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How to Use ‘‘et al.’’ in APA Style (7th Edition)

The term ‘‘et al.’’ is the abbreviated form of the Latin term ‘‘et alia,’’ which means ‘‘and others.’’ It is used in academic in-text citations when referring to a source with multiple authors. In APA style, for a source with three or more authors, list the first author’s last name and “et al.” for all citations, including the first citation.

research paper et al citation

The Term ‘‘et al.’’ is the Abbreviation of Latin Term ‘‘et elia,’’ Meaning ‘‘and others’’

The term ‘‘et al.’’ is the abbreviated form of the Latin term ‘‘ et alia,’’ which means ‘‘and others.’’ It is used in academic in-text citations when referring to a source with multiple authors. In APA style, for a source with three or more authors , list the first author’s last name and “et al.” for all citations, including the first citation. Note that this rule has changed from APA 6th edition guidelines on using ‘‘et al.’’  which recommend listing all author names in the first citation up to five authors but then using ‘‘et al.’’  for the second and subsequent citations.

In October 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) introduced the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, which replaces the 6th edition. The in-intext citation for works with three or more authors is now abbreviated right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and  “et al.”

For two authors: Always cite both authors' names in-text everytime you reference them.

Here is how this would look for a source authored by Parker, Robin, and Williams published in 2018.

( Parker et al., 2018)

            or

Parker et al. (2018) claimed that…

Note that there will be no comma between the surname and  ‘‘et al.’’  but a comma should be placed before the date in parentheses citation.  Also, the period goes only after the  ‘‘al.’’     even when it falls in the middle of a sentence.

Use ‘‘et al.’’ in APA Style (7th Edition)

The Correct Use of ‘‘et al.’’

Authors make several mistakes when using ‘‘et al.’’ in academic writings. The “al” in “et al.” is always followed by a period because the period shows that it is the abbreviated form of the term ‘‘et alia.’’

Thus, the following forms are not correct: ‘‘ et al’’, ‘‘et. al’’, ‘‘et. al.’’

The proper use of the abbreviation is ‘‘et al.’’

Also, “et al.” can be directly followed by another punctuation where necessary. However, the period always comes first:

(Parker et al., 2018)

When “et al.” is used right at the end of a sentence, only one period is used:

... by Parker et al. (2018)

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‘‘et al.’’ in APA Style (7th Edition)

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‘‘et al.’’ in APA Style (7th Edition)

For more information about the citation styles and APA style, read the following articles:  

The 9 Most Important Changes in the 7th Edition of the APA Manual

APA Manual 7th Edition: In-Text Citation

How to Present Tables and Figures in APA Style (7th edition)

How to Use et al. in APA Style (7th Edition)?

APA Style: In-Text Citation | Reference List Entry

How to Cite Sources in APA Referencing Style? | With APA 7th Edition Update

How and When to Use ”et al.” in APA In-Text Citations?

Citation Styles | Which Citation Style Should I Use?

APA Formatting Guide for Academic Manuscripts

This handout discusses how and when to use et al. in APA style (7th edition). To give you an opportunity to practice your proofreading, we have left a few spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors in the text. See if you can spot them! If you spot the errors correctly, you will be entitled to a 10% discount.

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They Also Read

research paper et al citation

When you are writing for academic purposes, you need to keep a ton of rules and regulations in mind. However, that is not the whole story, as you also need to keep the style guide in mind. While writing for academic work is not easy, nothing can be impossible with practice. Therefore, we are here with a compact citation style guide that abides by academic standards. If you are new to editing and proofreading or new to the academic side, this article will help you learn about the 8 most common citation styles used in academic writing.

research paper et al citation

The American Psychological Association (APA) introduced the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual in October 2019. This edition replaced previous one, the 6th edition of the manual. Since then, several things have changed. The latest edition also updated how to present publisher information in your reference list in APA style.

research paper et al citation

The acronym ‘‘et al.’’ is an abbreviation for the Latin term ‘et alia,’’ meaning ‘‘and others’’ and used in academic in-text citations when referring to a source with multiple authors. Depending on the number of authors a reference has, an APA in-text citation is abbreviated by using ‘et al.’ after the first author’s last name.

research paper et al citation

MLA is considered one of the most popular and most used citations and referencing styles in academic writing. This quick guide provides the basic rules for MLA in-text citations and reference list for academic papers and essays.

research paper et al citation

Academic referencing and academic citing acknowledge the sources used by authors in their manuscripts. It necessitates the linkage of citations to the list of works cited in a paper. It also gives credit to the sources of information used in the manuscript. Whether it is about writing a book or other academic documents, you first need to learn how to use APA referencing style and format. With the help of citations, readers can easily understand the messages conveyed in an article.

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OASIS: Writing Center

Citations: using et al., using et al..

For a work with one or two authors, include the name(s) in every citation. Here is how this could look:

(Dusek & Bakke, 2019)
According to Lai and Sookochoff (2018)…

In APA 7, for a work with three or more authors, list the first author and “et al.” for all citations, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity. (Note that this rule has changed from APA 6 guidelines on using "et al.," which recommend listing all author names in the first citation up to five authors but then using "et al." for the second and subsequent citations.)

Here is how this would look for a source authored by Sookochoff, Lai, and Bakke published in 2017:

(Sookochoff et al., 2017)
According to Sookochoff et al. (2017)...

Remember that there is no comma between the surname and "et al.," and the period goes only after the "al." The English translation of "et al." is "and others."

A helpful table of this rule can be found in APA 7, Table 8.1.

Shortening Citations With et al. Video

  • APA Formatting & Style: Shortening Citations With et al. (video transcript)

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How Do You Use et al. in Scientific Papers? (with many examples)

Et al. in academic writing helps you cite a publication with multiple contributors. Exactly how and where to use it varies depending on the specific journal publication or prescribed style guide. Even experienced authors have trouble with “et al.” Here we help clarify its use across every major style guide.

Updated on June 15, 2022

A researcher considering the use of et al in a new academic article

In scholarly papers, citation rules definitely have some strange terms. Some aren't English, and some aren't words. The term “et al.”, for instance, isn't an English word. For someone who speaks a non-Latin-origin language, like Japanese or Arabic, it's especially confusing. This post explains the use of et al. and some common mistakes related to it.

You use “et al.” in academic writing to cite a publication that has multiple authors (or other contributors, such as editors). For example, instead of an in-text citation reading (Schouten, McAlexander, Smith, Rogers, & Koenig 2010), it would simply be (Schouten et al., 2010).

Et al. is used in manuscript body text and in reference lists and footnotes. Exactly how and where to use it varies depending on the prescribed style, such as APA, AMA, Harvard, Vancouver, or that of a specific publication. It's short for et alia (or the respective masculine and feminine plural et alii or et aliae) – Latin for “and others.” The abbreviation is required, but it also makes writing easier to read, helping the reader find the cited works faster.

Even experienced authors have trouble with “et al.” because many major academic writing style guides, as well as specific journals, use it slightly differently. Let's look at the main ones you'll typically see when you're seeking to publish your scientific manuscript. Some of these styles are updated regularly, so always be sure to check with your professor and/or with your target publication's guidelines.

Using et al. in the main academic referencing styles

The following sections will show how to use “et al.” in APA, MLA, Vancouver, and other main referencing styles, especially those found in journals.

APA (American Psychological Association) Style

APA is commonly used in the social sciences and medicine, both in universities and in publications. Keep up to date on the latest APA style as well.

For in-text citations in APA Style , when a source has two authors, list both authors by their last names, followed by the publication year. For three or more authors, cite the first author followed by “et al.”

Note that these rules are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition (APA 7). The previous versions required listing more authors in the in-text citations, and had some differences in the reference list requirements.

APA Style in-text citations

The main difference in APA Style in-text citations is their use of the ampersand (&) symbol. Et al. is now simply used for three-plus authors. It used to be more confusing, as up to five authors were listed at first reference and then et al. on second reference. Many will not be familiar with the current style, so be sure to check.

APA style example of the use of et al. in academic articles

APA Style reference list

The “et al.” abbreviation is not used in the APA references list. But knowing how to prepare the list can help you know when to use et al. in the in-text citations.

For publications with 3–20 authors put all the authors. For example:

Eckhardt, G., Houston, M., Jiang, B., Lamberton, C., Rindfleisch, A. & Zervas, G. (2019). Marketing in the sharing economy. Journal of Marketing , 83(5), 5-27.

For a source with 20 or more authors put the first six authors, followed by an ellipsis (…) and then the final author. For example:

Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., . . . Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 100(10), 2043-2061.

APA Style is rather idiosyncratic with its combinations of spaces and commas. Be careful with those, especially if you have a picky adviser or run into a picky peer reviewer or journal editor.

MLA (Modern Language Association) Style

MLA Style is most commonly used in the humanities. Nothing makes it especially unique, but it has its own slight differences.

MLA Style in-text citations

Unlike APA Style, MLA Style doesn't use the year in the citation. Instead, it uses the authors' last names and the relevant page number.

Use “et al.” for sources with three or more authors for both in-text citations and in the references list.

MLA style example of the use of et al. in academic articles

MLA Style reference list

For the reference list, known as the Works Cited list in MLA Style, publications with three or more authors will look like this:

Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Utah State University Press, 2004.

Vancouver Style

The Vancouver Style guide was developed in Canada by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) . It's now widely used for journal referencing in medicine, health sciences, and life sciences, and even in technology.

It's a concise style that works well for hyperlinking and with referencing software such as EndNote.

Vancouver Style in-text citations

Vancouver Style uses numbers for in-text citations, so using “et al.” is not a concern. However, if an author is named in a sentence, use “et al.” for publications with more than one author. For example:

“Holt et al. found that there was no histochemical evidence of mitochondrial myopathy.”

Vancouver Style reference list

For the reference list, put the names of up to six authors. For example:

Holt IJ, Miller DH, Harding AE. Genetic heterogeneity and mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. J Med Genet. 1989 Dec; 26 (12): 739-743 .

For seven or more authors put the first six and “et al.” For example:

Meakin CJ, King DA, White J, Scott JM, Handley H, Griffiths A, et al. Screening for depression in the medically ill. J Nerv Ment Dis 1991; 12: 45‐53 .

AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Also very common in medical referencing is AMA Style. AMA Style tends to be used for strictly clinical medical journals and the life sciences.

AMA Style In-text citations and reference list

The AMA system is similar to the Vancouver system in that it also uses numbers for in-text citations. The difference is found in the way AMA treats publications with seven or more authors in the reference list.

In AMA put the names of all the authors for up to six authors. For example:

Mizumoto K, Kagaya K, Zarebski A, Chowell G. Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(10):2000180.

For seven or more authors put the first three, followed by “et al.” For example:

Ahn DG, Shin HJ, Kim MH, et al. Current Status of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Vaccines for Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020;30(3):313-324.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chicago Style (and the very similar Turabian Style) is an American English style guide that is widely used in books in the social sciences and humanities, as well as journalism. It's less commonly used in journals.

The massive and comprehensive book called The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) has two referencing systems: author-date and notes and bibliography (which, by the way, LaTex can handle automatically).

Chicago Style in-text citations

Use of “et al.” is the same in both of the above referencing styles. For in-text citations put all last names when there are up to three authors. For four or more authors put the first author's name followed by “et al.”

For footnotes, but the full author name(s). Note that relevant page numbers are also usually given in Chicago Style. Also, unlike APA Style, the word “and” is used instead of the & ampersand symbol. Footnotes are usually indicated in the text with a superscript number.

Chicago style example of the use of et al. in academic articles

Chicago Style reference list

For the reference list in Chicago Style, use all authors' full names if the source has up to 10 authors. For example:

Sechzer, Jeri A., S. M. Pfaffilin, F. L. Denmark, A. Griffin, and S. J. Blumenthal, eds. Women and Mental Health . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

For more than 10 authors put the first seven, followed by “et al.”

