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Project management for non-project managers
The steps, skills, and troubleshooting techniques you'll need to deliver the goods without losing your mind.
On this page:
What is project management, project management skills, project management steps, project management templates, project management software.
Project management is the art of making a plan, then executing on it. But if only things were really that simple... You'll need to rally a project team and track their progress. You'll need to manage expectations. You'll need to anticipate avoidable problems, and troubleshoot the ones you didn't see coming.
If that sounds overwhelming, you've come to the right place. Here you'll learn tips and techniques for each phase, as well as downloadable templates that'll make life a little easier. Consider it a bit of free project management training. Ready? Let's get started.
It's hard to over-communicate. Team members need clarifications, stakeholders need status updates and sponsors need the results.
Aside from managing the project's schedule, you'll need to keep meetings on track (and manage your own time, too).
You probably solve lots of problems in your regular role – keep that "creative thinking" cap on!
Get familiar with other projects that might need the same people and resources at the same time you're going to need them.
Be prepared to negotiate scheduling snafus, conflicting priorities, and personality clashes with grace.
Pro tip: The most important skill is the ability to set aside your usual job, and embrace your role as the project's manager.
If you're an "accidental project manager", there's a good chance the project was already underway when it landed on your plate. Jump to whatever step you're on using the links below to figure out what your next move is. And don't forget to check out earlier steps to see if there's any clean-up to take care of.
Step 1: envision it.
Don't rush through this phase. Iterate on your understanding of the problem space, and potential solutions, until you're confident you're on the right track.
Build the business case
Define the problem you're trying to solve, and the value in solving it. Talk to your target customers, whether internal or external, so you fully understand the problem space. When building a business case for your project, focus on what you want the customer to be able to do. Leave the specifics of how for when you brainstorm solutions with your team.
- Problem framing – Explore a problem space and its affect on customers.
- Customer interview – The ultimate empathy-builder.
Form the project team
Gather people with the skills you'll need to solve the problem. Aim for a multi-disciplinary team with a variety of backgrounds and problem-solving styles. Research shows diverse teams deliver better results . Delaying the project's start by a couple weeks for the sake of getting the right team may prove worthwhile.
- Working agreements – Establish the project team's social contract.
- Health Monitor – The team's self-assessment of strength and risk areas.
Agree on measurable outcomes to shoot for, and metrics to track your progress toward them. Make sure the project contributes to larger objectives the business is pursuing. If it doesn't, this might be the wrong project (or it might be the right project, but at the wrong time).
- Goals, signals, measures – Set goals as a team and agree on how you'll measure progress.
Fire up your problem solving skills. Now is the time to think about specific solutions, how you'd implement them, and how the customer will interact with the final product. Involve your team, and be ambitious at this stage. It's easier to pare down a bold idea than to turn a safe idea into something innovative.
- Disrupt – Generate a long list of great ideas in a short time.
- Mindmapping – Explore different facets of a problem, and organize your ideas for solutions.
Prototype and test
Depending on the nature of your project, a prototype could be anything from flowcharts on the back of a cocktail napkin to quick-n'-dirty (but working) code. Put it in front of your target customers and stakeholders for early feedback. This is the ideal time to fail and adapt!
- End-to-end demo – Visualize your concept so it's easy to get feedback.
- Experience canvas – Make sure your concept is user-focused, feasible, and valuable to both the customer and the business.
Signs your project is at risk during the envision step
The project's value is unclear.
How to get back on track
Choose a specific customer persona (whether internal or external customer), and turn on your empathy. Imagine why they would want this, then map that to the company's larger goals. Iterate until you've got customer value with strong ties to business value.
- 5 "whys" – Give your team a deep understanding of the problem and its impact on your customer.
- Customer interview – Understand your customers' needs and the contexts in which they're using your product or service.
- Experience canvas – Make sure your project is customer-focused and makes sense for the business.
Goals or priorities conflict
Agree on one (yes, one) objective to serve as your North Star for the project. Then sort through the conflicting priorities with that in mind. When you encounter trade-offs, prioritize the option that'll get you closer to that North Star objective.
- Goals, signals, measures – Make sure the project stays focused, and you know what a successful outcome looks like.
- Trade-off sliders – Create sliding scales to show how important each metric is and agree on what you should prioritize.
Nobody knows who is in charge
Reach a shared understanding across the project team, stakeholders, and sponsors as to who is ultimately accountable. As project manager, you're responsible for delivering the project on time and on budget – but you might not be on the hook for the project's overall success.
- Roles and responsibilities – Define each person's role on the project, and what's needed of them so the team can be successful.
- Project kick-off – Build a shared understanding of the project's main objective, scope, value, timing, and decision ownership.
- DACI decision-making framework – Understand who's accountable for specific decisions, and what role the rest of the team will play.
The project team can't agree on a direction
First, make sure your team truly understands the problem you're solving and it's impact on the customer. And don't be afraid to ask management to clarify what's a priority for the business vs. what's not. When seeking guidance, make sure to present them with options you're considering, instead of an open-ended "what should we do?".
- Problem framing – Explore the problem space and its impact on customers.
- Demo trust – Create a space for open discussion and feedback from company leaders so everyone feels confident about the value and direction.
Pro tip: Run a Health Monitor workshop with your team – the earlier in the project, the better. It's a chance to self-assess on eight attributes common amongst healthy, high-performing teams.
Step 2: Plan it
The planning process should be relatively short. While we recommend an iterative approach to planning, there are a few high-order tasks before moving into project execution mode.
Nail down the project's scope
Based on feedback from early testing, and keeping your success metrics in mind, prioritize what to include in the project. Be clear about the trade-offs you're making. For example, optimizing for ease of use might mean pushing out the schedule or increasing the budget.
- Trade-off sliders – Create sliding scales to show how important each metric is and agree on what you should prioritize.
- Journey mapping – Understand the existing journey so you can design a better experience.
Understand and manage dependencies
Does your project depend on work, resources, or assets from outside the core project team? Map those out, noting who will own each piece of work and when they're available to do it. Even if you can't resolve bottlenecks at this stage, you need to identify them and factor them into the project planning process.
- Roles and responsibilities – Define each person's role on the project, and what's needed of them.
Build a roadmap and backlog
With scope agreed upon and dependencies understood, break the project plan down into discrete pieces of work, and estimate the time and effort required for each. From there, you can project when you'll hit major milestones and set a target completion date. Then collect all pieces of work into a backlog you can use to plan in short, iterative cycles.
