity index of their manuscript (to avoid plagiarism) include – Plagiarisma ( http://plagiarisma.net/ ), Small Seo Tools ( http://smallseotools.com/plagiarism-checker/ ), Glatt Plagiarism Services ( http://test2.plagiarism.com/index.html or http://www.plagiarism.com/ ), Duplichecker ( https://www.duplichecker.com/ ), and Search Engine Reports.net ( https://searchenginereports.net/plagiarism-checker ).
The references’ section comes next. The authors should ensure to conform to the style of the journal (Vancouver or Harvard or other styles of referencing) and cite pertinent references (those that support or contradict the study conclusions/experience).[ 1 , 2 , 19 ] It is advisable that most of the references are recent (usually from the past 5 years). One should always stick to the guidelines advocated/restrictions imposed by the journal and double check the references with the full-text articles (as the references need to be accurate and complete).[ 1 , 2 , 19 ] The authors need to ensure that all references are cited in the main text.[ 9 , 19 ] The references should be written accurately as they get quoted in the manuscript and their numbering can be finalized later. Carelessly written references create a very poor impression of the manuscript with the journal editors and reviewers.
Tables and artwork
All the tables and figures (photographs/illustrations/images/graphs/charts) should be numbered consecutively, identified in the main text (results’ section), have a title/legend, and should be understood independently (i.e., without referring to the main text).[ 1 , 2 ] One should not duplicate the data mentioned in the text again in the figures or tables.[ 2 , 11 ] The authors should be very careful regarding the quality (size, clarity, pixels, and format - jpeg/bmp/tiff) of the photographs, images/graphs/charts, and illustrations (the “artwork”) and these files need to be separately uploaded for most journals.[ 1 , 2 , 10 , 14 ] The authors need to remove all patient-identifying information and take a written consent from the patient for publishing photographs or videos (irrespective of whether the identity of the patient is revealed or not).[ 2 , 9 ] The authors also need to stick to the limits on the number of figures (imposed by the journal), and explanatory notes are to be placed as “legends” at the end of the manuscript.
Adhering to the instructions to authors
All the above guidelines and the necessary subtle/individual variations are given in the “instructions to authors” issued by the respective journals.[ 2 , 10 , 11 , 14 ] They include scope of the journal, types of manuscripts published, specific requirements regarding authorship and referencing style, details of artwork and images/photographs/illustrations, word counts, review process, and the charges for pages, extra tables and extra figures.[ 2 , 14 ] All nonstandard short forms need to be identified in full form in the main text before reusing them in the manuscript.[ 1 , 2 , 9 , 14 ] All borrowed materials should be accompanied with the line of credit to the copyright holder, a signed consent from the copyright holder (to use/modify their material) has to be kept ready, and the consent should be uploaded to the journal manuscript submission website (whenever it is asked for).[ 2 , 9 ]
The writing order
A logical writing order for a research paper for most of the authors would be to first write the methods and results, followed by the introduction and discussion, and finally the abstract and the title.[ 1 , 13 , 14 ] The authors should retain all the original electronic files for future reference and preserve the primary data files and analysis for at least 10 years after the publication.[ 2 , 9 ]
The authors should remember that editors are looking for high-quality research publications with new knowledge relevant to the scope of their journal.[ 9 , 12 ] Editors require clear and concise information in a logical sequence (avoiding repetitions) in their own “journal style” with correct use of English grammar and spellings.[ 1 ] Detailed guidelines for reporting are available such as the CONSORT for randomized trials, STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy, STROBE for observational studies, and CARE for case reports, and all these are available at http://www.equator-network.org/ [EQUATOR = Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research]. The ICMJE ( www.icmje.org ) gives periodic updated recommendations for authors, editors, and reviewers involved in publication work with the objective to review the best practice and ethical standards in conducting and reporting of research in medical journals, which need to be regularly read.[ 2 ] These recommendations should be used along with the individual journal's “instruction to authors” for writing a good paper.[ 2 ] In our experience, authors who submit a technically perfect paper for publication stand a better chance with the reviewers to get a favorable recommendation. A carelessly drafted manuscript is more likely to generate an unfavorable recommendation after peer review.
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The Creating a Research Space [C.A.R.S.] Model was developed by John Swales based upon his analysis of journal articles representing a variety of discipline-based writing practices. His model attempts to explain and describe the organizational pattern of writing the introduction to scholarly research studies. Following the C.A.R.S. Model can be useful approach because it can help you to: 1) begin the writing process [getting started is often the most difficult task]; 2) understand the way in which an introduction sets the stage for the rest of your paper; and, 3) assess how the introduction fits within the larger scope of your study. The model assumes that writers follow a general organizational pattern in response to two types of challenges [“competitions”] relating to establishing a presence within a particular domain of research: 1) the competition to create a rhetorical space and, 2) the competition to attract readers into that space. The model proposes three actions [Swales calls them “moves”], accompanied by specific steps, that reflect the development of an effective introduction for a research paper. These “moves” and steps can be used as a template for writing the introduction to your own social sciences research papers.
"Introductions." The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Coffin, Caroline and Rupert Wegerif. “How to Write a Standard Research Article.” Inspiring Academic Practice at the University of Exeter; Kayfetz, Janet. "Academic Writing Workshop." University of California, Santa Barbara, Fall 2009; Pennington, Ken. "The Introduction Section: Creating a Research Space CARS Model." Language Centre, Helsinki University of Technology, 2005; Swales, John and Christine B. Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Skills and Tasks. 2nd edition. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004.
Creating a Research Space Move 1: Establishing a Territory [the situation] This is generally accomplished in two ways: by demonstrating that a general area of research is important, critical, interesting, problematic, relevant, or otherwise worthy of investigation and by introducing and reviewing key sources of prior research in that area to show where gaps exist or where prior research has been inadequate in addressing the research problem. The steps taken to achieve this would be:
- Step 1 -- Claiming importance of, and/or [writing action = describing the research problem and providing evidence to support why the topic is important to study]
- Step 2 -- Making topic generalizations, and/or [writing action = providing statements about the current state of knowledge, consensus, practice or description of phenomena]
- Step 3 -- Reviewing items of previous research [writing action = synthesize prior research that further supports the need to study the research problem; this is not a literature review but more a reflection of key studies that have touched upon but perhaps not fully addressed the topic]
Move 2: Establishing a Niche [the problem] This action refers to making a clear and cogent argument that your particular piece of research is important and possesses value. This can be done by indicating a specific gap in previous research, by challenging a broadly accepted assumption, by raising a question, a hypothesis, or need, or by extending previous knowledge in some way. The steps taken to achieve this would be:
- Step 1a -- Counter-claiming, or [writing action = introduce an opposing viewpoint or perspective or identify a gap in prior research that you believe has weakened or undermined the prevailing argument]
- Step 1b -- Indicating a gap, or [writing action = develop the research problem around a gap or understudied area of the literature]
- Step 1c -- Question-raising, or [writing action = similar to gap identification, this involves presenting key questions about the consequences of gaps in prior research that will be addressed by your study. For example, one could state, “Despite prior observations of voter behavior in local elections in urban Detroit, it remains unclear why do some single mothers choose to avoid....”]
- Step 1d -- Continuing a tradition [writing action = extend prior research to expand upon or clarify a research problem. This is often signaled with logical connecting terminology, such as, “hence,” “therefore,” “consequently,” “thus” or language that indicates a need. For example, one could state, “Consequently, these factors need to examined in more detail....” or “Evidence suggests an interesting correlation, therefore, it is desirable to survey different respondents....”]
Move 3: Occupying the Niche [the solution] The final "move" is to announce the means by which your study will contribute new knowledge or new understanding in contrast to prior research on the topic. This is also where you describe the remaining organizational structure of the paper. The steps taken to achieve this would be:
- Step 1a -- Outlining purposes, or [writing action = answering the “So What?” question. Explain in clear language the objectives of your study]
- Step 1b -- Announcing present research [writing action = describe the purpose of your study in terms of what the research is going to do or accomplish. In the social sciences, the “So What?” question still needs to addressed]
- Step 2 -- Announcing principle findings [writing action = present a brief, general summary of key findings written, such as, “The findings indicate a need for...,” or “The research suggests four approaches to....”]