Harvard Style

This style guide will be familiar for students who have studied in the US or under US professors. It's commonly used from the high school level upward. It's less common in scientific publications.

Harvard Style in-text citations

For in-text citations in Harvard Style put all names if the source has three or fewer authors. Use “et al.” if there are four or more authors. Just to make things even more confusing, Harvard usually does not put a comma between the author name or between “et al.” and the year.

Harvard style example of the use of et al. in academic articles

Harvard Style reference list

For the reference list in Harvard Style put the names of all the authors, no matter how many there are. For example:

Lupien, S.J., McEwen, B.S., Gunnar, M.R. and Heim, C., 2009. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience , 10(6), pp. 434-445.

Harvard style is primarily used in university settings, and each school may have its own variations. Be sure to check, because Harvard shows a lot of variety in punctuation and capitalization depending on the university or publication using it.

Specific journal variations

Despite the great number of referencing styles available, some journals prefer to use their own style of referencing. These are almost never 100% unique. Most often, they are based on a popular style, but with a few alterations.

Most commonly, Vancouver Style is used as a basis for making a publication's or journal's “house style” (see more on that topic below). Some add spaces. Some change the punctuation. Some use superscript numbers while others use numbers in parentheses or brackets.

For instance, the popular online open-access (OA) journal PLOS ONE states it uses Vancouver Style. It does, but it also places citation numbers in brackets and it removes spaces in some punctuation in the reference list. These are small differences, but an author must do them correctly or they risk having their submission rejected by their target journal .

Another example, the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) , which produced journals including Transactions of the ASABE , uses a variation of APA Style 6th Edition. Why? We may never know. But if you're submitting to them, you must follow their guidelines.

To be sure you satisfy the guidelines you can hire a professional scientific editor who has done this task hundreds, even thousands, of times. We're skilled at spotting tiny differences in styles. It's part of an editor job.

Common mistakes in using et al. in academic writing

There are several common mistakes that authors of any level should be aware of when using et al.

Using et al. when you shouldn't

Knowing where you should and should not put et al. depends on the style guide you're following. That's all. However, some authors simply put use et al. when there's more than one author. That's just wrong.

The recent APA Style update also made things confusing for students and publication-seeking researchers, because some professors and journal reviewers will be following APA 6 while others will be updated to APA 7. Still others may not care. If you're not sure, ask.

Using the period in et al.

Maybe the most common problem in using et al. is knowing where to put the period. It should be after the “al.” and not after the “et”. This is because, as mentioned, “et al.” is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase “et alia.” The “et” is itself a word.

The “et al.” may be followed by any other punctuation. For example:

(Aaker et al., 2004)

Or it may not. It depends on the publication.

When et al. ends a sentence, use only one period. For example:

“This leads to a 40% reduction in food waste, as shown by Simpson et al.”

“Et al.” vs. “etc.”

“Et al.” and “etc.” are sometimes confused with each other. But they're completely different.

The abbreviation “et al.” is used for lists of authors (or other contributors). That's all. However, “etc.” ( et cetera , which is the Latin word for “and other similar things”) is used for lists or related items. For example:

“Riches et al. (2017) suggest that subcultures form around a variety of popular music styles (punk, hip hop, etc.), each with its own aesthetics and ethos.”

Final words on et al.

Although the basic concept behind using “et al.” is easy, each system is different. For journal submission, check the specifics. The journal may use a common style such as APA or Vancouver, but with a few custom differences. Some journals are very picky about this, some are not.

Even though the abbreviation is required, it adds readability. Modern scientific writing should be accessible and readable; so et al., though tricky, is a good thing .

If you need formatting for your manuscript to be sure you're using the right guidelines, scientific editors can do that for you. Journal guidelines are notoriously quirky and if English isn't your first language, they're even harder.

Professional scientific editors are trained in dealing with this. Many of us even enjoy it! Get a professional edit if you want to be sure you have your references totally consistent and pleasing to the journal editor's discerning eyes.

About the author

Adam Goulston is a U.S.-born, Asia-based science marketer, writer, and editor. His company, Scize , helps scientific businesses and researchers communicate their value globally. He has edited more than 3,000 scientific manuscripts.

Adam Goulston, Science Marketing Consultant, PsyD, Human and Organizational Behavior, Scize

Adam Goulston, PsyD, MS, MBA, MISD, ELS

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When to Use Author “et al.” in Citation and References

research paper et al citation

We publish because we want to share our knowledge and because we want recognition for our work. We acknowledge people’s ideas and findings by providing citations. Unfortunately, however, the rules regarding this common practice are not always easy to decipher, even for the best of us! We have published a number of other articles that help you navigate citation requirements, for example on the best citation format for science papers, how many references you should include in your research paper, and the general differences between common citation styles .

This article focuses on how to name the authors of cited works, including when to use the abbreviated Latin term “et al.” that usually accompanies the phrase “author et al.” Please make sure to follow the relevant journal guidelines concerning punctuation, citation style, etc., as publishers do not always follow the exact same formatting rules. Let’s start with some general definitions, and then look at specific rules of the most common style guides .

Table of Contents:

  • What are the main types of citations? 
  • Why do we use “et al.” in citations? 
  • Using “et al.” vs “etc.”
  • When Do We Use “et al.” in Citations? 

How to Cite “et al.” in APA Style

  • How to Cite “et al.” in Chicago
  • How to Cite “et al.” in MLA Citations

What are the main types of citations?

When referring to published literature, you need to provide details so that others can find and review the original material you base your ideas and claims on. In your research paper, you can make references to source materials using either endnotes and footnotes (i.e., numbers in the text that refer to the bottom of the page or the end of the paper) or in-text citations. Both styles require you to also provide a reference list at the end of the document.

In-text (or parenthetical) citations

When referencing other literature by author name or title in the text paragraphs of your paper, you are using in-text citations . Another similar method of citing is using parenthetical citations , as the referencing information is usually placed within parentheses. Both of these citation types are common in APA style.

Endnotes and footnotes

Endnotes and footnotes help declutter your writing. They are simple notation systems that allow you to use numbers in the body of a text to reference a cited work. Each number corresponds to further information or a citation entry found at the end of a manuscript (for endnotes) or at the bottom of the page where the cited reference is mentioned (for footnotes).

Footnotes are rarely found in scientific writing but are frequently used in the humanities and social sciences. Additionally, endnotes often replace parenthetical in-text citations in scientific journals these days – make sure you pay attention to the journal guidelines when you prepare your manuscript so that you don’t have to suddenly change your entire citation style before submitting or during the review process.

Reference lists

A reference list compiles all the works cited within a document for ease of reference and is included at the end of a manuscript. It must be included regardless of how the source material is acknowledged within the main body of your article. The author guidelines of your target journal will tell you whether the list has to be ordered alphabetically or in order of appearance in the text (when using a numbered system), and what general style it has to adhere to.

Why do we use “et al.” in citation?

The Latin term “et al.” is short for “et alii” and means “and others.” The abbreviation is used when citing a source with multiple authors. Its function is similar to that of “et cetera”, another common Latin phrase that is usually abbreviated as “etc.” and means “and other similar things.”

Using “et al.” vs “etc.” in Citation and References

As stated above, “et al.” is used strictly when talking about people, while “etc.” is only used for things. Apart from this key difference, they have the same function: replacing a list.

When to Use “et al.” in Reference and Citation

We cannot stress this enough, but always double-check your journal or relevant style guide regarding Latin terms and citations. There is no uniform rule on when to use “et al.”, but at least the phrase’s spelling is consistent. Always write “et al.” in lowercase and include a period after “al.”, even when it appears in the middle of a sentence.

The abbreviation “et al.” replaces author names in endnotes, footnotes, and in-text citations; it depends on the target journal whether “author et al.” citation style can also be used in the reference list or whether all author names need to be spelled out in that section . In the following section, you will find further information on how to cite references according to the most common citation styles and examples.

The APA style is frequently used in social science publications. Examples of book and journal citations are provided below. For information about other sources and special cases, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , Seventh Edition (2020) .

In-text or parenthetical citations (author-date system)

APA style uses the author-date notation, and the in-text citation rules apply to both digital and print editions of books and journals. Also, while providing page number references is optional for paraphrased statements, the APA recommends including them. Also, note that APA style uses the ampersand (&) to list author names in parentheses.

The same author rules apply to all source media including books, print periodicals, electronic journals, etc. Also, since reading electronic journals has become the norm for academics, the APA recommends including a DOI number for each journal article referenced, even if you accessed the document in print. Do not include a period (.) after the DOI information. Also note that APA reference lists should not contain “et al.”, and that the author-number thresholds for formatting rules in the reference list are different from those for in-text citations specified above.

The APA style does not use footnotes and strongly discourages the use of endnotes, which should only provide tangential information. However, sometimes content notes are necessary. In such cases, use the notation covered in Section 2.12 of the  APA Publication Manual .

How to Cite “et al.” in Chicago Style

The Chicago style is commonly used in the humanities. Below, we only comment on general book and journal citation formats. For additional information, see Wordvice’s guide on the Chicago Manual of Style , 17th edition . For an example of an annotated paper that uses bibliographic notation (i.e., numbers that refer to sources in a list), see the Pu rdue Owl’s NB sampler. See an example of an author-date paper.

Note that for formally published online sources, such as electronic academic journals, you do not need to include access date information except if required by your publisher or discipline. If no DOI is available, provide the uniform resource locator (URL). Unlike APA style, Chicago style does NOT use the ampersand (&) in name lists; instead, use “and.” Additionally, an author’s given names (first and middle) should be written in full (no initials) unless the author consistently publishes using initials.

Using “et al.” in in-text or parenthetical citations (author-date system)

Parenthetical citations are more commonly adopted by authors in the social, physical, and natural sciences. The same notation is used for digital and print editions of books and journals.

Don’t use “et al.” in reference lists

Using author “et al.” in books

Using author “et al.” in journals

Using “et al.” in endnotes and footnotes (bibliographic system)

How to cite “et al.” in mla style.

The MLA style is commonly used by writers in the humanities. General book and journal citation formations are highlighted below. For information regarding other media and special cases, see Wordvices guide on the MLA Handbook style rules .

Using “et al.” in in-text (parenthetical) citations

The MLA style uses an author-page style instead of an author-date style.

Using “et al.” in the reference list (works cited page)

Using “et al.” in endnotes and footnotes.

The MLA style does not generally encourage endnotes and footnotes; however, it does accommodate their use when needed to clarify points that don’t otherwise belong in the main body of your work. The formats for these notes are similar to the format used for in-text citations, but without the parentheses:

One author : See [last name] [page range]

See Johnson 5-15 for a further discussion of this phenomenon.

Multiple authors/studies:  

[Comment]. See [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range]

Several other studies make the same argument. See, for example, Walker and Francis 112-118, Thomson 20-43, and Muller 78-90.

Regarding [content topic], see [last name] [page range] and [last name] [page range]; for [content topic], see [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range], and [last name] [page range].

Regarding this phenomenon’s impact on trauma caretakers, see Miller 54-68 and Willis 23-25; for alternative explanations, see Jones 23-25, Thompson 64-55, and Smith 12-15.

Using Academic Editing Services to Prepare Your Paper

If your sources are in order now but you wonder whether your paper could benefit from a language check, then Wordvice AI’s FREE text editor might be what you need.

And be sure to get English proofreading services –including paper editing services –from Wordvice before you submit your manuscript to journals. If you are interested in more articles and other resources that can help you, for example, with finding the perfect title for your paper , ordering author names correctly before you submit, or writing an effective cover letter, then head over to the Wordvice academic resources pages.