- Roadmap planning – This exercise comes from the software world, but can be adapted to suit any project.
Anticipate and mitigate risks
Save yourself from headaches down the road. Think through ways the project might fail, and dive into prevention mode. Also identify chances for mind-blowing success that you haven't yet considered – missed opportunities are a form of risk, too.
- Pre-mortem – Imagine what could go wrong, and make plans to prevent them.
Make a communications plan
Establish a cadence for team meetings and updates to stakeholders, and share it around. (Bonus points if you can keep the meetings to a minimum!) Then schedule any recurring meetings, and put reminders on your calendar to update the project's plan and dashboard (or internal homepage) regularly.
Stand-ups – A daily opportunity for your team to share the status of work in progress and discuss blockers.
Project poster – An easy way to share your goals, status, and schedule. If updated regularly, the poster serves as your status report (but far less painful).
Signs your project is at risk during the planning step
You're stuck in planning mode.
Shake off that "analysis paralysis", and get going! If you're using an agile approach (and you really should), remind the project team you'll have chances to demonstrate progress and course-correct as you go.
- Pre-mortem – Visualize risks and opportunities for the project, then figure out how to navigate yourself away from (or toward) them.
OTHERS DON'T UNDERSTAND WHAT YOUR PROJECT IS ABOUT
Call upon those communication skills and share small, frequent updates that are easy to digest – huge "walls of text" probably won't get read. Make sure you're sharing the right information in the right level of detail with the right people.
- Elevator pitch – Create a simple explanation of your project and the value it delivers to your customers.
- Project poster – Shape and share your ideas, articulate what success looks like, and build a shared understanding with stakeholders.
Your project team is missing critical skills
Re-shape your concept so you can move forward with the resources you have. (Problem solving skills FTW!) Throwing hands in the air and saying "We're blocked" will only diminish the trust stakeholders and sponsors have in your team.
- Trade-off sliders – The basic trade-off sliders exercise clarifies which aspects of a project are negotiable (and which aren't), but you can give it a twist. If you can't do "X", what other aspects of the project can flex to help you navigate the skill gap?
Spar on the high-level plan with your project team. It helps you gut-check what's realistic, as well as visualize dependencies and risks. – Sarah Goff-Dupont, accidental project manager
Step 3: Execute it
Finally, right?! Time to get $#!τ done . Work in 1- to 2-week iterations, with a demo for stakeholders and a team retrospective at the end of each cycle.
Agile methodologies may come from the software development world, but they're useful for any project: IT, marketing, HR... whatever. Start each cycle with "just enough" planning, then knock out the work. Be sure to hold a short retrospective at the end of each iteration. It's your chance to share what went well (and what didn't) so the next iteration can be even better.
- Sprint planning – Plan the next 1-2 weeks' work based on what's highest priority.
- Retrospectives – Provide a safe space for the team to reflect on and share what works well (and what doesn't!) so you can improve.
Track your progress
This includes which pieces of work are complete, how much of the budget remains, and whether you're on track to meet your target delivery date. Use something digital like Google Docs, Trello , or Jira so everyone can see your status easily. If you start burning through budget or time faster than projected, raise that with your sponsor and team right away so you can course-correct before things get out of hand.
- Set up a Trello board – Organize and prioritize your project in a fun, flexible way.
- Set up a Jira dashboard – The information your team and stakeholders need, in a custom layout.
Test and incorporate feedback
At the end of each iteration cycle, update your end-to-end demo to reflect the work completed, and show it to stakeholders (and customers, ideally). Capture their feedback so you can take it into account when planning the next iteration. You may want to re-work X before moving on to Y.
- End-to-end demo – Visualize your concept so it's easy to get feedback.
- Sparring – Let others challenge your own ideas and inspire new ones.
Signs your project is at risk during the execution step
You're stepping on each other's toes.
Remove and prevent bottlenecks in your process. Clarify each person's role or area of responsibility on the project so you're not blocking each other or (eep!) doubling up on tasks.
- Stand-ups – Start the day with updates on who's-working-on-what, what got done yesterday, and which tasks each person intends to tackle next.
- Roles and responsibilities – Understand everyone's role on the team, and learn what teammates need from each other in order to succeed.
FEELS LIKE YOU'RE JUST SPINNING YOUR WHEELS
Shine a light on everything your team is accomplishing. When you're eyeballs-deep in project work, it's easy to miss the forrest for the trees. (And if you're truly not making progress, your next move is to figure out why.)
- End-to-end demo – Celebrate the incremental wins by iterating on a demo. As it evolves from diagrams to prototype to an MVP, your team's progress will feel more tangible.
- Stand-ups – Create a feeling of momentum by highlighting what got done yesterday (and/or expose the hard truth that nothing is getting to the "done" pile).
It depends. If your schedule and/or budget are flexible, you might opt to expand the project's scope. Otherwise, you'll need to deflect additional ideas or make trade-offs to accommodate them. Just don't skimp on the quality of work you deliver. Remember: for most projects, you can keep making improvements after you deliver the initial "minimum viable product" (MVP).
- Trade-off sliders – Decide which aspects of the project you'll prioritize, and think though the trade-offs you'll make in their defense when new ideas are introduced.
- DACI decision-making framework – Agree on who makes the call and who contributes recommendations – either for individual decisions about scope, or for the project as a whole.
Communication has broken down
Build trust amongst team members and with stakeholders so they feel comfortable talking again. If people are purposefully withholding information because they're playing politics, you may need to involve a neutral party (such as HR) to facilitate.
- Stand-ups – Practice communicating and build trust: share quick updates on tasks and raise blocking issues.
- Sparring – If team members aren't pushing each other creatively, use this technique from the design world to get honest, structured peer feedback.
- Health Monitor – Provide a safe space for the team to discuss how you're working together (strengths, weaknesses, warts n' all).
- Working agreement – Codify the team's values: the practices, results, and conduct you expect from one another.
ESTIMATES WERE WAY OFF-TARGET
Recalibrate your projected timeline based on the information you have about the actual effort needed to reach your milestones. Be open about this so stakeholders have a chance to adjust their expectations and any down-stream plans.
- Retrospective – Set aside time in each retrospective to compare that iteration's estimates with the actual effort needed so you can continually recalibrate.
- 5 "whys" – Start with one estimate-gone-wrong to analyze and ask why it was so off – then keep asking "why" until you've uncovered the root cause.