- Step 3 -- Indicating article structure [writing action = state how the remainder of your paper is organized]
"Introductions." The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Atai, Mahmood Reza. “Exploring Subdisciplinary Variations and Generic Structure of Applied Linguistics Research Article Introductions Using CARS Model.” The Journal of Applied Linguistics 2 (Fall 2009): 26-51; Chanel, Dana. "Research Article Introductions in Cultural Studies: A Genre Analysis Explorationn of Rhetorical Structure." The Journal of Teaching English for Specific and Academic Purposes 2 (2014): 1-20; Coffin, Caroline and Rupert Wegerif. “How to Write a Standard Research Article.” Inspiring Academic Practice at the University of Exeter; Kayfetz, Janet. "Academic Writing Workshop." University of California, Santa Barbara, Fall 2009; Pennington, Ken. "The Introduction Section: Creating a Research Space CARS Model." Language Centre, Helsinki University of Technology, 2005; Swales, John and Christine B. Feak. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Skills and Tasks . 2nd edition. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004; Swales, John M. Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings . New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990; Chapter 5: Beginning Work. In Writing for Peer Reviewed Journals: Strategies for Getting Published . Pat Thomson and Barbara Kamler. (New York: Routledge, 2013), pp. 93-96.
Swales showed that establishing a research niche [move 2] is often signaled by specific terminology that expresses a contrasting viewpoint, a critical evaluation of gaps in the literature, or a perceived weakness in prior research. The purpose of using these words is to draw a clear distinction between perceived deficiencies in previous studies and the research you are presenting that is intended to help resolve these deficiencies. Below is a table of common words used by authors.
NOTE : You may prefer not to adopt a negative stance in your writing when placing it within the context of prior research. In such cases, an alternative approach is to utilize a neutral, contrastive statement that expresses a new perspective without giving the appearance of trying to diminish the validity of other people's research.
Examples of how this can be achieved include the following statements, with A representing the findings of prior research, B representing your research problem, and X representing one or more variables that have been investigated.
- Prior research has focused on A, rather than on B...
- Prior research into A can be useful but to counterbalance X, it is important to consider B...
- These studies have emphasized A, as opposed to B...
- While prior studies have examined A, it may be preferable to contemplate the impact of B...
- After consideration of A, it is important to also recognize B...
- The study of A has been exhaustive, but changing circumstances related to X support the need for examining [or revisiting] B...
- Although considerable research has been devoted to A, less attention has been paid to B...
- Earlier research offers insight into the need for A, though consideration of B is also helpful...
Dretske, Fred I. “Contrastive Statements.” The Philosophical Review 81 (October 1972): 411-437; Kayfetz, Janet. "Academic Writing Workshop." University of California, Santa Barbara, Fall 2009; Pennington, Ken. "The Introduction Section: Creating a Research Space CARS Model." Language Centre, Helsinki University of Technology, 2005; Swales, John M. Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings . New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990
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Designing conceptual articles: four approaches
- Open access
- Published: 09 March 2020
- volume 10 , pages 18–26 ( 2020 )
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- Elina Jaakkola ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-4654-7573 1
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As a powerful means of theory building, conceptual articles are increasingly called for in marketing academia. However, researchers struggle to design and write non-empirical articles because of the lack of commonly accepted templates to guide their development. The aim of this paper is to highlight methodological considerations for conceptual papers: it is argued that such papers must be grounded in a clear research design, and that the choice of theories and their role in the analysis must be explicated and justified. The paper discusses four potential templates for conceptual papers – Theory Synthesis, Theory Adaptation, Typology, and Model – and their respective aims, approach for using theories, and contribution potential. Supported by illustrative examples, these templates codify some of the tacit knowledge that underpins the design of non-empirical papers and will be of use to anyone undertaking, supervising, or reviewing conceptual research.
Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.
The major academic journals in the field of marketing acknowledge the need for good conceptual papers that can “bridge existing theories in interesting ways, link work across disciplines, provide multi-level insights, and broaden the scope of our thinking” (Gilson and Goldberg 2015 , p. 128). Indeed, many of the most impactful marketing papers of recent decades are conceptual as this type of research enables theory building unrestricted by the demands of empirical generalization (e.g., Vargo and Lusch 2004 ). Authors crafting conceptual papers can find valuable advice on problematizing (Alvesson and Sandberg 2011 ), theorizing and theory building (Corley and Gioia 2011 ; Cornelissen 2017 ; Shepherd and Suddaby 2017 ), and the types of conceptual contribution that warrant publication (Corley and Gioia 2011 ; MacInnis 2011 ). However, a lack of commonly accepted templates or “recipes” for building the paper means that writing a conceptual piece can be a struggle (Cornelissen 2017 ). As a result, reviewers often face conceptual papers that offer little more than a descriptive literature review or interesting but disjointed ideas.
In empirical papers, the recipe typically is the research design that provides the paper structure and logic, guiding the process of developing new knowledge and offering conventions for reporting the key elements of the research (Flick 2018 , p. 102). The research design explains how the ingredients of the study were selected, acquired, and analyzed to effectively address the research problem, and reviewers can evaluate the robustness of this process by reference to established conventions in the existing literature. As conceptual papers generally do not fit the mold of empirical research, authors and reviewers lack any such recipe book, making the critical issue of analytical rigor more challenging.
This paper addresses issues of methodology and research design for conceptual papers. The discussion is built on previous “how to” guides to conceptual research, and on examples from high quality journals to identify and illustrate different options for conceptual research design. This paper discusses four templates—Theory Synthesis, Theory Adaptation, Typology, and Model—and explicates their aims, their approach to theory use, and their contribution potential. The paper does not focus on theory building itself but supports it, as analytical rigor is a prerequisite for high quality theorizing. Nor is the focus on literature reviews or meta-analyses; while these are important non-empirical forms of research, there are well articulated existing guidelines for such articles (see for example Webster and Watson 2002 ; Palmatier et al. 2018 ).
The ultimate goal of this paper is to direct scholarly attention to the importance of a systematic approach to developing a conceptual paper. Experienced editors and reviewers have noted that researchers sometimes underestimate how difficult it is to write a rigorous conceptual paper and consider this an easy route to publishing—an essay devoid of deeper scholarship (Hirschheim 2008 ). In reality, developing a cogent argument and building a supporting theoretical explanation requires tacit knowledge and skills that doctoral programs seldom teach (Yadav 2010 ; King and Lepak 2011 ). As Fulmer puts it, “in a theoretical paper the author is faced with a mixed blessing: greater freedom and page length within which to develop theory but also more editorial rope with which to hang him/herself” ( 2012 , p. 330).
The paper is organized as follows. The next section outlines key methodological requirements for conceptual studies. Four common types of research design are then identified and discussed with supporting examples. The article ends with conclusions and recommendations for marketing scholars undertaking, supervising, or reviewing conceptual research.
Conceptual papers: some methodological requirements
The term “research design” refers to decisions about how to achieve research goals, linking theories, questions, and goals to appropriate resources and methods (Flick 2018 , p. 102). In short, the research design is a plan for collecting and analyzing evidence that helps to answer the question posed (Ragin 1994 , p. 191). Like any design, the research design should improve usability ; a good research design is the optimal tool for addressing the research problem, and it communicates the logic of the study in a transparent way. In principle, any piece of research should be designed to deliver trustworthy answers to the question posed in a credible and justified manner.
An empirical research design typically involves decisions about the underlying theoretical framing of the study as well as issues of data collection and analysis (e.g. Miller and Salkind 2002 ). Imagine, for example, an empirical paper where the authors did not argue for their sampling criteria or choice of informants, or failed to define the measures used or to show how the results were derived from the data. It can be argued that conceptual papers entail similar considerations (Table 1 ), as the omission of equivalent elements would create similar confusion. In other words, a well-designed conceptual paper must explicitly justify and explicate decisions about key elements of the study. The following sections elaborate more specifically on designing and communicating these “methodological” aspects of conceptual papers.
Explicating and justifying the choice of theories and concepts
Empirical and conceptual papers ultimately share a common goal: to create new knowledge by building on carefully selected sources of information combined according to a set of norms. In the case of conceptual papers, arguments are not derived from data in the traditional sense but involve the assimilation and combination of evidence in the form of previously developed concepts and theories (Hirschheim 2008 ). In that sense, conceptual papers are not without empirical insights but rather build on theories and concepts that are developed and tested through empirical research.