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Harvard Referencing

  • Introduction
  • Referencing Essentials Unit on Canvas
  • Citations and references
  • Using et al. correctly
  • Books and eBooks
  • Journals and eJournals
  • Referencing from sources on your Canvas modules
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  • Cochrane Library systematic reviews and NICE Guidelines
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  • Top 10 mistakes....and how to avoid them
  • Reference generators

You should use et al . in your citations when a source you have used has 'four or more' (ie more than three) authors.  You should list all of the authors in your reference.

What is et al. .

et al. stands for ' and others ' and it should be used in your   in-text citations  only,  to indicate that a work has multiple authors.  In your reference list at the end of your work, you should include  all of the authors.

It should  only  be used if the source you are citing has  four or more  authors (ie more than three). Where a source has one, two or three authors, you should name them all in both your in-text citation and your reference.

et al . should always be written in italics, with a full stop at the end of  al .

Previously, if you were a student at SGUL, you were required to use et al . in both your citation and your reference list, so this is a change.

Find some examples of the correct use below:

Books or ebooks with four or more authors (more than three)

You should use Davey  et al ., 2015 in your citation but list all of the authors in your reference list.  For example: Citation: Davey et al . (2015) discuss the mechanisms of antibacterial drugs....

Davey, P., Wilcox, M.H, Irving, W. and Thwaites, G. (2015) Antimicrobial chemotherapy . 7th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Articles with four or more authors (more than three)

You should use Glavin  et al ., 2021 in your citation but list all of the authors in your reference list. For example:

Citation: Chronotype is a biological factor that affects sleep (Glavin et al ., 2021, p.2637).

Glavin, E.E., Ceneus, M., Chanowitz, M., Kantillerakis, J., Mendelow, E., Mosquera, J. and Spaeth, A.M. (2021) 'Relationships between sleep, exercise timing, and chronograph in young adults' Journal of Health Psychology, 26(13), pp. 2636-2647.

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APA Style 7th Edition

  • Student Paper
  • Professional Paper
  • In-Text Citations
  • Reference Citations
  • Additional Resources

See also Authors in References and In-Text Citations for APA Style 7th Edition (Quick Guide) .

Examples by Number of Authors

1 Author • 2 Authors   • 3-20 Authors   • 21+ Authors   • Works with No Author Listed   • Anonymous Works

2 Authors

3 to 20 Authors

21+ Authors

Works with No Listed Author

Anonymous Works

In the world of APA Style, group authors are not several individuals who write and publish together; instead a group authors are organizations - such as corporations, governments, the armed forces, charities, non-profit organizations, educational institutions, and more. Below are some examples of organizations.

If a source does not have the name or names of specific people listed as an author or creator, look to see if there is an organizational name taking credit for the information in the source.

University of Northern Colorado Colorado Animal Rescue Anheuser Busch Denver International Airport Colorado Public Radio North Colorado Medical Center Celestial Seasonings King Soopers United Airlines Colorado Department of Higher Education Archdiocese of Denver

Smithsonian Institute American Psychological Association United States Army Exxon Mobile United Nations American Red Cross Museum of Modern Art Centers of Disease Control and Prevention International Olympic Committee World Health Organization Bureau of Land Management

  • To document multiple sources giving the same information, one parenthetical citation can include text citations for multiple sources. This can also lend emphasis to certain evidence in your writing.
  • Put the text citations in alphabetical order by first author listed, as in the References.
  • If one citation has more importance than the others, list that citation first, followed by a semicolon, the words 'see also', and the rest of the citations in alphabetical order by first author listed, as in the References.

Example 21: Multiple Sources Supporting the Same Evidence or Idea

Example 22: One  Important Source and Multiple Other Sources Supporting the Same Evidence

Rules of Text Citations

Corresponding Reference Citation  • Parenthetical or Narrative  • Author(s) & Year of Publication  • Citing an Idea or Concept  • Quoting a Source  • AND versus Ampersand (&)  • et al.

Rule #1: Corresponding Reference Citations For each text citation there must be a corresponding citation in the reference list, and for each reference list citation there must be at least one corresponding text citation. Each corresponding citation must have identical spelling and year.  The purpose of the text citation is to briefly give readers the identity of the information you are citing, and allow them to quickly find full citation information in the References that enables readers to locate the exact piece of literature you used.

The in-text citation must have exact corresponding information to the reference citation.

Rule #2: Parenthetical or Narrative

In-text citations can be given either in the narrative or parenthetical of a paper. It is your choice when to use parenthetical or narrative in-text citations, but you should always consider which makes sense for the structure of your sentence and what you are trying to express and what makes your work flow. Look at the example below and consider which you think sounds better.

Rule #3: Author(s) & Year of Publication

Each text citation must include at least two pieces of information:

  • author(s) - If a source has no listed author, the title moves into the place of the author in both the reference and the in-text citations.
  • year of publication - If a source has no date listed - either copyright date or date of update or other date indicating date of content creation or publication - list the date as n.d. (for no date) in both the reference and the in-text citations.

Rule #4: Citing a Specific Idea or Concept

If citing an entire work - summarizing the entire idea of book, article, website, or other source - no page number, chapter number, paragraph number, or section header is needed.

If citing a specific idea or concept within a book, article, report, or other source: include the page number(s), chapter number, or section header. To be more precise the paragraph (para.), table, figure, slide number, or time (in the case of audio or visual materials) can be given. It is important to get your reader as closely to the specific place in the source as possible.

(Feinstein, 2022, p. 78 ) - single page example ( Feinstein , 2022, pp. 42-61 ) - multiple page example ( Feinstein , 2022, Chapter 5 ) ( Feinstein , 2022, Methodology ) ( Feinstein , 2022, para. 7 ) - single paragraph example ( Feinstein , 2022, paras. 8-9 ) - multiple paragraphs example ( Feinstein , 2022, Table 4 ) ( Feinstein , 2022, Fig. A ) ( Feinstein , 2022, Slides 21-22 ) ( Feinstein , 2022, 00:42:13 )

Rule #5 Quoting a Source

When including a quotation from a source in your work, always indicate the specific place the quotation comes from, so that readers can find that quotation again easily. Generally, this will mean including the page number(s) in the text citation; however, when a page number is not available, use other place indications (paragraph, chapter, section, slide, time, etc.). See Rule #4.

Short quotation = 40 words or less

  • Incorporate the quote into the text
  • Enclose quotation in double quotation marks
  • Provide author, date, and page number (or other indication of place)
  • If using a narrative citation, place the page number (or other indication of place) after the quote within parentheses

Example 27:  Short Quotation 

Example 28:  Long Quotation  Please note that the spaces between the example text and long quotation should not exist.

Long quotation = 41 words or more

  • Separate a long quote by placing the quote in a separate block of text
  • Do not use quotation marks with a block quote
  • Start a block quote on a new line and indent both left and right margins by 0.5 inches
  • Like the rest of the paper, double-space the block quotation

Rule #6 AND versus Ampersand (&)

  • Use an ampersand (&) when using a parenthetical citation.
  • Use the word 'and' when using and narrative citation and the author(s) appear in the text instead of parentheses.

Rule #7 et al.

For any source with three or more authors, only the surname of the first listed author and the abbreviation "et al." will appear in the in-text citation to represent all of the authors, whether there are three authors or 103 authors. The abbreviation "et al." is short for "et alia" which is Latin for "and others."

In the following example, the source (an open letter) has 81 authors, 20 of which will appear in the reference citation (authors 1-19 and the last author), but only one author will appear in the in-text citation along with "et al."

Unique Name Issues

Notable & Famous Mononyms • Notable & Famous Unique Polynyms  • Screennames & User Names  • Suffixes

Notable & Famous Mononyms

A mononym is a person's name that consists of only one word; this is often, but not always, a first name without a surname. For instance, the musician best known to the world as Prince was legally known as Prince Rogers Nelson.

Notable & Famous Unique Polynyms

A polynym is a name consisting of multiple words. Most people in today's world have polynyms, but historically individuals did not have both given names and surnames as most do now and contemporarily famous individuals may brand themselves with unique polynyms that do not act as a normal person's name in APA Style. If an author or creator has a unique polynym such as the examples below, give the full name as used without inverting the last name into first place nor creating initials from first or second words/names.

Examples of Unique Polynyms

Joan of Arc  •  The Weeknd  •  Pliny the Younger  •  Wilhelm II  •   Malcolm X  •  Thales of Miletus  •  El Greco  •  Lady Gaga  • G awain Poet

Screennames & User Names

  • If the person's real name is known as well as the screenname/user name, give the person's actual name first with surname first followed by first and middle initials and followed by the screenname/user name in square brackets.
  • If the person's actual name is not known and all that is given is the screenname/user name, give the screenname/user name exactly as it appears in author's place within the citation.
  • Do NOT include name suffixes that indicate a credential - such as Ph.D. (Philosophy of Doctorate degree), DNP (Doctor of Nursing Practice), BCEE (Board Certified Environmental Engineer), CPA (Certified Public Accountant), etc.
  • Do include name suffixes that indicate generational designations - such as Sr., Jr., II, III, IV, etc., but only in the reference citation and not within the in-text citation.

If citing  multiple sources by the same author  (or group of authors that are listed in the same order on a number of papers)  with the same publication year , arrange the citations in order of title and place lowercase letters directly after the publication year in the citation.

Beall (2016 d ; see also 2015; 2016 c ; 2016 e ; 2017) expounded the threat of predatory publishers in medical literature and the long-term damage such journals may inflict upon the scientific record. He further asserts that predatory journals may cause significant setbacks to scientific advancement (Beall, 2016 a ), but offers advice and best practices for scholarly authors to follow (Beall, 2016 b ).

Bartholomew, R. E. (2014). Science for sale: The rise of predatory journals. J ournal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 107 (10), 384-385. https://doi.org/10.1177/0141076814548526

Beall, J. (2015). The ‘metric’ system: Yet more chaos in scholarly publishing. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 6 (11), 2020-2021. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00910

Beall, J. (2016 a ). Ban predators from the scientific record. Nature, 534 , 326. https://doi.org/10.1038/534326a

Beall, J. (2016 b ). Best practices for scholarly authors in the age of predatory journals. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 98 (2), 77-79. https://doi.org/10.1308/rcsann.2016.0056

Beall, J. (2016 c ). Dangerous predatory publishers threaten medical research. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 31 (10), 1511-1513. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2016.31.10.1511

Beall, J. (2016 d ). Medical publishing and the threat of predatory journals. International Journal of Women’s Dermatology, 2 (4), 115-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijwd.2016.08.002

Beall, J. (2016 e ). Pharmacy research and predatory journals: Authors beware. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 73 (19), 1548-1550. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp160150

Beall, J. (2017). Predatory journals threaten the quality of published medical research. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 47 (1), 3-5. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2017.0601

Cobey, K. D., Grudniewicz, A., Lalu, M. M., Rice, D. B., Raffoul, H., & Moher, D. (2019). Knowledge and motivations of researchers publishing in presumed predatory journals: A survey. BMJ Open, 9 (3), e026516. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026516

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How to Use Et Al. in Every Format—Et Al. Meaning

#scribendiinc

Written by  Scribendi

Have you ever come across "et al." and wondered what it meant? Or how to use it?

If so, you're not alone. This Latin phrase is commonly used in academic writing and can be confused with other Latin phrases like "etc."

Things get even more complex when you realize that the placement of et al. changes depending on what style guide you're using.

Read on for a simplified breakdown of how to use et al. in every format, so you never get stuck.

Et Al. Definition

Et Al. Meaning

Before we get into the nitty-gritty details, it helps to first understand the literal definition of et al. That way, you'll know exactly what you're saying when you use the term.

The phrase "et al." is derived from the Latin phrase "et alia," which means "and others." You are likely to encounter et al. in the references, in-text citations, and reference lists of academic texts.

For example, you might see the phrase, "Horowitz et al. (2012) published groundbreaking research," which means that Horowitz and others published the research.

Why Is Et Al. Used?

Et al. is used to simplify citations within your text or reference list. It lets the reader know that other authors have contributed to the work you're citing, without you having to list every author.