Pro tip: Remember those measureable goals you set? Make sure to build in any analytics or infrastructure needed to measure progress towards them.
Step 4: Deliver it
You've completed all the work. You're all done now, right? Not quite. Closing out a project involves more than cancelling the recurring meetings (although that part is fun...).
Deliver your "minimum viable product" (MVP)
This is it! The big moment! Your work is finally ready for public (or internal) consumption. If your customers are internal, or clients with whom you communicate directly, make sure they accept the project as complete. Depending on how smooth or rocky the journey was, you may want to get their acceptance in writing. Then, have a little celebration with your team!
- Celebrate! – Did someone say "team lunch"?...
Close out the budget
Pay any outstanding vendor invoices, and if you were hired by an outside client, get your payment from them. Use the budget data you've been tracking throughout the project to create a report for your project's sponsor. Include analysis of where you'd spend more (or save) money on similar projects in the future.
Do a project retrospective
What went well? What went horribly, horribly wrong? What did we learn? Put these questions up for discussion with your project team. Be sure to capture the lessons learned and share them with your peers so they can benefit. And don't forget to chat about how you might improve on what you just delivered.
- Retrospective – Reflect on and discuss what works well (and what doesn't!) so you can improve. Mistakes are ok if you learn from them.
Get your brag on
Are you stoked about what you just delivered? Let's hope so! Write up a short company announcement describing the project and thanking your team. If the project is external-facing, you might want to share the news with customers by way of an email or blog post.
Signs your project is at risk during the delivery step
The project isn't accepted as "done"..
Time for those diplomacy skills. First, talk to your sponsor (or client, or team, or whomever is unhappy) and figure out where the discrepancy lays. Your goal for this conversation is to agree on a definition of "done" – something you should put in writing so it's easy for everyone to refer back to later. From there, draw up a list of tasks that'll close the gap between here and "done", and set your team on it.
- Demo trust – Use this as a forum for discussing "done" and next steps with your management team.
Whatever you delivered will live on, so have a post-launch plan in place. Who will support or maintain it? What metrics or reporting will you need to measure it's success? – Aumarie Benpayo, Atlassian program manager
Step 5: Improve it
Most "accidental project managers" are keen to get back to their regularly scheduled day job once the MVP is delivered. Even so, take a moment to consider these questions:
- Have you achieved your definition of "success" for the project?
- Are there ideas that were de-scoped from the MVP?
If the answer to either question is "yes" or "no", keep reading.
Technically , improving on what you just delivered is an on-going process – not a "step", per se. But whatever. It's still important.
First, let's talk scope. If important and/or cool stuff was de-scoped from the MVP, now is your chance to get it done. You might try to keep the whole project team together and dedicate all or most of your time to this. Or if that's not possible, you can opt to get a portion of everyone's time allocated to the project and chip away at your to-do list gradually. Either way, you're cycling back to the "plan it" step.
Now, what about your success criteria? You probably won't know whether you've met it until after you've delivered your MVP and let your work live out there in the wild for a time. You're already measuring progress towards the project's goal (right?), so your immediate job is to just monitor that.
For extra credit, think about what might help you reach it faster, and devise a lightweight test around it. Depending on the project, you might need to gather quantitative data (e.g., usage rate, cost savings), qualitative data (e.g., surveys, usability testing), or a little of both.
If it becomes clear that you're not on track to reach your goal, it's time to roll up your sleeves and iterate on what you delivered. Equipped with raw data from tests and metrics, your job now is to turn that information into actionable insights. You might discover that an idea you tested is worth implementing "for real". Or, analyzing test data might simply feed into ideas for additional tests.
Once you know what improvements to make, each one becomes its own mini-project. Or, you can opt to wrap a handful of improvements into a single umbrella project – this approach is useful if making each update will involve roughly the same group of people since it may be easier to schedule their time in one larger block. Either way, you're essentially cycling back to the "envision it" step.
Signs your project is at risk of not meeting it's goals
Your mvp isn't being used, and you don't know why.
Time for some qualitative research. Talk to your target customers to find out what's preventing them from putting your project to use. If it's appropriate for your project, set up a user test (either live, or using an online service) so you have a chance to observe their behavior as they interact with what you've delivered.
- Customer interview – Go straight to the source and ask what the hang-up is.
- Empathy mapping – Pair your quantitative data with your knowledge of the customer to understand how they think and feel about your project.
INCREMENTAL CHANGES AREN'T MOVING THE NEEDLE
Go bold. This might mean a major pivot, or overhauling your project entirely. Don't get discouraged, though. Making one major change on your way to success puts your batting average at a respectable .500 (and hey: Babe Ruth's was only .342).
- 5 "whys" – Use this analysis technique to uncover the root of the problem so you know what future changes need to address.
- Disrupt – De-calcify your neuro pathways and generate fresh ideas.
For your convenience, we've gathered all the templates suggested throughout this page into one handy spot.
So, turns out we build software that makes project management easier.
- Back to All Programs
Strategic Project Management
All Start Dates
8:30 AM – 4:30 PM ET
2 consecutive days
September 19, 2023
11:00 AM – 2:30 PM ET
Every Wednesday for 4 weeks
October 24, 2023
Plan, manage, and execute projects that are essential to the success of your business.
What you'll learn.
Projects are the engines that drive change, innovation, and productivity. The ability to deliver projects on-time and within scope–strategic project management–has become imperative for organizations and a critical skill for advancing your career.
In this program, you will learn practical approaches and techniques to effectively analyze, plan, execute, and lead projects to meet your organization’s objectives. We will explore the reasons for high failure rates and examine key strategies for ensuring success through planning and execution. We will examine the leadership challenges of influencing others when you have limited formal authority. We will discuss the role of culture and the impact it has on our project’s success.
You will participate in a variety of highly engaging activities, interactive discussions, and mini- case studies to broaden your project management strategies. Through an in-depth examination of the principles of project management, participants will gain confidence in their ability to lead all aspects of projects.
- Identify key strategies for setting up a project’s success before work begins
- Examine different project roles and necessary leadership characteristics
- Learn how to assemble and develop a highly functional project team
- Explore how to increase your level of influence in working with others
- Develop an understanding of the tools and frameworks for each stage of a project
- Gain strategies for addressing the challenges that most often contribute to project failure
- Build confidence in your ability to lead both the technical and human side of all projects
- Learn how to facilitate success beyond just the project itself such as achieving and sustaining benefits
- Earn a certificate of participation from Harvard Division of Continuing Education
- Principles of project management and the reasons for high failure rates
- Defining project goals and scope
- Key roles of project sponsor and project manager
- Planning a project schedule, budget, and risk plan
- Executing a project: Instilling discipline, accountability, and productivity
- Managing stakeholders through project stages
- Implementing the project and transitioning to operations
- Lessons learned from the experiences of real-life project managers
Who Should Enroll
This program is designed for those with at least three years of experience with projects, either as a team member or as a project manager.