In an empirical study, the researcher determines what data are needed to address the research questions and specifies sampling criteria and research instruments accordingly. In similar fashion, a conceptual paper should explain how and why the theories and concepts on which it is grounded were selected. In simple terms, there are two possible points of departure. The first option is to start from a focal phenomenon that is observable but not adequately addressed in the existing research. The authors may inductively identify differing conceptualizations of that phenomenon, and then argue that the aspect of interest is best addressed in terms of particular concepts or theories. That is, the choice of concepts is based on their fit to the focal phenomenon and their complementary value in conceptualizing it. One key issue here is how the researcher conceptualizes the empirical phenomenon; in selecting particular concepts and theories, the researcher is de facto making an argument about the conceptual ingredients of the empirical phenomenon in question.
A second and perhaps more common approach is to start from a focal theory by arguing that a particular concept, theory, or research domain is internally incoherent or incomplete in some important respect and then introducing other theories to bridge the observed gaps. In this case, the choice of theories or concepts is based on their ability to address the observed shortcoming in the existing literature, i.e. their supplementary value. This simplified account raises a critical underlying question: what is the value that each selected concept, literature stream, or theory brings to the study, and why are they selected in preference to something else?
Explicating the role of different theories and concepts in the analysis
Conceptual papers typically draw on multiple concepts, literature streams, and theories that play differing roles. It is difficult to imagine a (published) empirical paper where the reader could not distinguish empirical data from the literature review. In a conceptual paper, however, it is sometimes difficult to tell which theories provide the “data” and which are framing the analysis. In this regard, Lukka and Vinnari ( 2014 ) drew a useful distinction between domain theory and method theory. A domain theory is “a particular set of knowledge on a substantive topic area situated in a field or domain” (ibid, p. 1309)—that is, an area of study characterized by a particular set of constructs, theories, and assumptions (MacInnis 2011 ). A method theory, on the other hand, is “a meta-level conceptual system for studying the substantive issue(s) of the domain theory at hand” (Lukka and Vinnari 2014 , p. 1309). For example, Brodie et al. ( 2019 ) sought to advance engagement research (domain theory) by drawing new perspectives from service-dominant logic (method theory). The distinction is relative rather than absolute; whether a particular theory is domain or method theory depends on its role in the study in question (Lukka and Vinnari 2014 ). Indeed, a single study can accommodate multiple domain and method theories.
In a conceptual paper, one crucial function of the research design is to explicate the role of each element in the paper; failure to explain this is likely to render the logic of “generating findings” practically invisible to the reader. Defining the roles of different theories also helps to indicate the paper’s positioning, and how its contribution should be evaluated. Typically, the role of the method theory is to provide some new insight into the domain theory—for example, to expand, organize, or offer a new or alternative explanation of concepts and relationships. This means that contribution usually centers on the domain theory, not the method theory (Lukka and Vinnari 2014 ). For example, marketing scholars often use established theories such as resource-based theory, institutional theory, or practice theory as method theories, but any suitable framework (even from other disciplines) can play this role. Footnote 1
Making the chain of evidence visible and easy to grasp
Conceptual papers typically focus on proposing new relationships among constructs; the purpose is thus to develop logical and complete arguments about these associations rather than testing them empirically (Gilson and Goldberg 2015 ). The issue of how to develop logical arguments is hence pivotal. As well as arguing that concepts are linked, authors must provide a theoretical explanation for that link. As that explanation demonstrates the logic of connections between concepts, it is critical for theory building (King and Lepak 2011 ).
In attempting to analyze what constitutes a good argument, Hirschheim ( 2008 ) adopted a framework first advanced by the British philosopher Toulmin ( 1958 ), according to which an argument has three necessary components: claims, grounds, and warrants. Claims refer to the explicit statement or thesis that the reader is being asked to accept as true—the outcome of the research. Grounds are the evidence and reasoning used to support the claim and to persuade the reader. In a conceptual paper, this evidence is drawn from previous studies rather than from primary data. Finally, warrants are the underlying assumptions or presuppositions that link grounds to claims. Warrants are often beliefs implicitly accepted within the given research domain—for example the assumption that organizations strive to satisfy their customers. In a robust piece of research, claims should be substantiated by sufficient grounds, and should be of sufficient significance to make a worthwhile contribution to knowledge (Hirschheim 2008 ).
In practice, the chain of evidence in a conceptual paper is made visible to the reader by explicating the key steps in the argument. How is the studied phenomenon conceptualized? What are the study’s implicit assumptions, stemming from its theoretical underpinnings? Are the premises and axioms used to ground the arguments sufficiently explicit to enable another researcher to arrive at similar analytical conclusions? Conceptual clarity, parsimony, simplicity, and logical coherence are important qualities of any academic study but are arguably all the more critical when developing arguments without empirical data.
A paper’s structure is a strong determinant of how easy it is to follow the chain of argumentation. While there is no single best way to structure a conceptual paper, what successful papers have in common is a careful matching of form and structure to theoretical purpose of the paper (Fulmer 2012 ). The structure should therefore reflect both the aims of the research and the role of the various lenses deployed to achieve those aims—in other words, the structure highlights what the authors seek to explain. A clear structure also contributes to conceptual clarity by making the hierarchy of concepts and their elements intuitively available to the reader, eliminating any noise that might distort the underlying message. As Hirschheim ( 2008 ) noted, a clear structure ensures a place for everything—omitting nothing of importance—and puts everything in its place, avoiding redundancies.
Common types of research design in conceptual papers
In marked contrast to empirical research, there is no widely shared understanding of basic types of research design in respect to conceptual papers, with the exception of literature reviews and meta-analyses. To address this issue, the present study considers four such types: Theory Synthesis, Theory Adaptation, Typology , and Model (see Table 2 ). These types serve to clarify differences of methodological approach—that is, how the argument is structured and developed—rather than the types of conceptual contributions that are the main consideration of MacInnis ( 2011 ). The four types discussed here derive from an analysis of goal setting, structuring, and logic of argumentation in multiple articles published in high quality journals. It should be said that the list is not exhaustive, and other researchers would no doubt have formulated differing perspectives. Nevertheless, the presented scheme can inspire researchers to explore and explicate one’s approach to conceptual research, and perhaps to formulate an alternative approach. It should also be noted that the goals of a conceptual article can be as varied as in any other form of academic research. Table 2 identifies some possible or likely goals for each suggested type; these are not mutually exclusive and are often combined.
A theory synthesis paper seeks to achieve conceptual integration across multiple theories or literature streams. Such papers offer a new or enhanced view of a concept or phenomenon by linking previously unconnected or incompatible pieces in a novel way. Papers of this type contribute by summarizing and integrating extant knowledge of a concept or phenomenon. According to MacInnis ( 2011 ), summarizing helps researchers see the forest for the trees by encapsulating, digesting, and reducing what is known to a manageable whole. Integration enables researchers to see a concept or phenomenon in a new way by transforming previous findings and theory into a novel higher-order perspective that links phenomena previously considered distinct (MacInnis 2011 ). For example, a synthesis paper might chart a new or unstructured phenomenon that has previously been addressed in piecemeal fashion across diverse domains or disciplines. Such papers may also explore the conceptual underpinnings of an emerging theory or explain conflicting research findings by providing a more parsimonious explanation that pulls disparate elements into a more coherent whole.
This kind of systematization is especially helpful when research on a given topic is fragmented across different literatures, helping to identify and underscore commonalities that build coherence (Cropanzano 2009 ). For example, in their review of conceptualizations of customer experience across multiple literature fields, Becker and Jaakkola’s ( 2020 ) analysis of the compatibility of various elements and assumptions provided a new integrative view that could be generalized across settings and contexts. In more mature fields, synthesis can help to identify gaps in the extant research, which is often the goal of systematic literature reviews. However, gap spotting is seldom a sufficient source of contribution as the main aim of a conceptual paper should be to enhance existing theoretical understanding on the studied phenomenon or concept. The synthesis paper represents a form of theorizing that emphasizes narrative reasoning that seeks to unveil “big picture” patterns and connections rather than specific causal mechanisms (Delbridge and Fiss 2013 ).
Although there is sometimes a fine line between theory synthesis and literature review, there remains a clear distinction between the two. While a well-crafted literature review takes stock of the field and can provide valuable insights into its development, scope, or future prospects, it remains within the existing conceptual or theoretical boundaries, describing extant knowledge rather than looking beyond it. In the case of a conceptual paper, the literature review is a necessary tool but not the ultimate objective. Moreover, in a theory synthesis paper, the role of the literature review is to unravel the components of a concept or phenomenon and it must sometimes reduce or exclude incommensurable elements. A lack of elegance occurs when authors attempt to hammer together separate research ideas in a series of “minireviews” instead of attending to a single conceptual theme (Cropanzano 2009 ). For example, a literature review that seeks to integrate multiple research perspectives may instead merely summarize in separate chapters what each has to say about the concept. Typically, different research perspectives employ differing terms and structure, or categorize conceptual elements in distinct ways. Integration and synthesis requires that the researcher explicates and unravels the conceptual underpinnings and building blocks that different perspectives use to conceptualize a phenomenon, and the looks for common ground on which to build a new and enhanced conceptualization.