Et al. is also used to simplify subsequent references to groups of coauthors that have already been cited in full. For example, if you're citing the same group over and over, using et al. can simplify that citation throughout your paper.

How to Write Et Al.

Where should i put the period.

The period in et al. should go at the end of "al" because "al" is an abbreviation for "alia," meaning "others."

There is no period after "et" because "et" isn't an abbreviation. It's a full word in Latin, meaning "and."

Remember, "et al." is the only correct way to type this phrase.

A trick for remembering to include the period after "al" is to think of another common abbreviation, "etc."

"Etc." abbreviates et cetera, meaning "and the rest," and it always requires a period at the end. So et al., which is similar, always takes a period at the end too.

Here are a few common misspellings of et al.:

When you use other punctuation with et al., like a comma, it goes after the period. But if you're ending a sentence with et al., you don't need an additional period.

Should I Italicize Et Al.?

Most major style guides (including APA, MLA, the Chicago Manual of Style, and Harvard) do not require et al. to be italicized. However, some field-specific publications do require the italicization of the phrase, so it's always a good idea to double-check.

Using et al. in a sentence appropriately varies among style guides. Check out the overviews of different style guides below to make sure you're using this tricky phrase correctly.

How to Use Et Al.

How to Use Et Al., with Examples

APA format, established by the American Psychological Association, is commonly used for publications, essays, reports, and books in the fields of psychology and social science.

Also called APA style, this format has established specific standards for scientific and scholarly writing. It encourages uniformity and consistency in the way content is organized and references are cited.

APA in-text citations, reference lists, and title pages adhere to formatting requirements that differ from those of other styles.

For example, APA includes the author's surname and publication year in in-text citations, using an ampersand if there are two authors:

(Smith, 2012)

(Smith & Jones, 2012)

Another differentiator between APA and other styles is that APA requires a cover page, called a Title Page, and uses the title "References" above the citation list at the end of papers or manuscripts.

Traditionally, APA format is used for a range of subjects in the social and behavioral sciences, including:

Linguistics

When to Use Et Al. in APA

When dealing with a work by three or more authors in APA format (seventh edition), use the first author's last name in the signal phrase or parenthesis, followed by et al.

(McKenzie et al., 2020)

McKenzie et al. (2020)

Keep in mind that et al. wouldn't be needed if you were citing just two authors. If you were citing two authors and you replaced one of their names with et al., meaning "and others," this would be incorrect.

Use et al. in APA in-text citations only if you're citing at least three authors, and remember that et al. is never used in the reference list in APA.

Et Al. Example in APA Format

The use of et al. in APA format differs from other styles when it comes to the References.

Its format requires listing the surnames and first initials of up to 20 authors, placing an ampersand before the final author.

Karloff, J., McMahon, S., Watson, C., Williamson, M., Russell, S., Holden, R., Williams, B., Messier, A., Nesbo, J., Lamott, A., Shaffer, M., Barrows, A., Perry, T., Rooney, K., Cruz, M., Warren, G., Granville, D., Gonzalez, R., Johnson, S., & Galloway, J.

For more than 20 authors, you would replace all authors after the 19th with ellipses, followed by the final author's name.

Karloff, J., McMahon, S., Watson, C., Williamson, M., Russell, S., Holden, R., Williams, B., Messier, A., Nesbo, J., Lamott, A., Shaffer, M., Barrows, A., Perry, T., Rooney, K., Cruz, M., Warren, G., Granville, D., Gonzalez, R., Johnson, S., … Galloway, J.

Et Al. in APA In-Text Citations with Multiple Authors

When citing three or more authors in text with APA (seventh edition), you can use et al. upon the first and subsequent references to a source.

Before the seventh edition of APA, the names of up to five authors had to be spelled out in the text. Et al. could only be used upon subsequent references.

Luckily, the seventh edition has been simplified. Here is an example of how to use et al. for in-text citations in APA.

Three or more authors:

Parenthetical: (Johnson et al., 2020)

Nonparenthetical: Johnson et al. (2020)

MLA format was developed by the Modern Language Association. It provides specific guidelines for students and researchers writing academically in the fields of language and literature.

Often called MLA style, this format allows for an easy reading experience. It offers a uniform and consistent method of adding citations to books or literature.

Using et al. in MLA is different from APA and other styles in its requirements for the use of et al. MLA has different standards for layout, citations, and abbreviations.

There are also slight differences in the way authors are cited. But the spelling of et al. is always the same, regardless of the style guide being used, with lowercase letters and no punctuation after "et"—the only punctuation is the period after "al."

MLA format is traditionally used by writers and students creating work in the following disciplines:

Language and literature

Comparative literature

Literary criticism

Cultural studies

If you're formatting an essay or paper in MLA, the most updated edition is the ninth, published in April 2021.

When to Use Et Al. in MLA

You can use et al. in MLA when referring to multiple authors—three or more, to be exact. And you can add et al. to both your in-text citations and your Works Cited page (the name for the reference list).

Et Al. Example in MLA Format

Let's look at how to cite multiple authors in MLA in your Works Cited page with et al.

See the following two examples for citing a collection of poems and a collection of stories using et al. in MLA.

O'Hara, Frank, et al. The Collected Poems of Frank O'Hara . University of California Press, 1995.

Levine, Robert S., et al. The Norton Anthology of American Literature . Ninth ed., W.W. Norton &

Company, 2022.

Note that the second line of the citation is indented by half an inch.

Et Al. in MLA In-Text Citations with Multiple Authors

Now, we'll review how to cite multiple authors using et al. in MLA in-text citations.

MLA format requires the inclusion of the first author's surname, then et al., and then the page number.

(Lackey et al. 56)

The above is an example of a parenthetical in-text citation with et al. Here is an example of how to incorporate it within your prose:

According to Gilbert et al., "Today, however, we can see more clearly just how complex and multifaceted Woolf's set of women writers really is" (23).

The Chicago Manual of Style, often called CMS, CMOS, or Chicago, is a style guide used by authors, editors, indexers, designers, and publishers to prepare manuscripts and to aid in the revision of grammar, punctuation, and usage.

Dubbed the "editor's bible," the Chicago Manual of Style is typically used with material intended for publication. It's the style most often applied to novels, blogs, and creative nonfiction.

A key differentiator of Chicago style is that it offers two systems for source citations: notes and bibliography or author-date.

The notes and bibliography system is used by scholars and writers working in the humanities, and the author-date system is preferred by writers in the fields of science and social science.

That being said, here are a few of the most common fields in which Chicago style is used:

Social science

Natural science

The most recent edition is the 17th, which was published in September 2017. Let's look at how to use et al. in Chicago style.

When to Use Et Al. in Chicago Style

In essays adhering to Chicago style, you can use et al. when citing a source with four or more authors.

The format and placement of et al. can vary because, as we mentioned earlier, Chicago uses two systems for source citation: notes and bibliography and author-date. So the placement really depends on which system you're using!

But as a general rule, you can use et al. in your in-text citations, in your footnotes and endnotes, and in your reference list at the end of your document.

Note that bibliographies go with the notes and bibliography system, and reference lists go with the author-date system.

Et Al. Example in Chicago Style

You will use et al. in bibliographic form in Chicago Style for sources with more than 10 authors. In such cases, you'll list the first seven authors, followed by et al.

The citation format in your bibliography will change depending on whether you're using the notes and bibliography system or the author-date system, but the placement and format of et al. are the same.

Notes and bibliography system:

Jackson, Tiffany D., Nic Stone, Ashley Woodfolk, Dhonielle Clayton, Angie Thomas, Nicola Yoon,

Natasha Schrader, et al. Blackout . New York, NY: Quill Tree Books, an imprint of

HarperCollins Publishers, 2021.

Author-date system:

Natasha Schrader, et al. 2021. Blackout . New York, NY: Quill Tree Books, an imprint of

HarperCollins Publishers.

Et Al. in Chicago Style In-Text Citations with Multiple Authors

When using et al. in an in-text citation of four or more authors, et al. can be formatted in a few different ways, depending on which source citation system you're using. Take a look at the examples below.

In the author-date system, et al. goes after the first author's surname in an in-text citation.

(Johnson et al. 2021, 465)

In the notes and bibliography system, et al. can go in a short or long footnote. Here's how the format breaks down for each type:

Short footnote: Johnson et al.

Long footnote: David Johnson et al.

Turabian style is similar to Chicago style when it comes to how to write et al. Published by Kate L. Turabian in 1937, this style was created for researchers and students. Its official title is A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.

You can think of it as a student's version of Chicago style. Turabian style places greater emphasis on student needs regarding the formatting of papers and citations, and this is its biggest differentiator.

This manual is also shorter and contains fewer instructions than others. Another differentiator of Turabian is that it covers a wide spectrum of disciplines, including:

Art history

Social studies

Global studies

Religious studies

If you're looking for the latest edition, be sure to use the ninth, published in 2018.

When to Use Et Al. in Turabian Style

As in Chicago style, you can use et al. in a sentence in Turabian when citing four or more authors.

You can also use et al. when citing sources in both the main text and the bibliography, and this is true of both the notes and bibliography and the author-date citation systems.

Where you should put et al. and how you should format it will vary depending on which citation system you use. Just keep in mind that you can use et al. in Turabian style whenever you have four or more authors to cite.

Et Al. Example in Turabian Style

The great thing about using Turabian style is that if you understand how to use et al. in Chicago style, using it in Turabian will be a breeze.

Below are some examples of how to write et al. in either your bibliography (notes and bibliography system) or reference list (author-date system) in Turabian style.

Notes and bibliography system (book):

Using the Turabian citation system, you'll follow the same format for et al. Only the placement of the publication date changes. See the examples below.

Kitamura, Katie, Allen Johnson, Birk Meyer, Alex Fritas, Joan Bigsby, Becca Thomas, Greg 

Lewis, et al. A Separation . New York: Riverhead Books. 2017. 

Author-date citation system (book):

For more than 10 authors, list the first seven authors and follow them up with et al.

Kitamura, Katie, Allen Johnson, Birk Meyer, Alex Fritas, Joan Bigsby, Becca Thomas, Greg Lewis,       

et al. 2017. A Separation . New York: Riverhead Books. 

Et Al. in Turabian In-Text Citations with Multiple Authors

Using et al. in your in-text citations is the same in Turabian as it is in Chicago style. You'll put et al. in your footnotes (short and long) and within your text. Below are examples of each.

(Johnson et al. 2017, 45)

In the notes and bibliography system, et al. could go in a short or long footnote. Here's how the format breaks down for each type of footnote.

Short footnote: Weber et al.

Long footnote: Jesse N. Weber et al.

Harvard style is a popular formatting style across many universities. It's been known to go by a couple of different names, including the Harvard Referencing System and Author-Date Referencing.

There's no official connection between Harvard style and Harvard University. This style is simply another way for students to cite their sources and format their papers uniformly.

Common disciplines that use this style include the following:

Behavioral sciences

The thing to remember about Harvard style is that it isn't as cut-and-dried as other styles—different schools have different requirements. This means that using et al. in Harvard style can change depending on what school you go to.

Be sure to refer to your professor's instructions before using et al. in your papers.

For the purposes of this post, we'll be talking about how to use et al. following Harvard Business School's Citation Guide.

When to Use Et Al. in Harvard Style

While some aspects of Harvard style can vary across institutions, one thing everyone seems to agree on is that et al. should be used to cite four or more authors.

So you should use et al. when you're citing four or more authors in both your footnotes and in your bibliography. You can also use the term in both parenthetical statements and as a signal phrase.

Et Al. Example in Harvard Style

In the bibliography section of your paper, you can use et al. for academic citations of sources with four or more authors .

Unlike Chicago, you don't have to list a certain number of authors before you list et al.—you can simply use et al. after the first author's name.