Considering this program?
Send yourself the details.
- Communication Strategies: Presenting with Impact
- Negotiation Skills: Strategies for Increased Effectiveness
- Managing Yourself and Leading Others
- Phase One: Initiate
- Phase Two: Plan
- Phase Three: Execute
- Phase Four: Close
Week 1 • Phase One: Initiate
Week 2 • Phase Two: Plan
Week 3 • Phase Three: Execute
Week 4 • Phase Four: Close
Harvard division of continuing education.
A division of Harvard University dedicated to bringing rigorous programs and innovative online teaching capabilities to distance learners, working professionals, high school students, college students, and those seeking higher learning in retirement.
So You Want to be a Learning and Development Project Manager?
There are a few things you need to know before you start looking for a job as a learning and development project manager.
Before you start looking for a job as a learning and development project manager, there are a few things you should know. This role isn’t just any project management position. Employers will prioritize candidates who have specific skills and knowledge.
First, as you may expect, you must have knowledge and experience in fundamental project management methodologies and practices. You’ll also need strong communication skills and a growing list of technical and analytical abilities. Finally, you’ll want to have a perspective on learning and development production to facilitate project success.
What Does A Learning And Development Project Manager Do?
Project Managers in the learning industry have rewarding, flexible roles that often include significant responsibilities. They may manage the design, development, and delivery of a single project, training, or course. Some are responsible for the lifecycle of entire programs or portfolios of L&D solutions.
L&D project manager responsibilities may include:
• tracking budgets • hiring contractors • planning and facilitating important meetings • negotiating contracts • setting up PM and communication software • establishing and optimizing processes • creating progress and performance dashboards
Professionals in this role go by many titles. You might see job postings for Program Manager, a Director of Project, Dev Ops Coordinator, and more.
Ultimately, The role of the project manager or PM is to oversee projects. It is their responsibility to make sure training, program, courses, and other projects are completed on time and on budget.
What 3 Skills Do You Need To Be A Great PM?
There are three main skills needed to be a learning industry Project Manager: strategic communication, tracking and process optimization, and industry and business acumen. Over the course of your career, you’ll rely on experience, professional development and upskilling to continuously improve all three. You’ll want to conduct regular check-ins on your strengths, gaps, and areas for growth.
1. Strategic Communication
This is the core of everything a PM does. You will be expected to interact with team members and stakeholders at all levels and across organizations. Strategic communication includes identifying the purpose or goal, then connecting it to organizational or business outcomes.
You’ll have to ask targeted questions, synthesize information and inputs from various stakeholders, and communicate updates. Stakeholders will rely on you to frame information and facilitate conversations to drive decisions.
Strategic communication is part emotional intelligence, part business acumen, and part written and speaking communication ability. We often see professionals with a Bachelor’s degree in Communications, Journalism, or Business Administration as top candidates.
2. Tracking and process optimization are an essential skill in an L&D PM toolkit.
You’ll be responsible for establishing project plans, creating project schedules and milestones, and tracking budgets. Team members will expect you to help them reach their goals by removing barriers, keeping stakeholders updated, and always controlling for cost, time, and quality.
In addition to this lengthy list of responsibilities, you may also need to set up PM and communication tools, channels and dashboards. Your task is not just to establish processes, but to optimize them. To make all this possible, you need experience with or a willingness to learn project management software like Monday.com, Smartsheets, or Microsoft Project.
3. Hiring managers strongly prefer candidates with learning industry experience.
This enables PM’s to anticipate challenges and team needs, acting proactively rather than responsively.
When you know the learning industry, you know that an agile or waterfall method alone does not work throughout the whole design and development process. You understand where to cushion the budget or timeline, and where collaboration and hand-offs can break down.
Many professionals attain this insight while working in adjacent roles. They may transition from an instructional designer role into a PM role. Others start out as a project coordinator, or on other related paths.
General business knowledge is also a strong differentiator. We see many exceptional project managers with a background in business administration and or a PMP certification. Both of these avenues provide essential knowledge, methodologies and skills to serve a team and organization strategically. PM’s with business acumen are able to strategically control for organizational goals within budget and time.
If you have learning industry experience, but need to strengthen your business knowledge, you might want to consider earning an MBA.
Who Hires Learning And Development Project Managers?
PMs are in highest demand in product as a service organizations, such as education content companies and training and development service providers. Companies in the business of developing courses or learning materials may have a team of PMs working at various levels.
You could also work for a corporation, college, university, or school district. An individual high school or elementary school is unlikely to reach a volume that needs PMs.
PM jobs in corporate learning and development are harder to find. These organizations probably have just one PM responsible for L&D, if they have any at all.
Find Your Level
Complex and service organizations need more people to oversee projects. These organizations might have PMs at multiple levels with varying areas of responsibility.
Associate Project Manager
An associate PM supports the work of the PM or Senior PM. You may be entrusted with one part of the PM responsibilities. For example, it may be your job to assign work or to manage the budget. If you’ve never worked as a PM or your experience comes from another industry, you may start as an associate.
A PM oversees a project or projects. They may direct the work of associates or team members, but ultimate responsibility for project success falls on them. To land this role, you need to demonstrate functional experience and sound methodology in leading digital learning projects. A PMP or other certification is very helpful.
Senior Project Manager or Director of Project Management
These executive level roles may require more business development, finance management, and relationship management expertise. If you’re looking for a senior or director level position, you’re already a proven PM. You should also have experience in finance and dashboard creation.
Would You Be A Good Digital Learning Project Manager?
PM roles are perfect for people who are organized and like to communicate. As a digital learning project manager, you can make an impact in the lives of others.
You don’t have to be an expert in software development, content creation or instructional design and technology. You do need the skills to do the job and a passion for supporting learning. You’ll excel if you can think deeply about relationship building and operations.
In senior level positions, knowledge of finance is essential. Managing costs and margins will be a large part of your job.
Education Level Requirements
You’ll almost certainly need at least a bachelor’s degree to become a digital learning project manager. A degree in communication, instructional design or business administration will be most attractive to employers. Some employers will look for master’s degrees. Others will expect you to be certified in project management.