A theory synthesis paper may seek to increase understanding of a relatively narrow concept or empirical phenomenon. For example, Lemon and Verhoef ( 2016 ) summarized the conceptual background and extant conceptualizations of customer journeys to produce a new integrative view. They framed the journey phenomenon in terms of the consumer purchasing process and organized the extant research within this big picture. Similarly, arguing that the knowledge base of relationship marketing and business networks perspectives was unduly fragmented, Möller ( 2013 ) deployed a metatheoretical lens to construct an articulated theory map that accommodated various domain theories, leading to the development of two novel middle-range theories.
Ultimately, a theory synthesis paper can integrate an extensive set of theories and phenomena under a novel theoretical umbrella. One good example is Vargo and Lusch’s ( 2004 ) seminal article, which pulled together key ingredients from diverse fields such as market orientation, relationship marketing, network management, and value management into a novel integrative narrative to formulate the more parsimonious framework of service-dominant logic. In so doing, they drew on resource based theory, structuration theory, and institutional theory as method theories to organize and synthesize concepts and themes from middle-range literature fields (e.g., Vargo and Lusch 2004 , 2016 ). While extant research provided the basis for a novel framework, existing concepts were decomposed into such fine-grained ingredients that the resulting integration was a new theoretical view in its own right rather than a summary of existing concepts.
Papers that focus on theory adaptation seek to amend an existing theory by using other theories. While empirical research may gradually extend some element of theory within a given context, theory-based adaptation attempts a more immediate shift of perspective. Theory adaptation papers develop contribution by revising extant knowledge—that is, by introducing alternative frames of reference to propose a novel perspective on an extant conceptualization (MacInnis 2011 ). The point of departure for such papers, then, is the problematization of a particular theory or concept. For example, the authors might argue that certain empirical developments or insights from other streams of literature render an existing conceptualization insufficient or conflicted, and that some reconfiguration or shift of perspective or scope is needed to better align the concept or theory to its purpose or to reconcile certain inconsistencies. Typically, the researcher draws from another theory that is equipped to guide this shift. The contribution of this type of a paper is often positioned to the domain where the focal concept is situated.
The starting point for the theory adaptation paper is the theory or concept of interest (domain theory). Other theories are used as tools, or method theories (Lukka and Vinnari 2014 ) to provide an alternative frame of reference to adjust or expand its conceptual scope. One “method” of adaptation is to switch the level of analysis; for example, Alexander et al. ( 2018 ) provided new insights into the influence of institutions on customer engagement by shifting from a micro level analysis of customer relationships—the prevailing view in the field—to meso and macro level views, adapting Chandler and Vargo’s ( 2011 ) process of oscillating foci. Another option is to use an established theory to explore new aspects of the domain theory (Yadav 2010 ). As one example of this type of design, Brodie et al. ( 2019 ) argued for the practical and theoretical importance of expanding the scope of engagement research in two ways: from a focus on consumers to a broad range of actors, and from dyadic firm-customer relationships to networks. As well as justifying why a particular extension or change of focus is needed, a theory adaptation paper must also show that the selected method theory is the best available option. For example, Brodie et al. ( 2019 ) explained that they employed service-dominant logic to broaden the conceptual scope of engagement research because it offered a lens for understanding actor-to-actor interactions in networks. Similarly, Hillebrand et al. ( 2015 ) used multiplicity theory to revise existing perspectives on stakeholder marketing by viewing stakeholder networks as continuous rather than discrete. They argued that this provides a more accurate understanding of markets characterized by complex value exchange and dispersed control.
A typology paper classifies conceptual variants as distinct types. The aim is to develop a categorization that “explains the fuzzy nature of many subjects by logically and causally combining different constructs into a coherent and explanatory set of types” (Cornelissen 2017 ). A typology paper provides a more precise and nuanced understanding of a phenomenon or concept, pinpointing and justifying key dimensions that distinguish the variants.
Typology papers contribute through differentiation— distinguishing, dimensionalizing, or categorizing extant knowledge of the phenomenon, construct, or theory in question (MacInnis 2011 ). Typologies reduce complexity (Fiss 2011 ). They demonstrate how variants of an entity differ, and hence organize complex networks of concepts and relationships, and may help by recognizing their differing antecedents, manifestations, or effects (MacInnis 2011 ). Typologies also offer a multidimensional view of the target phenomenon by categorizing theoretical features or dimensions as distinct profiles that offer coordinates for empirical research (Cornelissen 2017 ). For example, the classic typologies elaborated by Mills and Margulies ( 1980 ) and Lovelock ( 1983 ) assigned services to categories reflecting different aspects of the relationship between customers and the service organization, facilitating prediction of organizational behavior and marketing action. These theory-based typologies have informed numerous empirical applications.
The starting point for a typology paper is typically recognition of an important but fragmented research domain characterized by differing manifestations of a concept or inconsistent findings regarding drivers or outcomes. The researcher accumulates knowledge of the focal topic and then organizes it to capture the variability of particular characteristics of the concept or phenomenon. For example, after exploring different approaches to service innovation, Helkkula et al. ( 2018 ) proposed a typology of four archetypes. They suggested that variance within the extant research could be explained by differences of theoretical perspective and argued that each type had distinct implications for value creation.
The dimensions of a typology can also be differentiated by applying another theory (i.e. methods theory) that provides a logical explanation of why differences exist and why they are relevant. For example, to examine the boundaries of resource integration, Dong and Sivakumar ( 2017 ) developed a typology of customer participation, using dimensions drawn from resource-based theory, to address the fundamental resource deployment questions of whether there is a choice in terms of who performs a task and what task is performed (Kozlenkova et al. 2014 ).
Snow and Ketchen Jr. ( 2014 ) argued that well-developed typologies are more than just classification systems; rather, a typology articulates relationships among constructs and facilitates testable predictions (cf. Doty and Glick 1994 ). In this way, a typology can propose multiple causal relationships in a given setting (Fiss 2011 ). While a typology paper enhances understanding of a phenomenon by delineating its key variants, it can be seen to differ from a synthesis or adaptation paper by virtue of its explanatory character. This is the typology’s raison d’etre; types always explain something, and the dimensions that distinguish types account for the different drivers, outcomes, or contingencies of particular variants of the phenomenon. By accommodating asymmetric causal relations, typologies facilitate the development of configurational arguments beyond simple correlations (Fiss 2011 ).
The model paper seeks to build a theoretical framework that predicts relationships between concepts. A conceptual model describes an entity and identifies issues that should be considered in its study: it can describe an event, an object, or a process, and explain how it works by disclosing antecedents, outcomes, and contingencies related to the focal construct (Meredith 1993 ; MacInnis 2011 ). This typically involves a form of theorizing that seeks to create a nomological network around the focal concept, employing a formal analytical approach to examine and detail the causal linkages and mechanisms at play (Delbridge and Fiss 2013 ). A model paper identifies previously unexplored connections between constructs, introduces new constructs, or explains why elements of a process lead to a particular outcome (Cornelissen 2017 ; Fulmer 2012 ).
The model paper contributes to extant knowledge by delineating an entity: its goal is “to detail, chart, describe, or depict an entity and its relationship to other entities” (MacInnis 2011 ). In a conceptual article, creative scope is unfettered by data-related limitations, allowing the researcher to explore and model emerging phenomena where few empirical data are available (Yadav 2010 ). The model paper typically contributes by providing a roadmap for understanding the entity in question by delineating the focal concept, how it changes, the processes by which it operates, or the moderating conditions that may affect it (MacInnis 2011 ).
A model paper typically begins from a focal phenomenon or construct that warrants further explanation. For example, Huang and Rust ( 2018 ) sought to explain the process and mechanism by which artificial intelligence (AI) will replace humans in service jobs. They employed literature that tackles key variables associated with the target phenomenon: service research illuminates the focal phenomenon, technology-enabled services, and research across multiple disciplines discusses the likely impact of AI on human labor. By synthesizing this literature pool, they identified four types of intelligence and then built a theory that could predict the impact of AI on human service labor. This involved a particular kind of formal reasoning, supported by research from multiple disciplines and real-world applications (Huang and Rust 2018 ). In other words, the authors use method theories and deductive reasoning to explain relationships between key variables, facilitated by theories in use (MacInnis 2011 ).