Here are two examples, one for a book citation and one for a web citation:

Christensen, C. Roland, et al. Business Policy: Text and Cases . 5th ed. Homewood, IL: Richard 

D. Irwin, Inc., 1982.

Enright, Michael J., et al. "Daewoo and the Korean Chaebol." University of Hong Kong case no. 

HKU143 (University of Hong Kong, August 2001). Harvard Business Publishing. 

https://hbsp.harvard.edu/, accessed March 2007.

Et Al. in Harvard Style In-Text Citations with Multiple Authors

When it comes to using et al. in Harvard style in-text citations, you can use it in your footnotes, parenthetical phrases, and signal phrases.

See examples of each below.

³C. Roland Christensen et al., Business Policy: Text and Cases, 5th ed. (Homewood, IL:

Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1982), p. 101.

Parenthetical phrase:

(Johnson et al. 2007)

Signal phrase:

Johnson et al. (2007)

Again, keep in mind that Harvard style gives your instructor leeway in their guidelines for how to format et al., so be sure to follow their instructions.

An additional way to cite references is to use Vancouver style. This style was developed in Vancouver in 1978 by medical journal editors. It is most commonly used in medicine and science.

The biggest difference between Vancouver and other styles is its use of numbers. Often called the Numbering System, Vancouver cites sources by placing numbers within parentheses or superscripts in the main text.

These citation numbers are tied to entries in your reference list. Like in other styles, your reference list in Vancouver style will have all of the sources you've cited within your text.

Some common fields that use Vancouver are as follows:

Biomedicine

As in Harvard style, keep in mind that some universities and organizations have their own specific formatting requirements when it comes to citing work with et al. in Vancouver style.

When to Use Et Al. in Vancouver Style

With Vancouver style, you can use et al. for both in-text citations and within the reference list.

You should use et al. in your reference list when citing more than six authors. If you're citing just six authors, you'll need to spell out each author's surname and first initial, separating each author with a comma.

You should use et al. within the main text when citing multiple authors. Some universities differ in terms of how many authors, so it's best to check with your institution to confirm its preferences for this style.

Et Al. Example in Vancouver Style

Let's start our et al. examples for Vancouver with those in bibliographic form.

In Vancouver style, the bibliography is called a reference list. You'll add et al. to reference entries only if you're listing more than six authors. List the first six authors, then add et al.

Here's an example of a book citation with et al. in the reference list:

Doornbos MM, Groenhout ER, Hotz GK, Brandsen C, Cusveller B, Flikkema M, et al. 

Transforming care: a Christian vision of nursing practice. Grand Rapids, Michigan: 

William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; 2005.

Note that the authors' surnames are followed by their first and (in many cases) middle initials, without punctuation.

Here's an example for an electronic journal article:

Aho M, Irshad B, Ackerman SJ, Lewis M, Leddy R, Pope T, et al. Correlation of sonographic

features of invasive ductal mammary carcinoma with age, tumor grade, and 

hormone-receptor status. J Clin Ultrasound [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2015 Apr 

27];41(1):10-7. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcu.21990/full 

DOI: 10.1002/jcu.21990

Et Al. in Vancouver Style In-Text Citations with Multiple Authors

As far as in-text citations go in Vancouver style, you can use et al. directly in the text, followed by a reference number.

Because Vancouver references sources within parentheses or superscripts, here are examples using et al. in-text with both systems:

Harrison et al. (5) agree that only one solution is viable.

Harrison et al. 5 agree that only one solution is viable.

Et Al.

Et Alibi, Et Alii, and Others

Sometimes, et al. can be confused with other Latin phrases like et alibi and et alii. This is understandable because the terms all begin with the same letters!

Don't worry. Over the next few sections, we'll break down what each of these phrases means. That way, if you need to use them in your next paper or article, you won't use them incorrectly.

Et alia is the Latin phrase for "and others," and the phrase "et al." is its abbreviated form.

Et alia is meant to be used when a list contains too many people or things to name. In academic writing, it is used when citing sources with multiple authors.

However, the full phrase "et alia" isn't typically spelled out in academic writing. In papers, journals, and manuscripts, the abbreviated form "et al." is used, with a period after "al."

Et alibi means "and elsewhere" in Latin. It's used in academic writing to show that the information you're citing is mentioned in other parts of a text, too.

For example, if you're citing a passage from the Bible that can also be found in other locations of the text, that would be a perfect instance for using et alibi.

Keep in mind that "et al." is the abbreviated form of both et alibi and et alia.

Et aliae also means "and others" but in the feminine plural form. This means that et aliae refers specifically to a group of women or girls.

However, you won't need to differentiate between feminine or masculine forms when using et al. in your writing. You would simply use "et al."—the abbreviated form of both.

The Latin phrase et alii means "and others" in the masculine plural form. It’s used to refer to a group of men or boys.

But the abbreviated form, "et al.," is still what you would use to cite multiple authors.

As long as you can remember how to write the abbreviation et al. in your papers, you're good to go!

Difference between Et Al. and Etc.

Do you ever confuse et al. with etc.? You're not alone. The two are very similar.

While et al. means "and others" in Latin, etc. is short for the Latin et cetera and means "and the rest."

Both phrases indicate that something has been omitted from the text, and both are abbreviations. However, there are key differences to keep in mind to avoid using them incorrectly in your paper.

You use etc. to shorten a list. Its use lets the reader know that there are more items or examples you could list but that the shortened list allows the reader to get the idea.

For example, if you were to write, "The event is at the beach, so bring your swimsuits, towels, sunscreen, sandals, etc.," readers know they need to bring all beach items, not just the ones mentioned.

Similarly, you use et al. to shorten a list of authors or collaborators.

Et Al. Meaning

Common Mistakes

Spelling and formatting Latin phrases is no walk in the park—especially when you need to get them right to earn a passing grade.

It also doesn't help that each style guide has its own formatting or that many Latin phrases can sound the same. It's enough to make your head spin!

Below, we'll cover common mistakes made when using et al. and why using it is so important for clear and concise academic writing.

Spelling Latin phrases can be tricky, but abbreviating them correctly can be even trickier.

When using et al. in your papers, be sure to abbreviate it correctly and to use the right punctuation.

Et al. is always spelled as two separate words—"et" and "al"—with a period after "al."

The best way to remember how to punctuate and spell it is to remember that it's an abbreviation.

Here are a few common misspellings of et al. so you know to avoid them:

Using the Incorrect Style

Spelling et al. correctly is only half the battle. You'll also need to be sure you're using et al. in the style required by your university, institution, or professor.

As we mentioned earlier, there are many style guides to choose from, including MLA, Chicago, APA, and Turabian.

Each style has its own specific format for et al., so be sure to study its guidelines carefully before adding et al. to your references.

You'll especially want to take note of how et al. is used in both in-text and reference list citations and how many authors necessitate its use.

Not Using Et Al.

Using et al. is a clear and concise way of communicating your source information to readers without overwhelming them or taking away from your work.

It lets readers know that multiple authors or collaborators contributed to the source without having to list them all. Also, when referencing a source with several authors or collaborators multiple times, the use of et al. keeps the writing neat and tidy.

Not using et al. would make academic writing awkwardly long and arduous within the main text while extending bibliographies and reference lists unnecessarily.

Et al. helps academic writers and authors reference their sources in a clean-cut way.

How to Cite a Tweet

Nowadays, it's not uncommon for students or researchers to turn to social platforms like Twitter for their research.

Because of this, styles like MLA, APA, and Chicago have stayed current by offering standards for formatting citations of Tweets in research papers and scholarly articles.

Each style has its own formatting requirements for citing a Tweet, and these can vary among different editions of the same style.

Below are instructions for citing Tweets in each of the three major styles.

To cite a Tweet in MLA (ninth edition), you'll cite the first name and surname of the account holder (or the name of the organization) in addition to the Twitter handle.

Here is the basic structure:

Surname, First name [Username]. "Tweet message." Twitter , date posted, URL.

Here's an example:

Swift, Taylor [@taylorswift13]. "I'm so proud of this song and the memories I have with you guys 

because of it." Twitter , 22 November 2021, 

twitter.com/taylorswift13/status/1462908809542787072.

To cite a Tweet from an organization in MLA, you'll use this structure:

Organization or Account Name [Username]. "Tweet message". Twitter , date posted, URL.

The Wall Street Journal [@WSJ]. "Activist hedge fund Trian has acquired a stake in Unilever, 

people familiar with the matter say, adding pressure on the consumer-goods company." 

Twitter , 23 January 2022, twitter.com/WSJ/status/1485356694972551171.

To cite a Tweet in APA style (seventh edition), you'll do things a little differently from MLA. APA requires only the author's full surname with the first name initialized.

You'll also include only the first 20 words of the Tweet in your reference.

Surname, Initials [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of Tweet [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it's difficult for researchers to diagnose 

#Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic 

would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.  

https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/1170305718425137152

To cite a Tweet in Chicago style, you'll include many of the same elements as Tweet citations in other styles, but you'll also add a timestamp.

The general structure is as follows:

First name Surname (@TwitterHandle), "Text of Tweet," Twitter, Month Day, Year, 00:00 

a.m., link to Tweet.

Here's an example from the Chicago Manual of Style:

Conan O'Brien (@ConanOBrien), "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my Tweets," Twitter, April 

22, 2015, 11:10 a.m., https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.

If you'd like to cite a Tweet within your text, here's an example using the above Tweet:

Conan O'Brien's Tweet was characteristically deadpan: "In honor of Earth Day, I'm recycling my Tweets" (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

Frequently Asked Questions

What does et al. mean in a citation.

In a citation, et al. indicates that multiple authors are being cited within a reference in an academic work but that not all of their names are listed.

It's not uncommon for some sources to have 10 or even 20 authors, given the collaborative nature of research in the fields of medicine and science. Using et al. is a way of ensuring that all authors are referenced without crowding the content.

When Should Et Al. Be Used in APA Style?

Use et al. in APA in-text citations with multiple authors, as well as in the References. Specifically, use it when dealing with a work by three to five authors. You'll use the first author's surname in the signal phrase, parenthetical statement, or bibliographic entry, followed by et al.

Keep in mind that you should use et al. only for three or more authors, not two. Since et al. is an abbreviation for "and others," it must stand in for more than one person. If you were trying to cite two authors and you used et al. after the first one, et al. would represent one person as opposed to several "others," which would be incorrect.

What Is Et Al. in MLA?

In MLA style, et al. is an abbreviated Latin phrase meaning "and others." It indicates that multiple authors contributed to the source being cited but that not all of them are listed.

MLA recommends using et al. for sources with three or more authors. Et al. can be used both within the main text and on the Works Cited page. It's punctuated in the same way as in other styles, with a period after "al" only.

Here is a citation example using et al. in MLA:

(Gubar et al. 56)

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to use et al. in MLA

How to use et al. in MLA

When you need to cite sources that have three or more authors or contributors, you don’t have to cite all of the contributors’ names. Instead, you can use et al.

Et al. is an abbreviation for the Latin word, et alii, which means “and others.” Using et al. shows that three or more contributors wrote, edited, or collaborated on the work, even though only one name is listed in the citation.

Using et al. in MLA

There are many places in mla citation style where you can use et al..

  • Works with three or more writers
  • Works with three or more editors
  • Collections of essays, stories, or poems with three or more contributors

Citing a journal article in MLA is a common instance where you may need to use et al., as journal articles often have three or more authors.

When to use et al.

You can use et al. in both your MLA in-text citations and the Works Cited page. When using et al., you should always use the name of the writer listed first in the source material.

Note: Using et al. should not be confused with etc. or other abbreviations that indicate more content than listed. For example, etc. is an abbreviation for et cetera and is used at the end of a list to indicate that there are other similar items included in the list that are not names.

How to Format et al. in MLA Style

The format to write et al. is always the same: et al. Use lowercase letters with no punctuation after et and a period after al.