Valuable certifications include: • Project Management Professional (PMP) • Certified Scrum Master (CSM) • Certified Six Sigma Black Belt or Green Belt • Certified Associate in Project Management
Prepare For Your Job Search
To land a digital learning PM role, you need to highlight both your management experience and knowledge of the learning and development production process..
Check whether you can honestly add these skills to your resume:
• Process Engineering • Communication • Data Analysis • Program Management • Change Management • Needs Analysis • Resource Management • Budget and Financial management
Make sure to include any PM related certifications and leadership roles. Under each job you’ve held, include bullet points that prove you can communicate, manage, build relationships, and deliver results. Show employers that you understand the product life cycle in digital learning.
Teamed can help you find your next Digital Learning Project Manager role. Visit our job board or contact us today.
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PM College®, the project management training arm of PM Solutions, offers PMO training and project management courses and programs that are tailored to address skill gaps and improve the competency of your project personnel. We work directly with companies to provide engaging project management training programs that transform the way people work.
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HR Project Report on training and development
Tolulope J Ogunleye
Overtime, study had shown that to be relevant in any field of work there is need for continuous learning through training and development. The study is aimed at finding out the need for employees training and development in an organization. The need for improvement to change the phenomenon of low productivity and poor service delivery attributed to the employee’s in-adequate experience, calls for investigation on how effective training and development of employee can facilitate improved corporate performance using the banking industry as a field of discuss.. The study concluded that training and development brings about career growth for the employees and bankers thus the study recommended that all organization must do induction training at entry point into the banking sector.
Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So every modern management has to develop the organization through human resource development. Employee training is the important sub-system of human resource management. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. In other words training improves, changes, moulds the employee’s knowledge, skill, behavior, aptitude, and attitude towards the requirements of the job, and organization. While the former refers to training given it employees in the areas of operations, technical and allied areas, the latter refers to developing an employee in the areas of principles and techniques of management, administration, organization and allied areas .This paper aims to attempt the need of training and development programmes in respective organization and examine the methods and evolution of training programmes was discussed.
Interal Res journa Managt Sci Tech
Training plays an important role in the effectiveness of organizations and to the experience of people in work. Training has implications for productivity, health and safety at work and personal development. All organizations employing people need to train and develop their staff. Most organizations are cognizant of this requirement and invest effort and other resources in training. Indian organizations have realized the importance of training as a tool to achieve their strategic goals. It is not viewed by the organization as a cost any longer but as an investment on one of its most dynamic assets, namely, employees. Many organizations consider training as a strategic employee retention tool. It helps the organization create a smarter force capable of meeting any situation and challenges
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Top 5 Must Have Project Management Training Courses for Every Project Manager
Here are the top 5 project management training courses which are the must have for every project manager to excel at the workplace.
1. Project Management Skills Course (Certification)
This course is totally focused on special project management skills development which will enable you to deliver superior projects with greater quality.
2. Project Management Professional (PMP)
This course is geared towards becoming a project management professional to effectively manage every project in compliance with the Project Management Institute (PMI) Standards.
3. Project Management Office (PMO)
This course will teach you to effectively manage project management office strategically, and alignment to key beneficial strategies.
4. Advanced Project Management Certification
This course will equip you with the advanced project management skills which will help you successfully tackle the most complex project efficiently.
5. Project Risk Management Certification
This project management course is designed to help you find all kinds of risks involved during the course of project management.
Check our Project Management Courses
Technical Project Management Training Course
Project Commissioning Course
Project Assessment and Evaluation Course
Project Control Course
Project Quality Management
Project Administration Course
Lean Project Management Training
Decision Making in Project Management
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What is moscow prioritization.
MoSCoW prioritization, also known as the MoSCoW method or MoSCoW analysis, is a popular prioritization technique for managing requirements.
The acronym MoSCoW represents four categories of initiatives: must-have, should-have, could-have, and won’t-have, or will not have right now. Some companies also use the “W” in MoSCoW to mean “wish.”
What is the History of the MoSCoW Method?
Software development expert Dai Clegg created the MoSCoW method while working at Oracle. He designed the framework to help his team prioritize tasks during development work on product releases.
You can find a detailed account of using MoSCoW prioritization in the Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM) handbook . But because MoSCoW can prioritize tasks within any time-boxed project, teams have adapted the method for a broad range of uses.
How Does MoSCoW Prioritization Work?
Before running a MoSCoW analysis, a few things need to happen. First, key stakeholders and the product team need to get aligned on objectives and prioritization factors. Then, all participants must agree on which initiatives to prioritize.
At this point, your team should also discuss how they will settle any disagreements in prioritization. If you can establish how to resolve disputes before they come up, you can help prevent those disagreements from holding up progress.
Finally, you’ll also want to reach a consensus on what percentage of resources you’d like to allocate to each category.
With the groundwork complete, you may begin determining which category is most appropriate for each initiative. But, first, let’s further break down each category in the MoSCoW method.
Start prioritizing your roadmap
Moscow prioritization categories.
1. Must-have initiatives
As the name suggests, this category consists of initiatives that are “musts” for your team. They represent non-negotiable needs for the project, product, or release in question. For example, if you’re releasing a healthcare application, a must-have initiative may be security functionalities that help maintain compliance.
The “must-have” category requires the team to complete a mandatory task. If you’re unsure about whether something belongs in this category, ask yourself the following.
If the product won’t work without an initiative, or the release becomes useless without it, the initiative is most likely a “must-have.”
2. Should-have initiatives
Should-have initiatives are just a step below must-haves. They are essential to the product, project, or release, but they are not vital. If left out, the product or project still functions. However, the initiatives may add significant value.
“Should-have” initiatives are different from “must-have” initiatives in that they can get scheduled for a future release without impacting the current one. For example, performance improvements, minor bug fixes, or new functionality may be “should-have” initiatives. Without them, the product still works.
3. Could-have initiatives
Another way of describing “could-have” initiatives is nice-to-haves. “Could-have” initiatives are not necessary to the core function of the product. However, compared with “should-have” initiatives, they have a much smaller impact on the outcome if left out.
So, initiatives placed in the “could-have” category are often the first to be deprioritized if a project in the “should-have” or “must-have” category ends up larger than expected.
4. Will not have (this time)
One benefit of the MoSCoW method is that it places several initiatives in the “will-not-have” category. The category can manage expectations about what the team will not include in a specific release (or another timeframe you’re prioritizing).