Model papers typically summarize arguments in the form of a figure that depicts the salient constructs and their relationships, or as a set of formal propositions that are logical statements derived from the conceptual framework (Meredith 1993 ). For example, Payne et al. ( 2017 ) used resource-based theory to develop a conceptual model of the antecedents and outcomes of customer value propositions. While figures and propositions of this kind help the reader by condensing the paper’s main message, Delbridge and Fiss ( 2013 ) noted that they are also a double-edged sword. At their best, propositions distill the essence of an argument into a parsimonious and precise form, but by virtue of this very ability, they also put a spotlight on the weaknesses in the argument chain. According to Cornelissen ( 2017 ), the researcher should therefore be clear about the “causal agent” in any proposed relationship between constructs when developing propositions—in other words, the trigger or force that drives a particular outcome or effect. Careful consideration and justification of the choice of theories and the manner in which they are integrated to produce the arguments is hence pivotal in sharpening and clarifying the argumentation to convince reviewers and readers.
This paper highlights the role of methodological considerations in conceptual papers by discussing alternative types of research design, in the hope of encouraging researchers to critically assess and develop conceptual papers accordingly. Authors of conceptual papers should readily answer the following questions: What is the logic of creating new knowledge? Why are particular information sources selected, and how are they analyzed? What role does each theory play? For reviewers, assessing conceptual papers can be difficult not least because the generally accepted and readily available guidelines for evaluating empirical research seldom apply directly to non-empirical work. By asking these questions, reviewers and supervisors can evaluate whether the research design of a paper or thesis is carefully crafted and clearly communicated to the reader.
The paper identifies four types of conceptual papers—Theory Synthesis, Theory Adaptation, Typology, and Model—and discusses their aims, methods of theory use, and potential contributions. Although this list is not exhaustive, these types offer basic templates for designing conceptual research and determining its intended contribution (cf. MacInnis 2011 ). Careful consideration of these alternative types can facilitate more conscious selection of approach and structure for a conceptual paper. Researchers can also consider opportunities for combining types. In many cases, mixing two types can be an attractive option. For example, after distinguishing types of service innovation in terms of their conceptual underpinnings, Helkkula et al. ( 2018 ) synthesized a novel conceptualization of service innovation that exploited the strengths of each type and mitigated their limitations. Typologies can also provide the basis for models, and synthesis can lead to theory adaptation.
This paper highlights the many alternative routes along which conceptual papers can advance extant knowledge. We should consider conceptual papers not just as a means to take stock, but to break new ground. Empirical research takes time to accumulate, and the scope for generalization is relatively narrow. In contrast, conceptual papers can strive to advance understanding of a concept or phenomenon in big leaps rather than incremental steps. To be taken seriously, any such leap must be grounded in thorough consideration and justification of an appropriate research design.
A discussion of how different theoretical lenses can be integrated is beyond the scope of this paper, but see for example Okhuysen and Bonardi ( 2011 ) and Gioia and Pitre ( 1990 ).
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Jaakkola, E. Designing conceptual articles: four approaches. AMS Rev 10 , 18–26 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13162-020-00161-0
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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s13162-020-00161-0
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A Model of Behavioral Manipulation
We build a model of online behavioral manipulation driven by AI advances. A platform dynamically offers one of n products to a user who slowly learns product quality. User learning depends on a product’s “glossiness,’ which captures attributes that make products appear more attractive than they are. AI tools enable platforms to learn glossiness and engage in behavioral manipulation. We establish that AI benefits consumers when glossiness is short-lived. In contrast, when glossiness is long-lived, users suffer because of behavioral manipulation. Finally, as the number of products increases, the platform can intensify behavioral manipulation by presenting more low-quality, glossy products.
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Crafting a comprehensive research paper can be daunting. Understanding diverse citation styles and various subject areas presents a challenge for many.
Without clear examples, students often feel lost and overwhelmed, unsure of how to start or which style fits their subject.
Explore our collection of expertly written research paper examples. We’ve covered various citation styles and a diverse range of subjects.
So, read on!
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Research Paper Example for Different Formats
Following a specific formatting style is essential while writing a research paper . Knowing the conventions and guidelines for each format can help you in creating a perfect paper. Here we have gathered examples of research paper for most commonly applied citation styles :
Social Media and Social Media Marketing: A Literature Review
APA Research Paper Example
APA (American Psychological Association) style is commonly used in social sciences, psychology, and education. This format is recognized for its clear and concise writing, emphasis on proper citations, and orderly presentation of ideas.
Here are some research paper examples in APA style:
Research Paper Example APA 7th Edition
Research Paper Example MLA
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is frequently employed in humanities disciplines, including literature, languages, and cultural studies. An MLA research paper might explore literature analysis, linguistic studies, or historical research within the humanities.
Here is an example:
Found Voices: Carl Sagan
Research Paper Example Chicago
Chicago style is utilized in various fields like history, arts, and social sciences. Research papers in Chicago style could delve into historical events, artistic analyses, or social science inquiries.
Here is a research paper formatted in Chicago style:
Chicago Research Paper Sample
Research Paper Example Harvard
Harvard style is widely used in business, management, and some social sciences. Research papers in Harvard style might address business strategies, case studies, or social policies.
View this sample Harvard style paper here:
Harvard Research Paper Sample
Examples for Different Research Paper Parts
A research paper has different parts. Each part is important for the overall success of the paper. Chapters in a research paper must be written correctly, using a certain format and structure.
The following are examples of how different sections of the research paper can be written.
The research proposal acts as a detailed plan or roadmap for your study, outlining the focus of your research and its significance. It's essential as it not only guides your research but also persuades others about the value of your study.
Example of Research Proposal
An abstract serves as a concise overview of your entire research paper. It provides a quick insight into the main elements of your study. It summarizes your research's purpose, methods, findings, and conclusions in a brief format.
Research Paper Example Abstract
A literature review summarizes the existing research on your study's topic, showcasing what has already been explored. This section adds credibility to your own research by analyzing and summarizing prior studies related to your topic.
Literature Review Research Paper Example
The methodology section functions as a detailed explanation of how you conducted your research. This part covers the tools, techniques, and steps used to collect and analyze data for your study.
Methods Section of Research Paper Example
How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper
The conclusion summarizes your findings, their significance and the impact of your research. This section outlines the key takeaways and the broader implications of your study's results.
Research Paper Conclusion Example
Research Paper Examples for Different Fields
Research papers can be about any subject that needs a detailed study. The following examples show research papers for different subjects.
History Research Paper Sample
Preparing a history research paper involves investigating and presenting information about past events. This may include exploring perspectives, analyzing sources, and constructing a narrative that explains the significance of historical events.
View this history research paper sample:
Many Faces of Generalissimo Fransisco Franco
Sociology Research Paper Sample
In sociology research, statistics and data are harnessed to explore societal issues within a particular region or group. These findings are thoroughly analyzed to gain an understanding of the structure and dynamics present within these communities.
Here is a sample:
A Descriptive Statistical Analysis within the State of Virginia
Science Fair Research Paper Sample
A science research paper involves explaining a scientific experiment or project. It includes outlining the purpose, procedures, observations, and results of the experiment in a clear, logical manner.
Here are some examples:
Science Fair Paper Format
What Do I Need To Do For The Science Fair?
Psychology Research Paper Sample
Writing a psychology research paper involves studying human behavior and mental processes. This process includes conducting experiments, gathering data, and analyzing results to understand the human mind, emotions, and behavior.
Here is an example psychology paper:
The Effects of Food Deprivation on Concentration and Perseverance
Art History Research Paper Sample
Studying art history includes examining artworks, understanding their historical context, and learning about the artists. This helps analyze and interpret how art has evolved over various periods and regions.
Check out this sample paper analyzing European art and impacts:
European Art History: A Primer
Research Paper Example Outline
Before you plan on writing a well-researched paper, make a rough draft. An outline can be a great help when it comes to organizing vast amounts of research material for your paper.
Here is an outline of a research paper example:
Here is a downloadable sample of a standard research paper outline:
Research Paper Outline
Want to create the perfect outline for your paper? Check out this in-depth guide on creating a research paper outline for a structured paper!
Good Research Paper Examples for Students
Here are some more samples of research paper for students to learn from:
Fiscal Research Center - Action Plan
Qualitative Research Paper Example
Research Paper Example Introduction
How to Write a Research Paper Example
Research Paper Example for High School
Now that you have explored the research paper examples, you can start working on your research project. Hopefully, these examples will help you understand the writing process for a research paper.