To format an in-text citation

  • Use the first writer’s last name. Use the first writer listed on the source material. Do not use any of the other writers’ names.
  • Follow the last name with et al. Write et al. in lowercase letters. There is no punctuation after the et, and there is always a period after the al.
  • Other end punctuation can come after the period following al., but you must include the period because this is an abbreviation.

Example et al. citations for the following source

  • Title: “Interrogating Disciplines/Disciplinarity in WAC/WID: An Institutional Study”
  • Author(s): Anne Ruggles Gere, Sarah C. Swofford, Naomi Silver and Melody Pugh.
  • Source: College Composition and Communication , vol. 67, no. 2, 2015, pp. 243–266

In-text citation example

(Gere et al. 243)

The Works Cited page citation for that source

Gere, Anne Ruggles, et al. “Interrogating Disciplines/Disciplinarity in WAC/WID: An Institutional Study.”  College Composition and Communication , vol. 67, no. 2, 2015, pp. 243–266. JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/24633857.

NOTE: A comma is needed after the name before et al. in the works cited citation, but it is not required for the in-text citation example.

Works cited

Gere, Anne Ruggles, et al. “Interrogating Disciplines/Disciplinarity in WAC/WID: An Institutional Study.”  College Composition and Communication , vol. 67, no. 2, 2015, pp. 243–266., www.jstor.org/stable/24633857. Accessed 6 Oct. 2020.

MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.

Published October 25, 2020.

By Catherine Sigler. Catherine has a Ph.D. in English Education and has taught college-level writing for 15 years.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Bibliography
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  • et al Usage
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  • Page Numbers
  • Sample Paper
  • Works Cited
  • MLA 8 Updates
  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

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  • View all MLA Examples

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Using ‘Et Al.’ In Your Research Paper

research paper et al citation

Quick Takeaways:

  • et al.' means 'and others'.
  • Use 'et al.' to cite works with three or more authors.
  • The presentation (et al., et al., or rarely et al) depends on the style guide or journal guidelines

The English language has a rich history of borrowing words from other languages, especially from Latin. Latin abbreviations such as ‘a.m.’, ‘p.m.’ and ‘CV’ have become part of our everyday vocabulary. Such abbreviations are also frequently used in academic writing, from the ‘Ph.D.’ in the affiliation section to the ‘i.e.’, ‘e.g.’, ‘et al.’, and ‘QED’ in the rest of the paper.

This guide explains when and how to correctly use ‘et al.’ in a research paper.

In this guide:

  • 1) Meaning of ‘et al.’
  • a) Table: Correct use of ‘et al.’ by style guide
  • b) Unusual scenarios

Meaning of ‘et al.’

Correctly using ‘et al.’ becomes easy once you understand what ‘et al.’ means.

‘et al.’ is the abbreviation of the Latin phrase ‘et alii’ (masculine), ‘et aliae’ (feminine), and ‘et alia’ (neuter),  all of which mean ‘ and others ‘ . In the context of an academic paper, ‘et al.’ is better understood as ‘ and colleagues ‘ or ‘ and co-authors ‘, instead of its literal meaning.

Because the second word (alia) is abbreviated, a period is used at the end of ‘et al.’

QUICK ASIDE

Wondering why some abbreviations such as ‘et al.’ and ‘e.g.’ use periods, whereas others such as CV and AD don’t? Periods are typically used  if the abbreviations include lowercase or mixed-case letters . They’re usually not used with abbreviations containing only uppercase letters.

When and how to use ‘et al’

In academic papers, ‘et al.’ is used to cite works of any kind (papers, books, chapters, etc.) with  at least three authors .

For example,

According to  Barth, Caprio and Levine (2008a) , high regulatory restrictions on banking activities could mean fewer diversification opportunities for banks.*

can also be written as

According to  Barth et al.  (2008a), high regulatory restrictions on banking activities could mean fewer diversification opportunities for banks.

Similarly, ‘et al.’ can also be used in parenthetical citations:

The literature […] documents a positive effect of finance on growth in cross-country regressions (see, Levine, 1999; Beck, Levine, and Loayza, 2000; Wurgler, 2000; Bekaert, Harvey, and Lundblad 2005).

can be simplified to

The literature […] documents a positive effect of finance on growth in cross-country regressions (see, Levine, 1999; Beck  et al. , 2000; Wurgler, 2000; Bekaert  et al. , 2005).

By using ‘et al.’, you avoid having to write all the authors’ names each time you cite a paper, which can make your paper wordy and difficult to read.

Instead, all or most of the authors are named in the list of references at the end of your paper, where the use of ‘et al.’ is less common.

 ‘et al.’ to the rescue! Without ‘et al.’, you’d need several pages to cite the  paper with the most number of authors .

What we’ve discussed thus far is the most common way ‘et al.’ is used. There are, however, slight differences, in how ‘et al.’ is presented in different disciplines and style guides. The differences primarily lie in the following:

● Number of authors a work must have before you can use ‘et al.’ ● Whether ‘et al.’ is italicized ( et al. ) ● Whether ‘et al.’ can be used right from the first time a paper is cited or only from the second time onward

Below is a table that summarizes how to use ‘et al.’ in the most widely used guides.

Table: Correct use of ‘et al.’ by style guide

Remember, consistency is key in matters of style in academic writing. If you’re unsure or undecided on which style or journal guidelines to follow, we recommend that you apply the most common style, ‘et al.’, consistently.

The information in the table above is accurate as of 24 March 2021.

Unusual scenarios

In the vast majority of instances, using ‘et al.’ is rather straightforward, as we’ve seen so far. Occasionally, though, you’ll encounter situations in which using ‘et al.’ may be confusing. Here’s a couple of such situations and how best to address them.

Multiple papers by the same first author in the same year

If you’re citing several works from the same first author, the year of publication is sufficient to distinguish between the papers. For example,

We compile data from the following sources: […] (c) the country-year level data on bank regulation and supervision are compiled from  Barth et al. (2004)  and  Barth et al. (2013) .

But what if the same first author has produced multiple works in the same year? In that case, you can use letters to distinguish between the papers, as in this hypothetical example:

We compile data from the following sources: […] (c) the country-year level data on bank regulation and supervision are compiled from  Barth et al. (2004a) ,  Barth et al. (2004b) , and  Barth et al. (2004c) .

Possessive form of ‘et al.

The possessive form of ‘et al.’ is et al.’s (or et al’s, depending on the style).

We compile data from  Barth et al.’s (2004)  survey.

Depending on your sentence structure and the complexity of the sentence, the possessive form may be awkward or confusing. If possible, rewrite to avoid it, as the editors at AsiaEdit always do.

‘et al.’ alternatives

and colleagues If you’re looking for an alternative to ‘et al.’, some journals and style guides allow the use of ‘ and colleagues ‘. For example, see the use of ‘Fauci and Colleagues’ in this  AMA Style Insider blog post .

etc. etc. or et cetera is NOT a valid alternative for ‘et al.’, because ‘et al.’ is used to refer to people and etc. to things.

Any questions?

Did we miss any popular styles? Would you like to know the correct way to use ‘et al.’ in any other style guide or journal? Feel free to ask us in the comments section below, or email us with your questions at  [email protected] .

Good luck with with your next paper.  Verba volant , scripta manent , after all.

*All example sentences in this article are from the following open-access paper: Ahamed, M. Mostak, Shirley J. Ho, Sushanta K. Mallick, and Roman Matousek. “Inclusive banking, financial regulation and bank performance: Cross-country evidence.” Journal of Banking & Finance 124 (2021): 106055.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbankfin.2021.106055

research paper et al citation

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Wondering why some abbreviations such as ‘et al.’ and ‘e.g.’ use periods, whereas others such as CV and AD don’t? Periods are typically used if the abbreviations include lowercase or mixed-case letters. They’re usually not used with abbreviations containing only uppercase letters.

research paper et al citation

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MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout the  MLA Handbook  and in chapter 7 of the  MLA Style Manual . Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.

Basic in-text citation rules

In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations . This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.

General Guidelines

  • The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited page.
  • Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page.

In-text citations: Author-page style

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:

Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:

Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads . Oxford UP, 1967.

In-text citations for print sources with known author

For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.

These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:

Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method . University of California Press, 1966.

In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author

When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.

In-text citations for sources with non-standard labeling systems

If a source uses a labeling or numbering system other than page numbers, such as a script or poetry, precede the citation with said label. When citing a poem, for instance, the parenthetical would begin with the word “line”, and then the line number or range. For example, the examination of William Blake’s poem “The Tyger” would be cited as such:

The speaker makes an ardent call for the exploration of the connection between the violence of nature and the divinity of creation. “In what distant deeps or skies. / Burnt the fire of thine eyes," they ask in reference to the tiger as they attempt to reconcile their intimidation with their relationship to creationism (lines 5-6).

Longer labels, such as chapters (ch.) and scenes (sc.), should be abbreviated.

In-text citations for print sources with no known author

When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name, following these guidelines.

Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.

Titles longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened into a noun phrase by excluding articles. For example, To the Lighthouse would be shortened to Lighthouse .

If the title cannot be easily shortened into a noun phrase, the title should be cut after the first clause, phrase, or punctuation:

In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:

"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs . 1999. www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.

If the title of the work begins with a quotation mark, such as a title that refers to another work, that quote or quoted title can be used as the shortened title. The single quotation marks must be included in the parenthetical, rather than the double quotation.

Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.

Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions

Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels's  The Communist Manifesto . In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:

Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection

When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source (for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection), cite the author of the  internal source (i.e., the article or essay). For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in  Nature  in 1921, you might write something like this:

See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited .

Citing authors with same last names

Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:

Citing a work by multiple authors

For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:

Corresponding Works Cited entry:

Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations , vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1

For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.

Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine , vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.

Citing multiple works by the same author

If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

Citing two articles by the same author :

Citing two books by the same author :

Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number(s):

Citing multivolume works

If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)

Citing the Bible

In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter, and verse. For example:

If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation:

John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).

Citing indirect sources

Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:

Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.

Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays

Sources that take the form of a dialogue involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialogue should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name (e.g., JAMES.) . After the period, write the dialogue. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.

Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Usually, the author and title of the source can be given in a signal phrase before quoting the excerpt, so the concluding parenthetical will often just contain location information like page numbers or act/scene indicators.

Here is an example from O'Neill's  The Iceman Cometh.

WILLIE. (Pleadingly) Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink.

ROCKY. Den grab it. It's right under your nose.

WILLIE. (Avidly) Thanks. (He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows.) (1.1)

Citing non-print or sources from the Internet

With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's  Evaluating Sources of Information  resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page.

Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:

  • Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
  • Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
  • Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like  CNN.com  or  Forbes.com,  as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.

Miscellaneous non-print sources

Two types of non-print sources you may encounter are films and lectures/presentations:

In the two examples above “Herzog” (a film’s director) and “Yates” (a presentor) lead the reader to the first item in each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:

Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo . Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.

Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002. Address.

Electronic sources

Electronic sources may include web pages and online news or magazine articles:

In the first example (an online magazine article), the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below).

In the second example (a web page), a parenthetical citation is not necessary because the page does not list an author, and the title of the article, “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” is used as a signal phrase within the sentence. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:

Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant , 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/. Accessed 29 Sep. 2009. 

"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL , 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/. Accessed 2 April 2018.

Multiple citations

To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:

Time-based media sources

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).

When a citation is not needed

Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge (For example, it is expected that U.S. citizens know that George Washington was the first President.). Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes “common knowledge” that differ from common norms.

Other Sources

The MLA Handbook describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the handbook does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.

In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of MLA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite.

You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers⁠ —an author category that does not appear in the MLA Handbook . In cases like this, however, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.