Placing initiatives in the “will-not-have” category is one way to help prevent scope creep . If initiatives are in this category, the team knows they are not a priority for this specific time frame.
Some initiatives in the “will-not-have” group will be prioritized in the future, while others are not likely to happen. Some teams decide to differentiate between those by creating a subcategory within this group.
How Can Development Teams Use MoSCoW?
Although Dai Clegg developed the approach to help prioritize tasks around his team’s limited time, the MoSCoW method also works when a development team faces limitations other than time. For example:
Prioritize based on budgetary constraints.
What if a development team’s limiting factor is not a deadline but a tight budget imposed by the company? Working with the product managers, the team can use MoSCoW first to decide on the initiatives that represent must-haves and the should-haves. Then, using the development department’s budget as the guide, the team can figure out which items they can complete.
Prioritize based on the team’s skillsets.
A cross-functional product team might also find itself constrained by the experience and expertise of its developers. If the product roadmap calls for functionality the team does not have the skills to build, this limiting factor will play into scoring those items in their MoSCoW analysis.
Prioritize based on competing needs at the company.
Cross-functional teams can also find themselves constrained by other company priorities. The team wants to make progress on a new product release, but the executive staff has created tight deadlines for further releases in the same timeframe. In this case, the team can use MoSCoW to determine which aspects of their desired release represent must-haves and temporarily backlog everything else.
What Are the Drawbacks of MoSCoW Prioritization?
Although many product and development teams have prioritized MoSCoW, the approach has potential pitfalls. Here are a few examples.
1. An inconsistent scoring process can lead to tasks placed in the wrong categories.
One common criticism against MoSCoW is that it does not include an objective methodology for ranking initiatives against each other. Your team will need to bring this methodology to your analysis. The MoSCoW approach works only to ensure that your team applies a consistent scoring system for all initiatives.
Pro tip: One proven method is weighted scoring, where your team measures each initiative on your backlog against a standard set of cost and benefit criteria. You can use the weighted scoring approach in ProductPlan’s roadmap app .
2. Not including all relevant stakeholders can lead to items placed in the wrong categories.
To know which of your team’s initiatives represent must-haves for your product and which are merely should-haves, you will need as much context as possible.
For example, you might need someone from your sales team to let you know how important (or unimportant) prospective buyers view a proposed new feature.
One pitfall of the MoSCoW method is that you could make poor decisions about where to slot each initiative unless your team receives input from all relevant stakeholders.
3. Team bias for (or against) initiatives can undermine MoSCoW’s effectiveness.
Because MoSCoW does not include an objective scoring method, your team members can fall victim to their own opinions about certain initiatives.
One risk of using MoSCoW prioritization is that a team can mistakenly think MoSCoW itself represents an objective way of measuring the items on their list. They discuss an initiative, agree that it is a “should have,” and move on to the next.
But your team will also need an objective and consistent framework for ranking all initiatives. That is the only way to minimize your team’s biases in favor of items or against them.
When Do You Use the MoSCoW Method for Prioritization?
MoSCoW prioritization is effective for teams that want to include representatives from the whole organization in their process. You can capture a broader perspective by involving participants from various functional departments.
Another reason you may want to use MoSCoW prioritization is it allows your team to determine how much effort goes into each category. Therefore, you can ensure you’re delivering a good variety of initiatives in each release.
What Are Best Practices for Using MoSCoW Prioritization?
If you’re considering giving MoSCoW prioritization a try, here are a few steps to keep in mind. Incorporating these into your process will help your team gain more value from the MoSCoW method.
1. Choose an objective ranking or scoring system.
Remember, MoSCoW helps your team group items into the appropriate buckets—from must-have items down to your longer-term wish list. But MoSCoW itself doesn’t help you determine which item belongs in which category.
You will need a separate ranking methodology. You can choose from many, such as:
- Weighted scoring
- Value vs. complexity
- Opportunity scoring
For help finding the best scoring methodology for your team, check out ProductPlan’s article: 7 strategies to choose the best features for your product .
2. Seek input from all key stakeholders.
To make sure you’re placing each initiative into the right bucket—must-have, should-have, could-have, or won’t-have—your team needs context.
At the beginning of your MoSCoW method, your team should consider which stakeholders can provide valuable context and insights. Sales? Customer success? The executive staff? Product managers in another area of your business? Include them in your initiative scoring process if you think they can help you see opportunities or threats your team might miss.
3. Share your MoSCoW process across your organization.
MoSCoW gives your team a tangible way to show your organization prioritizing initiatives for your products or projects.
The method can help you build company-wide consensus for your work, or at least help you show stakeholders why you made the decisions you did.
Communicating your team’s prioritization strategy also helps you set expectations across the business. When they see your methodology for choosing one initiative over another, stakeholders in other departments will understand that your team has thought through and weighed all decisions you’ve made.
If any stakeholders have an issue with one of your decisions, they will understand that they can’t simply complain—they’ll need to present you with evidence to alter your course of action.
2×2 prioritization matrix / Eisenhower matrix / DACI decision-making framework / ICE scoring model / RICE scoring model
Prioritizing your roadmap using our guide
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Dr Adrian Campbell
International Development Department Senior Lecturer Convenor of Masters in Public Administration and Masters in Public Administration and Development
Adrian Campbell is an organizational theorist by background, with longstanding interests and experience in the associated fields of leadership and human resource management and he has researched, taught and consulted in these fields for over thirty years.
He is a strong believer in organizational analysis (primarily the interaction between the three factors of structure, power and culture and the between rational and non-rational motivation) rather than the prevailing fashion for institutional analysis.
In thirty years of research and consultancy he has applied this approach in a range of sectors - initially in mining and high technology UK industry, later in UK local government and then most substantially in local and regional government in transitional countries (the latter continuously throughout the period 1991-2011).
The experience of the contradictions involved in the reform of Russian federalism led him towards a preoccupation with the concept of empire which is now the main focus of his research.
The study of empire is approached in organizational terms, focusing on the interaction between vertical and horizontal structures of power.
- Staff details
- Media information
- B.A. Modern Languages Joint Honours (French and Russian) (Bristol, 1982) Dissertation on Negritude and Decolonisation
- PhD in Management (Brunel, 1986) Thesis on Technological Change and Coalmining Management
- Research Fellow at Henley Management College (1985-6),
- Researcher at London Business School (1986-7)
- Research Fellow, Aston Business School (1987-9)
- Visiting Fellow at Wissenschaftzentrum (International Institute of Management) Berlin (1987)
- Visiting British Council Fellow at the Institute for Professional Training at the Leningrad Engineering-Economics Institute (1991).