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Example of a Research Paper
What follows is a hypothetical example of a research paper based on an experiment.
This article is a part of the guide:
- Outline Examples
- Write a Hypothesis
- Example of a Paper 2
Browse Full Outline
- 1 Write a Research Paper
- 2 Writing a Paper
- 3.1 Write an Outline
- 3.2 Outline Examples
- 4.1 Thesis Statement
- 4.2 Write a Hypothesis
- 5.2 Abstract
- 5.3 Introduction
- 5.4 Methods
- 5.5 Results
- 5.6 Discussion
- 5.7 Conclusion
- 5.8 Bibliography
- 6.1 Table of Contents
- 6.2 Acknowledgements
- 6.3 Appendix
- 7.1 In Text Citations
- 7.2 Footnotes
- 7.3.1 Floating Blocks
- 7.4 Example of a Paper
- 7.5 Example of a Paper 2
- 7.6.1 Citations
- 7.7.1 Writing Style
- 7.7.2 Citations
- 8.1.1 Sham Peer Review
- 8.1.2 Advantages
- 8.1.3 Disadvantages
- 8.2 Publication Bias
- 8.3.1 Journal Rejection
- 9.1 Article Writing
- 9.2 Ideas for Topics
The experiment: Say you have just conducted the Milgram Study . Now you want to write the research paper for it. (Milgram actually waited two years before writing about his study.)
Here's a shortened example of a research article that MIGHT have been written.
DISCLAIMER: This article is not written by Stanley Milgram, but is intended as an example of a psychology research paper that someone might have written after conducting the first Milgram-study. It's presented here for educational purposes.
Normally you would use double spacing in the paper.
EXAMPLE OF A RESEARCH PAPER
--- START OF EXAMPLE ---
[Page 1 - text aligned in the center and middle of the page]
"Behavioral Study of Obedience"
by [author], [University]
[Page 2 - text starts at the top, left]
There are few facts about the role of obedience when committing acts against one’s personal conscience (1961). Most theories suggest that only very disturbed people are capable of administering pain to an ordinary citizen if they are ordered to do so. Our experiment tested people's obedience to authority. The results showed that most obey all orders given by the authority-figure, despite their unwillingness. The conclusion is that, contrary to common belief, personal ethics mean little when pitted against authority.
[Page 3-X - text starts in the top, left corner, no extra spacing to align text]
Current theories focus on personal characteristics to explain wrong-doing and how someone can intentionally harm others. In a survey, professionals such as doctors, psychologist and laymen predicted that a small proportion of a population (1-3%) would harm others if ordered to do so. In the recent war trial with Adolph Eichmann, he claims to only have been “following orders". The author wanted to test this claim. Can people harm others because they are merely obeying orders? Can people be ordered to act against their moral convictions? The experiment will test whether a person can keep administering painful electric shocks to another person just because they are ordered to do so. The expectation is that very few will keep giving shocks, and that most participants will disobey the order.
Participants There were 30 male participants. They were recruited by advertisement in a newspaper and were paid $4.50. Instruments A "shock generator" was used to trick the participants into thinking that they were giving an electric shock to another person in another room. The shock generator had switches labeled with different voltages, starting at 30 volts and increasing in 15-volt increments all the way up to 450 volts. The switches were also labeled with terms which reminded the participant of how dangerous the shocks were. Procedures The participant met another "participant" in the waiting room before the experiment. The other "participant" was an actor. Each participant got the role as a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the actor ("learner") every time an incorrect answer to a question was produced. The participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the learner. The learner would pretend to be shocked. As the experiment progressed, the teacher would hear the learner plead to be released and complain about a heart condition. Once the 300-volt level had been reached, the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released. Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and refused to answer any more questions. The experimenter then instructed the participant to treat this silence as an incorrect response and deliver a further shock. When asking the experimenter if they should stop, they were instructed to continue.
Of the 40 participants in the study, 26 delivered the maximum shocks. 14 persons did not obey the experimenter and stopped before reaching the highest levels. All 40 participants continued to give shocks up to 300 volts.
Most of the participants became very agitated, stressed and angry at the experimenter. Many continued to follow orders throughout even though they were clearly uncomfortable. The study shows that people are able to harm others intentionally if ordered to do so. It provides evidence that this dynamic is far more important than previously believed, and that personal ethics are less predictive of such behavior.
[Read more about references here]
--- END OF EXAMPLE ---
The scientific format: a research paper outline:.
Title , Author, Work/School
Abstract : A short summary of the article.
Current theories about the topic. What are the hypothesis for the paper?
What method used.
What were the results obtained?
Discussion and Conclusion
What are our thought about the results compared to other relevant theories.
Through the text there are references, sources of knowledge, which you've used. Citing those will give you more credibility because good research is thought to be based on other knowledge and empirical (observed) evidence .
Tables , Figures , Appendix
- Psychology 101
- Flags and Countries
- Capitals and Countries
Martyn Shuttleworth (May 21, 2008). Example of a Research Paper. Retrieved Nov 21, 2023 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/example-of-a-research-paper
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- Research Paper Format | APA, MLA, & Chicago Templates
Research Paper Format | APA, MLA, & Chicago Templates
Published on November 19, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on January 20, 2023.
The formatting of a research paper is different depending on which style guide you’re following. In addition to citations , APA, MLA, and Chicago provide format guidelines for things like font choices, page layout, format of headings and the format of the reference page.
Scribbr offers free Microsoft Word templates for the most common formats. Simply download and get started on your paper.
APA | MLA | Chicago author-date | Chicago notes & bibliography
- Generate an automatic table of contents
- Generate a list of tables and figures
- Ensure consistent paragraph formatting
- Insert page numbering
Table of contents
Formatting an apa paper, formatting an mla paper, formatting a chicago paper, frequently asked questions about research paper formatting.
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in APA Style are as follows:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman or 11 pt Arial.
- Set 1 inch page margins.
- Apply double line spacing.
- If submitting for publication, insert a APA running head on every page.
- Indent every new paragraph ½ inch.
Watch the video below for a quick guide to setting up the format in Google Docs.
The image below shows how to format an APA Style title page for a student paper.
If you are submitting a paper for publication, APA requires you to include a running head on each page. The image below shows you how this should be formatted.
For student papers, no running head is required unless you have been instructed to include one.
APA provides guidelines for formatting up to five levels of heading within your paper. Level 1 headings are the most general, level 5 the most specific.
APA Style citation requires (author-date) APA in-text citations throughout the text and an APA Style reference page at the end. The image below shows how the reference page should be formatted.
Note that the format of reference entries is different depending on the source type. You can easily create your citations and reference list using the free APA Citation Generator.
Generate APA citations for free
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
The main guidelines for writing an MLA style paper are as follows:
- Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman.
- Use title case capitalization for headings .
Check out the video below to see how to set up the format in Google Docs.
On the first page of an MLA paper, a heading appears above your title, featuring some key information:
- Your full name
- Your instructor’s or supervisor’s name
- The course name or number
- The due date of the assignment
A header appears at the top of each page in your paper, including your surname and the page number.
Works Cited page
MLA in-text citations appear wherever you refer to a source in your text. The MLA Works Cited page appears at the end of your text, listing all the sources used. It is formatted as shown below.
You can easily create your MLA citations and save your Works Cited list with the free MLA Citation Generator.
Generate MLA citations for free
The main guidelines for writing a paper in Chicago style (also known as Turabian style) are:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman.
- Use 1 inch margins or larger.
- Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.
Chicago doesn’t require a title page , but if you want to include one, Turabian (based on Chicago) presents some guidelines. Lay out the title page as shown below.
Bibliography or reference list
Chicago offers two citation styles : author-date citations plus a reference list, or footnote citations plus a bibliography. Choose one style or the other and use it consistently.
The reference list or bibliography appears at the end of the paper. Both styles present this page similarly in terms of formatting, as shown below.