What Does et al. Mean and How to Use et al. in a Research Paper

What does et al. mean and how to use it correctly in your research paper

A majority of researchers wonder how to use et al. in a research paper. Et al. is one of the most commonly used Latin abbreviations, just like as,  etc. ,  versus ,  circa ,  ibid.  and  id. , and often crops up in academic writing. While the English phrases of all these above mentioned words are acceptable, researchers use Latin abbreviations as they take less time and fewer characters to write. Yet it’s not always easy to get these right.

In this article, we focus on one such abbreviation – et al. by explaining what does et al. mean and how to use et al. in a research paper correctly

Table of Contents

Et al. definition: what does et al. mean in academic writing, how to use et al. in a research paper, how to use et al. in a research paper: common mistakes to avoid.

The number of co-authors in an academic publication is, in principle, unlimited. Imagine having to write the names of all the authors in your bibliography. This is where et al. comes into play to indicate other authors in an academic work.

Et al. is the abbreviated form of et alia (or et alii or et aliae, the masculine and feminine plural, respectively). According to the Cambridge Dictionary, 1 the synonyms for et al. are “also,” “extra,” and “in addition.” Et al. is mostly used to indicate more than two people; it can also simplify subsequent references to groups of co-authors already cited in full. For example, when citing the same group of authors multiple times in your paper, using et al. can simplify the citations.

The number of authors to be listed before et al. can vary depending on the style guides. A few guidelines on the proper use of et al. in citations and references are given below. 2

  • APA Style Guide
  • Reference list : Et al. is never used in the reference list in APA.
  • In-text Citation : Use et al. only if citing at least three authors (seventh edition). Use the first author’s last name in the signal phrase or parenthesis, followed by et al. For example,

Parenthetical: (Smith et al., 2020)

Nonparenthetical: Smith et al. (2020)

  • MLA Style Guide
  • Reference list : Use et al. when referencing work with three or more authors; include only the first author, followed by a comma, and the words et al, ending with a period.
  • In-text Citation : Use et al. when citing a work with three or more authors. The author name is followed by the page number in place of the year. For example,

Parenthetical: …(James et al. 157-65).

Nonparenthetical: James et al. (157-65)

  • Chicago Style Guide
  • Reference list : When a source has more than 10 authors, list the first seven followed by “et al.” Otherwise, list every author.
  • In-text Citation : When a source has four or more authors, give only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” For example,

(Bay et al. 2017, 465)

  • Vancouver Style Guide
  • Reference list : When a source has more than six authors, list the first six followed by “et al.” Otherwise, list every author.
  • In-text Citation : When a source has three or more authors, give only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” Use et al. directly in the text, followed by the reference number. For example,

Doornbos et al. (5) agree that only one solution is viable.

  • Plural vs. singular: Wondering if et al. is a plural or singular verb? Whenever this confuses you, remember that because a phrase ending in “et al.” refers to a group of people, you will use plural verbs when the “et al.” phrase is the subject.

Incorrect: Smith et al. (2015) states that …

Correct: Smith et al. (2015) state that …

Also, “et al.” is plural and indicates at least two people. So, you cannot use et al. to substitute for only one author. For example, if you are dealing with three authors and have typed out two names, the last author cannot be replaced with et al.

  • Punctuation: “Et al.” is commonly misspelled as “et all,” “et. al.,” “et. al,” or “et-al.” Remember, “et al.” is composed of two words, with the “al” always followed by a period. The period indicates that the term is an abbreviation.
  • Using the incorrect style: Decide on the style guide to follow before you start your writing. The use of et al. in a sentence can vary if using APA, MLA, etc.
  • Possessive noun: When using a possessive noun, use “ ’s ” after “et al.”

Correct: In Smith et al.s’ study.

Correct: In Smith et al.’s study.

But, it’s best to avoid possessive phrasing when using et al. Instead, change it “Smith et al. (2015) found that . . .” or “In a study by Smith et al.”

  • Italics: Italicizing is unnecessary when using “et al.” But this is more of a style guideline and can vary.
  • “Et Al.” vs. “Etc.” and “Et Alibi”: “Et al.,” is sometimes confused with “Etc.” and “et alibi” but they mean different things and have other usages. “Etc.” meaning “rest,” is used at the end when listing things rather than people. “Et Alibi” means “and elsewhere” and is used when listing places or locations.

research paper et al citation

Finally, remember that when you think of the meaning of et al. in research, it is a word used to indicate other authors in the list. It is not intended to highlight the first author’s contribution as more important than the others, but simply to save space and time.

  • Cambridge Dictionary https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/et-al
  • Purdue Online Writing Lab. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7 th edition) https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html

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  • 1 Department of Spine Surgery, Hong Hui Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China
  • 2 Department of Spine Surgery, Xi’an Honghui Hospital, Xi’an, China

Citation: Guo X, Dong L and Hao D (2024) Cellular functions of spermatogonial stem cells in relation to JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 11:1339390. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2023.1339390

Received: 17 November 2023; Accepted: 28 December 2023; Published: 13 February 2024; Retracted: 16 February 2024.

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Citation Styles Guide | Examples for All Major Styles

Published on June 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on November 7, 2022.

A citation style is a set of guidelines on how to cite sources in your academic writing . You always need a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize a source to avoid plagiarism . How you present these citations depends on the style you follow. Scribbr’s citation generator can help!

Different styles are set by different universities, academic associations, and publishers, often published in an official handbook with in-depth instructions and examples.

There are many different citation styles, but they typically use one of three basic approaches: parenthetical citations , numerical citations, or note citations.

Parenthetical citations

  • Chicago (Turabian) author-date

CSE name-year

Numerical citations

CSE citation-name or citation-sequence

Note citations

  • Chicago (Turabian) notes and bibliography

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Types of citation: parenthetical, note, numerical, which citation style should i use, parenthetical citation styles, numerical citation styles, note citation styles, frequently asked questions about citation styles.

The clearest identifying characteristic of any citation style is how the citations in the text are presented. There are three main approaches:

  • Parenthetical citations: You include identifying details of the source in parentheses in the text—usually the author’s last name and the publication date, plus a page number if relevant ( author-date ). Sometimes the publication date is omitted ( author-page ).
  • Numerical citations: You include a number in brackets or in superscript, which corresponds to an entry in your numbered reference list.
  • Note citations: You include a full citation in a footnote or endnote, which is indicated in the text with a superscript number or symbol.

Citation styles also differ in terms of how you format the reference list or bibliography entries themselves (e.g., capitalization, order of information, use of italics). And many style guides also provide guidance on more general issues like text formatting, punctuation, and numbers.

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In most cases, your university, department, or instructor will tell you which citation style you need to follow in your writing. If you’re not sure, it’s best to consult your institution’s guidelines or ask someone. If you’re submitting to a journal, they will usually require a specific style.

Sometimes, the choice of citation style may be left up to you. In those cases, you can base your decision on which citation styles are commonly used in your field. Try reading other articles from your discipline to see how they cite their sources, or consult the table below.

The American Anthropological Association (AAA) recommends citing your sources using Chicago author-date style . AAA style doesn’t have its own separate rules. This style is used in the field of anthropology.

APA Style is defined by the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . It was designed for use in psychology, but today it’s widely used across various disciplines, especially in the social sciences.

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The citation style of the American Political Science Association (APSA) is used mainly in the field of political science.

The citation style of the American Sociological Association (ASA) is used primarily in the discipline of sociology.

Chicago author-date

Chicago author-date style is one of the two citation styles presented in the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition). It’s used mainly in the sciences and social sciences.

The citation style of the Council of Science Editors (CSE) is used in various scientific disciplines. It includes multiple options for citing your sources, including the name-year system.

Harvard style is often used in the field of economics. It is also very widely used across disciplines in UK universities. There are various versions of Harvard style defined by different universities—it’s not a style with one definitive style guide.

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MLA style is the official style of the Modern Language Association, defined in the MLA Handbook (9th edition). It’s widely used across various humanities disciplines. Unlike most parenthetical citation styles, it’s author-page rather than author-date.

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The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides guidelines for a citation style using numbers in superscript or italics in the text, corresponding to entries in a numbered reference list at the end. It is used in chemistry.

The American Medical Association ( AMA ) provides guidelines for a numerical citation style using superscript numbers in the text, which correspond to entries in a numbered reference list. It is used in the field of medicine.

CSE style includes multiple options for citing your sources, including the citation-name and citation-sequence systems. Your references are listed alphabetically in the citation-name system; in the citation-sequence system, they appear in the order in which you cited them.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) provides guidelines for citing your sources with IEEE in-text citations that consist of numbers enclosed in brackets, corresponding to entries in a numbered reference list. This style is used in various engineering and IT disciplines.

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) citation style is defined in Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition).

Vancouver style is also used in various medical disciplines. As with Harvard style, a lot of institutions and publications have their own versions of Vancouver—it doesn’t have one fixed style guide.

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The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation is the main style guide for legal citations in the US. It’s widely used in law, and also when legal materials need to be cited in other disciplines.

Chicago notes and bibliography

Chicago notes and bibliography is one of the two citation styles presented in the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition). It’s used mainly in the humanities.

The Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities ( OSCOLA ) is the main legal citation style in the UK (similar to Bluebook for the US).

There are many different citation styles used across different academic disciplines, but they fall into three basic approaches to citation:

  • Parenthetical citations : Including identifying details of the source in parentheses —usually the author’s last name and the publication date, plus a page number if available ( author-date ). The publication date is occasionally omitted ( author-page ).
  • Numerical citations: Including a number in brackets or superscript, corresponding to an entry in your numbered reference list.
  • Note citations: Including a full citation in a footnote or endnote , which is indicated in the text with a superscript number or symbol.

Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.

  • APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
  • MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
  • Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
  • Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.

Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.

The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.

A scientific citation style is a system of source citation that is used in scientific disciplines. Some commonly used scientific citation styles are:

  • Chicago author-date , CSE , and Harvard , used across various sciences
  • ACS , used in chemistry
  • AMA , NLM , and Vancouver , used in medicine and related disciplines
  • AAA , APA , and ASA , commonly used in the social sciences

APA format is widely used by professionals, researchers, and students in the social and behavioral sciences, including fields like education, psychology, and business.

Be sure to check the guidelines of your university or the journal you want to be published in to double-check which style you should be using.

MLA Style  is the second most used citation style (after APA ). It is mainly used by students and researchers in humanities fields such as literature, languages, and philosophy.

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Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Citation Styles Guide | Examples for All Major Styles. Scribbr. Retrieved February 15, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/citation-styles/

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Title: v-star: training verifiers for self-taught reasoners.

Abstract: Common self-improvement approaches for large language models (LLMs), such as STaR (Zelikman et al., 2022), iteratively fine-tune LLMs on self-generated solutions to improve their problem-solving ability. However, these approaches discard the large amounts of incorrect solutions generated during this process, potentially neglecting valuable information in such solutions. To address this shortcoming, we propose V-STaR that utilizes both the correct and incorrect solutions generated during the self-improvement process to train a verifier using DPO that judges correctness of model-generated solutions. This verifier is used at inference time to select one solution among many candidate solutions. Running V-STaR for multiple iterations results in progressively better reasoners and verifiers, delivering a 4% to 17% test accuracy improvement over existing self-improvement and verification approaches on common code generation and math reasoning benchmarks with LLaMA2 models.

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EU AI Act: first regulation on artificial intelligence

The use of artificial intelligence in the EU will be regulated by the AI Act, the world’s first comprehensive AI law. Find out how it will protect you.

A man faces a computer generated figure with programming language in the background

As part of its digital strategy , the EU wants to regulate artificial intelligence (AI) to ensure better conditions for the development and use of this innovative technology. AI can create many benefits , such as better healthcare; safer and cleaner transport; more efficient manufacturing; and cheaper and more sustainable energy.

In April 2021, the European Commission proposed the first EU regulatory framework for AI. It says that AI systems that can be used in different applications are analysed and classified according to the risk they pose to users. The different risk levels will mean more or less regulation. Once approved, these will be the world’s first rules on AI.