- Lecturer at University of Birmingham since 1989, Senior Lecturer since 1994.
- Department: INLOGOV (1989-86), IDD (since 1996). Associate of Centre for Russian and East European Studies (CREES) since 1991.
Adrian has overall responsibility for the Masters in Public Administration (MPA).
He convenes or jointly convenes six modules:
- Public Management & Leadership (compulsory for MPA and Human Resources pathway of Development Management Msc)
- Human Resources and the Global Challenge (compulsory for Human Resources pathway of Development Management Msc)
- Making Policy (with Fiona Nunan) (compulsory for MPA)
- Public Sector Reform and Development (with Simon Delay) optional module
- Public Management and Leadership (DL) optional module
- Public Sector Reform and Development (DL) optional module
Additional student activities: Organised one-week field trips for MPA and Development management (HR) students in groups ranging from 10 to 35: Moscow (2005), Budapest (2006), Marrakesh (2007), Berlin (2008), Bucharest (2009), Istanbul (2010, 2011), Berlin (2012), Vienna (2013), Baku (2013), Istanbul (2014), Berlin (2014), Vienna (2015), St Petersburg (2016), Vienna (2016) . The field trips consist of visits to governmental and other public agencies, including national, regional and local government, as well as visits to public administration research and teaching institutions.
- Laureate MPA programme, University of Roehampton, 2015-17
- PhD Muhammad Shahzad, Global Development Institute, University of Manchester, 2014
- Masters in Public Administration (MPA), London Metropolitan University 2007-2011
- Masters in Public Administration (MPA), Urals Academy of Public Administration, Ekaterinburg Russian Federation, 2007-11
- PhD M.Aminova , Faculty of Economic, Social and Political Science, Vrije Universiteit, Brussels. May, 2011.
He has been lead supervisor for the following PhDs (year of graduation in brackets):
- John Mwita (2004)
- Fikret Radjabov (2009)
- Alan Phelps (2010)
- Molefe Phirinyane (2011)
- Kashif Rathore (2012)
- Alexander Kalgin (2014)
- Amrit Rai (2015)
- Ourathai Yosinta (2016)
He was co-supervisor for the following
- Duncan Leitch (2014)
- Tutik Rachmawati (2015)
- Yogi Suwarno (2016)
He is currently the lead supervisor for the following PhD students:
- Sabarinath Krishnan
- Mohammad Roudo
- Deny Junanto
- Jungho Park
And co-supervisor for
His main research interest is in the interaction between vertical and horizontal structures of power, primarily in government and especially in territorial/local government.
This interest derived originally from his doctoral research nearly thirty years ago on the relations between functional and lateral management teams in difficult environments.
The main area in which this research was pursued was the relationship between central, regional and local governments in developing and transitional countries, in which he was engaged over a twenty-year period.
Over the last four years he has been researching the ways in which vertical and horizontal dimensions both complicate and help to clarify the study of empires both historically and in the present.
He is currently focusing on the relationship between modes of internal territorial organization of powerful states and their favoured mode of external geopolitical influence.
- IDD Admissions Tutor from 2015/6
- Director of Master in Public Administration since its inception in 2009
- Director of Public Service MBA (International), 2005-8
- School of Public Policy MBA Co-ordinator 2005-7
- Director of Masters in Public Administration and Development (distance learning) since its inception in 2005.
- IDD Welfare Tutor 2010-present
- Short Courses: Organised more than 50 short courses and study tours between 1992 and 2012, the most recent being for the Ho Chi Minh Academy of Public Administration
Project Management and Consultancy
Most of my administration has been related to donor-funded projects in transitional countries, of which I directed several, in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. All of the projects for which I had lead responsibility were funded by DfID, although as a consultant I worked on projects funded by other agencies. All the project work was contracted through the University of Birmingham.
The main DfID-funded projects (i.e. those worth more than £0.5m) that I directed were
- Economic Development Strategy for Lviv Region, Ukraine 2.5m, 2003-8.
- Russia- Advice to the City of Ekaterinburg, 0.7m 1999-2003
- Ukraine - Local and Regional Institutional Strengthening (1.5m) 1999-2002
- Kazakhstan- Support to MPA programme at KIMEP, Almaty (0.6m) 1996-9
In terms of administration and consultancy the following table lists on my activities for the University in transitional countries.
Work in Transitional Countries 1991-2016
A.Campbell (2016) Hinkley project offers a lesson in how not to deal with China, The Conversation, 16 September, 2016. https://theconversation.com/hinkley-c-power-project-offers-a-lesson-in-how-not-to-deal-with-china-6357
Campbell (2016) Decentralization and Localism: beyond Saxons and Normans? In Regional Innovations 1:2016. Pages 5-12
Campbell (2016) ‘Imperialism' and 'Federalism': The Ambiguity of State and City in Russia, in U.Sadioglu and K. Dede(eds.) Handbook of Research on Comparative Politics and Reformation in Local Governments, Hershey, IGI Global, pp.354-373
Campbell, A. (2016) ‘The Whale and the Bear will never meet’ – but they did: Reflections on the Rivalry of the British and Russian Empires. In Britansky Mir: opyt politicheskogo, sotsial’nogo I kul’turnogo razvitiya’: materiali mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii , 24-5 Marta, Sankt Peterburg , Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Pages 81-90.
Campbell, A. (2015) ‘He’s back – but the power struggle around Vladimir Putin continues behind the scenes’, The Conversation, March 18 th . http://theconversation.com/hes-back-but-the-power-struggle-around-vladimir-putin-continues-behind-the-scenes-38868
Campbell, A. (2015) ‘In death, Boris Nemtsov embodies the hope of a better Russia’, The Conversation, March 2 nd . http://theconversation.com/in-death-boris-nemtsov-embodies-the-hope-of-a-better-russia-38242
Campbell, A., & Coulson, A. (2006). Into the mainstream: Local democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. Local Government Studies , 32(5), 543-561.
Campbell, A. (2006). State versus society? Local government and the reconstruction of the Russian state. Local Government Studies , 32(5), 659-676.
Campbell, A. (2007). The great chessboard: Federalism and localism in Putin's Russia. Local Government Studies , 33(5), 761-772.