To format a paper in APA Style , follow these guidelines:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman or 11 pt Arial
- Set 1 inch page margins
- Apply double line spacing
- Include a title page
- If submitting for publication, insert a running head on every page
- Indent every new paragraph ½ inch
- Apply APA heading styles
- Cite your sources with APA in-text citations
- List all sources cited on a reference page at the end
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style are as follows:
- Use an easily readable font like 12 pt Times New Roman
- Include a four-line MLA heading on the first page
- Center the paper’s title
- Use title case capitalization for headings
- Cite your sources with MLA in-text citations
- List all sources cited on a Works Cited page at the end
The main guidelines for formatting a paper in Chicago style are to:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman
- Use 1 inch margins or larger
- Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center
- Cite your sources with author-date citations or Chicago footnotes
- Include a bibliography or reference list
To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2023, January 20). Research Paper Format | APA, MLA, & Chicago Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved November 21, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/research-paper/research-paper-format/
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Digital Renaissance: NVIDIA Neuralangelo Research Reconstructs 3D Scenes
Editor’s note: Neuralangelo is now available on GitHub .
Neuralangelo, a new AI model by NVIDIA Research for 3D reconstruction using neural networks, turns 2D video clips into detailed 3D structures — generating lifelike virtual replicas of buildings, sculptures and other real-world objects.
Like Michelangelo sculpting stunning, life-like visions from blocks of marble, Neuralangelo generates 3D structures with intricate details and textures. Creative professionals can then import these 3D objects into design applications, editing them further for use in art, video game development, robotics and industrial digital twins .
Neuralangelo’s ability to translate the textures of complex materials — including roof shingles, panes of glass and smooth marble — from 2D videos to 3D assets significantly surpasses prior methods. The high fidelity makes its 3D reconstructions easier for developers and creative professionals to rapidly create usable virtual objects for their projects using footage captured by smartphones.
“The 3D reconstruction capabilities Neuralangelo offers will be a huge benefit to creators, helping them recreate the real world in the digital world,” said Ming-Yu Liu, senior director of research and co-author on the paper. “This tool will eventually enable developers to import detailed objects — whether small statues or massive buildings — into virtual environments for video games or industrial digital twins.”
In a demo, NVIDIA researchers showcased how the model could recreate objects as iconic as Michelangelo’s David and as commonplace as a flatbed truck. Neuralangelo can also reconstruct building interiors and exteriors — demonstrated with a detailed 3D model of the park at NVIDIA’s Bay Area campus.
Neural Rendering Model Sees in 3D
Prior AI models to reconstruct 3D scenes have struggled to accurately capture repetitive texture patterns, homogenous colors and strong color variations. Neuralangelo adopts instant neural graphics primitives, the technology behind NVIDIA Instant NeRF , to help capture these finer details.
Using a 2D video of an object or scene filmed from various angles, the model selects several frames that capture different viewpoints — like an artist considering a subject from multiple sides to get a sense of depth, size and shape.
Once it’s determined the camera position of each frame, Neuralangelo’s AI creates a rough 3D representation of the scene, like a sculptor starting to chisel the subject’s shape.
The model then optimizes the render to sharpen the details, just as a sculptor painstakingly hews stone to mimic the texture of fabric or a human figure.
The final result is a 3D object or large-scale scene that can be used in virtual reality applications, digital twins or robotics development.
Find NVIDIA Research at CVPR, June 18-22
Neuralangelo is one of nearly 30 projects by NVIDIA Research to be presented at the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), taking place June 18-22 in Vancouver. The papers span topics including pose estimation, 3D reconstruction and video generation.
One of these projects, DiffCollage , is a diffusion method that creates large-scale content — including long landscape orientation, 360-degree panorama and looped-motion images. When fed a training dataset of images with a standard aspect ratio, DiffCollage treats these smaller images as sections of a larger visual — like pieces of a collage. This enables diffusion models to generate cohesive-looking large content without being trained on images of the same scale.
The technique can also transform text prompts into video sequences, demonstrated using a pretrained diffusion model that captures human motion:
Learn more about NVIDIA Research at CVPR .
The field of generative AI is rapidly evolving, showing remarkable potential to augment human creativity and self-expression. In 2022, we made the leap from image generation to video generation in the span of a few months. And at this year’s Meta Connect, we announced several new developments , including Emu , our first foundational model for image generation. Technology from Emu underpins many of our generative AI experiences, some AI image editing tools for Instagram that let you take a photo and change its visual style or background, and the Imagine feature within Meta AI that lets you generate photorealistic images directly in messages with that assistant or in group chats across our family of apps. Our work in this exciting field is ongoing, and today, we’re announcing new research into controlled image editing based solely on text instructions and a method for text-to-video generation based on diffusion models.
Emu Video: A simple factorized method for high-quality video generation
Whether or not you’ve personally used an AI image generation tool, you’ve likely seen the results: Visually distinct, often highly stylized and detailed, these images on their own can be quite striking—and the impact increases when you bring them to life by adding movement.
With Emu Video, which leverages our Emu model, we present a simple method for text-to-video generation based on diffusion models. This is a unified architecture for video generation tasks that can respond to a variety of inputs: text only, image only, and both text and image. We’ve split the process into two steps: first, generating images conditioned on a text prompt, and then generating video conditioned on both the text and the generated image. This “factorized” or split approach to video generation lets us train video generation models efficiently. We show that factorized video generation can be implemented via a single diffusion model. We present critical design decisions, like adjusting noise schedules for video diffusion, and multi-stage training that allows us to directly generate higher-resolution videos.
Unlike prior work that requires a deep cascade of models (e.g., five models for Make-A-Video ), our state-of-the-art approach is simple to implement and uses just two diffusion models to generate 512x512 four-second long videos at 16 frames per second. In human evaluations, our video generations are strongly preferred compared to prior work—in fact, this model was preferred over Make-A-Video by 96% of respondents based on quality and by 85% of respondents based on faithfulness to the text prompt. Finally, the same model can “animate” user-provided images based on a text prompt where it once again sets a new state-of-the-art outperforming prior work by a significant margin.
Emu Edit: Precise image editing via recognition and generation tasks
Of course, the use of generative AI is often a process. You try a prompt, the generated image isn’t quite what you had in mind, so you continue tweaking the prompt until you get to a more desired outcome. That’s why prompt engineering has become a thing. And while instructable image generative models have made significant strides in recent years, they still face limitations when it comes to offering precise control. That’s why we’re introducing Emu Edit, a novel approach that aims to streamline various image manipulation tasks and bring enhanced capabilities and precision to image editing.
Emu Edit is capable of free-form editing through instructions, encompassing tasks such as local and global editing, removing and adding a background, color and geometry transformations, detection and segmentation, and more. Current methods often lean towards either over-modifying or under-performing on various editing tasks. We argue that the primary objective shouldn’t just be about producing a “believable” image. Instead, the model should focus on precisely altering only the pixels relevant to the edit request. Unlike many generative AI models today, Emu Edit precisely follows instructions, ensuring that pixels in the input image unrelated to the instructions remain untouched. For instance, when adding the text “Aloha!” to a baseball cap, the cap itself should remain unchanged.
Our key insight is that incorporating computer vision tasks as instructions to image generation models offers unprecedented control in image generation and editing. Through a detailed examination of both local and global editing tasks, we highlight the vast potential of Emu Edit in executing detailed edit instructions.
In order to train the model, we’ve developed a dataset that contains 10 million synthesized samples, each including an input image, a description of the task to be performed, and the targeted output image. We believe it’s the largest dataset of its kind to date. As a result, our model displays unprecedented edit results in terms of both instruction faithfulness and image quality. In our evaluations, Emu Edit demonstrates superior performance over current methods, producing new state-of-the-art results in both qualitative and quantitative evaluations for a range of image editing tasks.
The road ahead
Although this work is purely fundamental research right now, the potential use cases are clearly evident. Imagine generating your own animated stickers or clever GIFs on the fly to send in the group chat rather than having to search for the perfect media for your reply. Or editing your own photos and images, no technical skills required. Or adding some extra oomph to your Instagram posts by animating static photos. Or generating something entirely new.
While certainly no replacement for professional artists and animators, Emu Video, Emu Edit, and new technologies like them could help people express themselves in new ways—from an art director ideating on a new concept or a creator livening up their latest reel to a best friend sharing a unique birthday greeting. And we think that’s something worth celebrating.