Learn more about what artificial intelligence is and how it is used

What Parliament wants in AI legislation

Parliament’s priority is to make sure that AI systems used in the EU are safe, transparent, traceable, non-discriminatory and environmentally friendly. AI systems should be overseen by people, rather than by automation, to prevent harmful outcomes.

Parliament also wants to establish a technology-neutral, uniform definition for AI that could be applied to future AI systems.

Learn more about Parliament’s work on AI and its vision for AI’s future

AI Act: different rules for different risk levels

The new rules establish obligations for providers and users depending on the level of risk from artificial intelligence. While many AI systems pose minimal risk, they need to be assessed.

Unacceptable risk

Unacceptable risk AI systems are systems considered a threat to people and will be banned. They include:

  • Cognitive behavioural manipulation of people or specific vulnerable groups: for example voice-activated toys that encourage dangerous behaviour in children
  • Social scoring: classifying people based on behaviour, socio-economic status or personal characteristics
  • Biometric identification and categorisation of people
  • Real-time and remote biometric identification systems, such as facial recognition

Some exceptions may be allowed for law enforcement purposes. “Real-time” remote biometric identification systems will be allowed in a limited number of serious cases, while “post” remote biometric identification systems, where identification occurs after a significant delay, will be allowed to prosecute serious crimes and only after court approval.

AI systems that negatively affect safety or fundamental rights will be considered high risk and will be divided into two categories:

1) AI systems that are used in products falling under the EU’s product safety legislation . This includes toys, aviation, cars, medical devices and lifts.

2) AI systems falling into specific areas that will have to be registered in an EU database:

  • Management and operation of critical infrastructure
  • Education and vocational training
  • Employment, worker management and access to self-employment
  • Access to and enjoyment of essential private services and public services and benefits
  • Law enforcement
  • Migration, asylum and border control management
  • Assistance in legal interpretation and application of the law.

All high-risk AI systems will be assessed before being put on the market and also throughout their lifecycle.

General purpose and generative AI

Generative AI, like ChatGPT, would have to comply with transparency requirements:

  • Disclosing that the content was generated by AI
  • Designing the model to prevent it from generating illegal content
  • Publishing summaries of copyrighted data used for training

High-impact general-purpose AI models that might pose systemic risk, such as the more advanced AI model GPT-4, would have to undergo thorough evaluations and any serious incidents would have to be reported to the European Commission.

Limited risk

Limited risk AI systems should comply with minimal transparency requirements that would allow users to make informed decisions. After interacting with the applications, the user can then decide whether they want to continue using it. Users should be made aware when they are interacting with AI. This includes AI systems that generate or manipulate image, audio or video content, for example deepfakes.

On December 9 2023, Parliament reached a provisional agreement with the Council on the AI act . The agreed text will now have to be formally adopted by both Parliament and Council to become EU law. Before all MEPs have their say on the agreement, Parliament’s internal market and civil liberties committees will vote on it.

More on the EU’s digital measures

  • Cryptocurrency dangers and the benefits of EU legislation
  • Fighting cybercrime: new EU cybersecurity laws explained
  • Boosting data sharing in the EU: what are the benefits?
  • EU Digital Markets Act and Digital Services Act
  • Five ways the European Parliament wants to protect online gamers
  • Artificial Intelligence Act

Related articles

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This section features overview and background articles for the general public. Press releases and materials for news media are available in the news section .

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  1. APA Book Citation Examples

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  2. How To Cite a Research Paper: Citation Styles Guide

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COMMENTS

  1. Et Al.

    "Et al." is short for the Latin term "et alia," which means "and others." It is used in academic citations when referring to a source with multiple authors. Example: Using "et al." Hulme et al. (2019) argue that … Different citation styles have different rules for when to use "et al." Below, we explain the rules for APA, MLA, and Chicago style.

  2. How to Use ''et al.'' in APA Style (7th Edition)

    In APA style, for a source with three or more authors, list the first author's last name and "et al." for all citations, including the first citation.

  3. Using et al.

    According to Lai and Sookochoff (2018)…. In APA 7, for a work with three or more authors, list the first author and "et al." for all citations, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity. (Note that this rule has changed from APA 6 guidelines on using "et al.," which recommend listing all author names in the ...

  4. How Do You Use et al. in Scientific Papers? (with many examples)

    Pricing Curie How Do You Use et al. in Scientific Papers? (with many examples) Et al. in academic writing helps you cite a publication with multiple contributors. Exactly how and where to use it varies depending on the specific journal publication or prescribed style guide. Even experienced authors have trouble with "et al."

  5. Using "et al." for in-text citations in research papers

    In citing such papers using the name-and-date system, also known as the Harvard system, a long string of names proves awkward—which is why most journals recommend the use of et al., which is Latin for et alii or et aliae and means "and others."

  6. When to Use Author "et al." in Citation and References

    In your research paper, you can make references to source materials using either endnotes and footnotes (i.e., numbers in the text that refer to the bottom of the page or the end of the paper) or in-text citations. Both styles require you to also provide a reference list at the end of the document. In-text (or parenthetical) citations

  7. APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.)

    Revised on September 30, 2022. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper.

  8. PDF Using "et al." in APA 7: A Quick Rundown

    Using "et al." in APA 7: A Quick Rundown . The abbreviated term "et al." simply means "and others." Typically, "et al." will be used when referring to source material by three or more authors within the body text of a paper. A source with one author will, of course, always just be referenced by their own name

  9. LibGuides: Harvard Referencing: Using et al. correctly

    et al. stands for 'and others' and it should be used in your in-text citations only, to indicate that a work has multiple authors.In your reference list at the end of your work, you should include all of the authors.. It should only be used if the source you are citing has four or more authors (ie more than three). Where a source has one, two or three authors, you should name them all in both ...

  10. When to use et al. in APA citation style

    In-text citation format with et al. The phrase "et al." is used with in-text citations (including APA parenthetical citations) only when referencing a source that has three or more authors. Include the name of only the first author's last name plus "et al." in every citation. In-text citation structure: Text (1st Author et al., Year ...

  11. When to use "et al." in Harvard referencing style

    3.9 42) Citation Generator Source Type Search " Et al. " is used in Harvard style to indicate that a source has four or more authors. By using " et al. ", writers can also avoid having very long citations that list every single author. For more help creating Harvard-style citations that use " et al. ", try the EasyBib Harvard referencing generator!

  12. The Proper Use of Et Al. in APA Style

    Namely, use et al. as usual but also include lowercase letters after the year (2010a, 2010b, etc.) to tell the references apart. For more information and examples on citing references in text, see Chapter 6 of our sixth edition Publication Manual (pp. 174-179). You may also be interested in our primer on how in-text citations work and our ...

  13. In-Text Citations

    The abbreviation "et al." is short for "et alia" which is Latin for "and others." In the following example, the source (an open letter) has 81 authors, 20 of which will appear in the reference citation (authors 1-19 and the last author), but only one author will appear in the in-text citation along with "et al." Example 30

  14. How to Use Et Al. in Every Format—Et Al. Meaning

    When using et al. in an in-text citation of four or more authors, et al. can be formatted in a few different ways, depending on which source citation system you're using. Take a look at the examples below. In the author-date system, et al. goes after the first author's surname in an in-text citation. (Johnson et al. 2021, 465)

  15. PDF Asa Style: General Format for In-text Citations

    According to the ASA Style Guide, 6th edition: "In text citations and reference lists, . . . page references should be eliding numbers using the following rules" (39). Use all digits for pages numbered less than 100 Example: 42-43, 92-98. For page ranges starting on pages numbered 100 or multiples of 100, use all digits: Example: 100-108 ...

  16. How to use et al. in MLA

    You can use et al. in both your MLA in-text citations and the Works Cited page. When using et al., you should always use the name of the writer listed first in the source material. Note: Using et al. should not be confused with etc. or other abbreviations that indicate more content than listed.

  17. In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

    Note: In the rare case that "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001).In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author. If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source, just as you would an ...

  18. Using 'Et Al.' In Your Research Paper

    Correctly using 'et al.' becomes easy once you understand what 'et al.' means. 'et al.' is the abbreviation of the Latin phrase 'et alii' (masculine), 'et aliae' (feminine), and 'et alia' (neuter), all of which mean ' and others '. In the context of an academic paper, 'et al.' is better understood as ' and ...

  19. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    Research and Citation MLA Style MLA Formatting and Style Guide MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual.

  20. Citations, Citation Indicators, and Research Quality: An Overview of

    First published online February 7, 2019 Citations, Citation Indicators, and Research Quality: An Overview of Basic Concepts and Theories Dag W. Aksnes https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1519-195X, Liv Langfeldt, and Paul Wouters View all authors and affiliations All Articles https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019829575 PDF / ePub More Abstract

  21. What does et al. mean? How to use et al. in research paper

    APA Style Guide Reference list: Et al. is never used in the reference list in APA. In-text Citation: Use et al. only if citing at least three authors (seventh edition). Use the first author's last name in the signal phrase or parenthesis, followed by et al. For example, Parenthetical: (Smith et al., 2020) Nonparenthetical: Smith et al. (2020)

  22. How to Cite a Journal Article

    In an MLA Works Cited entry for a journal article, the article title appears in quotation marks, the name of the journal in italics—both in title case. List up to two authors in both the in-text citation and the Works Cited entry. For three or more, use "et al.". MLA format. Author last name, First name.

  23. Research Guides: Latin American, Caribbean, and Latinx Studies: Citing

    The Modern Language Association's online hub that provides free resources on using MLA style in research, writing, and documentation. It offers a quick guide to citing any source according to the MLA template of core elements, a practice template, a Q&A feature with hundreds of citation examples, a blog of writing tips, guidelines for formatting a paper and avoiding plagiarism, sample papers ...

  24. [2402.08452] The SRG/eROSITA All-Sky Survey: The first catalog of

    Clusters of galaxies can be used as powerful probes to study astrophysical processes on large scales, test theories of the growth of structure, and constrain cosmological models. The driving science goal of the SRG/eROSITA All-Sky Survey (eRASS) is to assemble a large sample of X-ray-selected clusters with a well-defined selection function to determine the evolution of the mass function and ...

  25. Frontiers

    This manuscript comprehensively reviews the interrelationship between spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Spermatogonial stem cells in the testes of male mammals, characterized by their self-renewal and pluripotential differentiation capabilities, are essential for tissue regeneration, immunomodulation, and advancements in regenerative medicine.

  26. Physics-based early warning signal shows that AMOC is on ...

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) effectively transports heat and salt through the global ocean and strongly modulates regional and global climate.Continuous section measurements of the AMOC, available since 2004 at 26°N from the RAPID-MOCHA array (), have shown that the AMOC strength has decreased by a few Sverdrups (1 Sv = 10 6 m 3 s −1) from 2004 to 2012, and ...

  27. Citation Styles Guide

    A scientific citation style is a system of source citation that is used in scientific disciplines. Some commonly used scientific citation styles are: Chicago author-date, CSE, and Harvard, used across various sciences. ACS, used in chemistry. AMA, NLM, and Vancouver, used in medicine and related disciplines.

  28. V-STaR: Training Verifiers for Self-Taught Reasoners

    Common self-improvement approaches for large language models (LLMs), such as STaR (Zelikman et al., 2022), iteratively fine-tune LLMs on self-generated solutions to improve their problem-solving ability. However, these approaches discard the large amounts of incorrect solutions generated during this process, potentially neglecting valuable information in such solutions. To address this ...

  29. EU AI Act: first regulation on artificial intelligence

    As part of its digital strategy, the EU wants to regulate artificial intelligence (AI) to ensure better conditions for the development and use of this innovative technology. AI can create many benefits, such as better healthcare; safer and cleaner transport; more efficient manufacturing; and cheaper and more sustainable energy.. In April 2021, the European Commission proposed the first EU ...