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Helen Keller as a Role Model for Everyone
Helen Keller was a resilient woman through every stage in her life. She was a role model for everyone including women and the disabled alike. Keller had traveled the world to influence those who had lost hope and encouraged them to fight for their rights. This led her to become a great historical figure in the United States. She had always been a step ahead, even as a toddler. When her disease posed as a setback, Keller took it with […]
My Mother is my Role Model
Everyone has a person they look up to or idolize, they’re known as a role model. My role model is my Mom, she is a role model to me because of her kind heart and hustler mindset. She is such a selfless person, always making sure people around her are taken care of before she is. Everyone has a chance to seek new opportunities, but what if that means leaving your native home and traveling to a foreign country. My […]
Bill Gates as a Role Model
The role model that I choose is Bill Gates, an American businessman, investor, author, philanthrophist, humanitarian and best known as the principal founder of Microsoft Corporation. He launched Microsoft Corporation together with Paul Allen as his co-founder. He held the position as chairman, CEO and chief software architect in his organization and best-known as the entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution as he had primary responsibility for the company’s product strategy. His organization has becoming the world’s largest PC software […]
How you Become a Role Model in your Home
I have two younger siblings. Well perhaps I should say more youthful in light of the fact that there isn’t anything minimal about both of them. One is as of now a few inches taller and the other is unquestionably going to outperform me soon. However, I am as yet the greatest. At the point when I was more youthful I didn’t care for being the most seasoned, I needed to do the harder errands, watch my sisters and it […]
How to be a Good Role Model
Having a sibling, especially a smaller one, is not easy. My sister was almost 7 years younger than me, which should mean that we had different interests and different things we liked to do. In my friend group, I was the last to receive a sibling, so Id heard all the stories. How annoying a sibling is, how siblings often fought, how my friends little brother or sister destroyed something of his. Maybe since I was so much older, and […]
The Constitution of India is a Role Model for the World
The ancient India burden has a republic system here the Republic of Malva and Lichivi existed. At that time the councils and committees were working with local citizens like today’s local governments. It is our reputation for bringing our loose India into communal form and making it again a secular republic state. The leaders and the constitution are credited to the creators. The concepts of the republic are democratic values and it is the source of the Constitution to make […]
Role Models in to Kill a Mockingbird
Young people always need someone to look up to, whether it is to become something great like their idol or have an evil turn on it. In Harper Lees novel To Kill a Mockingbird, the protagonist Jean Louise, also called Scout, sees the full truth of the people in her community. Growing up around the injustices reveals the implicit corrupt souls of the people she is surrounded by. Some in the novel seek to invoke for a teaching to go […]
Modeling and Role Modeling Theory
Modeling and Role Modeling theory was established in year 1983 by Mary Ann Swain, Helen Erikson and Evelyn Tomlin in their book “Modeling and Role Modeling: A Theory and Paradigm for Nursing”. The theory is treated as philosophy of nursing. This theory guide nurses to care for and educate each patient with appreciation and respect for individual’s uniqueness which epitomize theory-based clinic practice that target on patient’s needs.(Sappington,1996). The process by which nurse know and comprehend the patient’s particular model […]
Are Professional Athletes Role Models
Are athletes role models? That’s the big question that a lot of people try to answer. Athletes do a lot of extraordinary things in their sport. High flying dunks, coast to coast rushes down the ice for a spectacular goal, and amazing bending free kicks from 40 yards out. This can be why they are idols to a lot of kids. Kids idolize Lebron James because of what he can do on the court. Though he can also be a […]
Are Athletes Good Role Models?
Everyone can agree that athletes are some of the most influential people, but does that make them role models? As some athletes have been idolized, others have been convicted of various crimes, such as doping, abuse, substance abuse, and even murder. That raises the question, can we trust athletes to be morally good? Of course we can, but there are few that fit into that category of morally good, famous athlete, and publicly respected and adored. Bottom line, athletes should […]
Do we Need Adults as Role Models
Children from ages 6-12 have just crashed into an unknown island and with no adult supervision, things are not off to a very good start. A plane carrying English boys was shot down just over the ocean, unfortunately not everyone in the plane survived and with the pilot nowhere to be seen the children become desperate and scatter an throughout the island. Having adults as role models can affect the way one acts, speaks, dresses etc, as explained by William […]
Celebrities and their Responsibility as Role Models
To start off, fame, wealth, glory, and stardom never comes by itself. There is a tremendous burden that is brought upon by idiosyncrasy and a watchful attitude. Those responsible for promoting these negative trends are the people who fail to live up to these standards of a role model; they fail to set a good example for their followers. I believe that it is important to acknowledge the fact that these celebrities bear an immense amount of responsibilities to set […]
What is Modelling
1.1 Introduction to Modeling: Introduction to Modelling: Modelling is an influential method l. With it, we can perform following functions. Analyze Design operate complex systems Hypotheses checking(Testing) with minimal cost (Performing the original events) Modelling an effective communication Method/tool that tells us the happening of operation (how actually operations is done) and stimulates innovative rational about how to improve it. These models shorten design cycles, minimize the expenses and increase the knowledge for industries like government, and educational institutions. […]
Many of us have role models in our lives and to most people role models are either athletes or movie stars, but to me a role model is much more. To me a role model is someone who has positively influenced a person’s life, and is not someone who is filled with selfishness and greed. They are people who someone can look up to for advice in a hard situation, and know that they will give those words of wisdom or the right path to take. A role model is someone who we should never feel awkward talking to about our problems. A perfect role model for me is my mother. She is one of the most wonderful human beings I know. My mother’s name is Frances and she is a very smart, caring, wise, ambitious, patient and such a loving person. There are no words that can describe my gratitude towards her, but through this essay I will describe some of her characteristics that makes her my role model. To begin with, I would like to describe my mom’s ambition. She wakes up every morning with the positive attitude, and a smile on her face even if the day before was terrible for her. My mother is always searching for ways to improve her persona, and live a happier life. I watch my mom go through so much stress with our family, her job, and especially me. No matter what though she is always pushing through it, she drinks a glass of wine here and there to cope with the stress but what I see most is that she always helps others before herself without asking or expecting anything in return. If my mom notices me feeling unhappy she always goes the extra mile to cheer me up or talk with me. My mom’s ambition to succeed in life has allowed her to grow into a wonderful person full of kindness and knowledge. Ambition is a great virtue to have, and that is one reason why my mother is my role model. My Mother is a very hard working person. She is alway on task with what she has to get done to achieve her main goals. One major thing I admire about my mom is that she first sets her goals and then takes step by step till she succeeds and never gives up no matter the struggle. My mom also encourages me quite a bit to become more organized with my main priorities. One big thing I lack that she definitely helps me with, is figuring out what I have to do first and completing it. For example my mom is constantly texting and reminding me throughout the day with what my deeds are or something important I need to focus on instead of other distractions. My mom is the most important person in my life and I know that she will be always there for me with help, her love, and her caring heart. She’s a wonderful person, she admires the beauty of life and finding the greater good rather than the bad. My mom shows me on a daily basis and continuously believes that life is what you create it to be. I also know if I have to make any big decisions in my life, I can always ask my mom for advice because she has the wisdom and experience even when I don’t want to admit it. My mother shares the greatest characteristic of a best friend because she will always tell me the truth even if it is not something that I want to hear, but she will tell me with kindness and without any judgment. She will help me approach bad situations in a more positive manner instead of continuing the wrong path. My mother is my role model because she does so much for me; she gives me everything she has just to make my life much easier. I love my mother with every inch and bone in my body. My mother is always there for me and I would do anything for her. If i’m being completely honest I would take a bullet for my mom at any time of any day instantly. She constantly gives me more than I deserve even when I give her a million reasons not to and make it hard on her. No matter how many times I were to let my mom down she will never give up on me or stop loving me. I am so thankful and blessed that she is who she is because I personally would not have gotten through 16 years years of life without my mom to keep me going everyday and finding ways to be more happy with what I have instead of finding and wanting more. Through the example of her own values my mom has set footprints for me to follow. She has also taught me ever since I was younger to always stay close to God because he is the only one who is always gonna stay by my side at every second and will lead me to a better life if I put my trust in him. Out of all 5 models of leadership my mom represents “Model the Way” and “Challenge the Process.” My mother models the way when she sets the everyday example of waking up to a new day with a more positive attitude than the last. My mom definitely inspires me each and every day to become a better me for myself and nobody else. She also challenges the process because she “never settles for less” My mother knows what she wants and she puts in the effort to receive it. I have struggled with change my whole life and my mom has done everything in her power to help me overcome those fears. For example my parents had separated when I was a kid and I never understood why until I grew older but my mom has always stayed as close to me as possible, making sure I was comfortable and safe. Another example of change that affected me quite a bit happened throughout these last two years in my personal life and I had nobody to help me go through it, but my mom was always there making sure I knew that if I needed to talk to her, she was always available. I always had a hard time opening up about certain situations but eventually my mom helped me overcome this by making me feel like I could trust her more and as I became older I realized my mom isn’t like the rest of theses moms, she’s definitely different and extremely unique!