Denezhkina, E. and Campbell, A. (2009) The struggle for power in the Urals, in C.Ross and A.Campbell (eds.) Federalism and local politics in Russia, London, Routledge, 207-226
Campbell, A. (2009) Vertical or triangle? Local, regional and federal government in the Russian Federation after Law 131, in C.Ross and A.Campbell (eds.) Federalism and local politics in Russia, London, Routledge, 263-283
Nunan, F., Campbell, A., & Foster, E. (2012). Environmental mainstreaming: the organizational challenges of policy integration. Public Administration and Development , 32(3), 262-277.
Campbell, A. (2013) East, West Rome’s Best? The ‘imperial turn’ Global Discourse , 2013, Vol. 3, No. 1, 34–47. Also published in R.Foster. M.Johnson and M. Edward (eds.) The Crisis of the Twenty-First Century: Empire in the Age of Austerity, Abingdon, Routledge, 2014 . Pages 34-47.
Campbell, A., Sorge, A. and Warner, M. (1989) Microelectronic product applications in Great Britain and West Germany: Strategies, competence, and training. Avebury, Aldershot.
Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1992) New technology, skills and management: human resources in the market economy. Routledge, London,
Batley, R. and Campbell, A. (1992) The political executive: politicians and management in European local government, Routledge, London
Coulson, A. and Campbell, A. (2008) Local government in Central and Eastern Europe: the rebirth of local democracy. Routledge, London
Ross, C. and Campbell, A. (2009) Federalism and Local Politics in Russia, Routledge, London.
Journal Articles (refereed)
Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1985) Changes in the Balance of Power in the British Mineworkers' Union: an Analysis of National Top-office Elections, 1974-84. British Journal of Industrial Relations , Volume 23, Issue 1, pages 1–24, March 1985
Campbell, A., & Warner, M. (1985). Leadership in the miners' union: Arthur Scargill's rise to power'. Journal of General Management , 10(3), 4-22.
Campbell, A. (1986) 'Der innere Feind' : eine Rückschau auf den britischen Bergarbeiterstreik 1984/85 - 'The internal enemy ' : a retrospect to the British miners' strike 1984/85’. Prokla : Probleme des Klassenkampfs Vol. 16. 2, pages 133-153
Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1987) New technology, innovation and training: an empirical study of selected British firms. New Technology, Work and Employment Volume 2, Issue 2, March. pages 86-99.
Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1988) "Strategic choice, organisational changes, and training policies: case studies in high technology firms." Journal of General Management , 14(2): 56-77
Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1988) Workplace relations, skills-training and technological change at plant-Level. Relations industrielles , 43(1).
Campbell, A., & Warner, M. (1988). Microelectronics, skill shortages and training strategies: A study of selected British companies in the high-technology sector. Journal of General Management , 13(4), 5-32.
Campbell, A., Sorge, A. and Warner, M. (1989) Microelectronics applications, product strategies and competence needs in Great Britain and West Germany. Human Systems Management 8.2 . 155-166.
Campbell, A., & Warner, M. (1989). Training practices and product strategy in high technology enterprises. Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems , 2(1), 38-48.
Campbell, A., Sorge, A., & Warner, M. (1990). Technological change, product strategies and human resources: defining Anglo-German differences. Journal of General Management , 15(3), 39-54.
Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1991) New technology, skills-training and union involvement. Business and Economics Review 6:37-44.
Campbell, A. (1992). Democracy versus efficiency. The conflict between representative and executive rule in Russian local government 1991-92. Administrative Studies , 4, 210-218.
Campbell, A. (1992). The restructuring of local government in Russia. Public Money & Management , 12(4), 19-24.
Campbell, A. (1993). Local government policymaking and management in Russia. Policy Studies Journal , 21(1), 133-142.
Warner, M., Denezhkina, E. and Campbell, A. (1994) How Russian managers learn . Journal of General Management , 19(4): 69-88
Campbell, A. (2006) Mestnoye samoupravleniye v Rossii: udet lu sblizheniye s Evropoi ? Institutionali’niy, pravovoi I ekonomicheskiy federalism v Rossisskoi Federatsii. Ezhekvartal’niy Byulleten’ no. 5 (June) 58-64
Campbell, A. (2013) East, West Rome’s Best? The ‘imperial turn’ Global Discourse , 2013, Vol. 3, No. 1, 34–47
Chapters in Books
Campbell, A. (2016) ‘The Whale and the Bear will never meet’ – but they did: Reflections on the Rivalry of the British and Russian Empires. In Britansky Mir: opyt politicheskogo, sotsial’nogo I kul’turnogo razvitiya’: materiali mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii , 24-5 Marta, Sankt Peterburg , Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Pages 81-90.
Campbell, A., Currie, W. and Warner, M. (1989) "Innovation, skills and training: micro-electronics and manpower in the United Kingdom and West Germany." In Hirst, P. and Zeitlin, J. (eds.): Reversing industrial decline? Industrial structure and policy in Britain and her competitors. Oxford: Berg, pp.133-154
Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1989) "Organizations for new forms of operation." In Wild, R. (ed.): International handbook of production and operations management. London: Cassell, pp.567-583
Campbell, A., & Warner, M. (1990). Managing Advanced Manufacturing Technology. In Warner, M., Wobbe, W. and Brodner, P. (eds.) (1990) New technology and manufacturing management: strategic choices for flexible production systems. Chichester: Wiley
Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1990) Management roles and skills for new technology, in R.Wild (ed.), Technology management, London, Cassell, 111-121.
Campbell, A., Sorge, A. and Warner, M. (1990) "Manufacturing products with microelectronics: sectoral strengths and the social construction of actors in Britain and Germany." In Appelbaum, E. and Schettkat, R. (eds.): Labor market adjustments to structural change and technological progress. New York: Praeger, pp.163-179
Campbell, A., & Warner, M. (1991). Training Strategies and Microelectronics in the Engineering Industries of the UK and Germany. International Comparisions of Vocational Education and Training for Intermediate Skills. London: Falmer, 146-58.
Campbell, A. and Warner, M. (1992) "Management roles, skills, and structures for advanced manufacturing technology." In Phillips, F.Y. (ed.): Thinkwork: working, learning, and managing in a computer-interactive society. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, pp.99-113
Warner, M. and Campbell, A. (1993) "German management." In Hickson, D. (ed.): Management in Western Europe: society, culture and organization in twelve nations. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp.89-108
Campbell, A. (1995) Local government in Romania, in A.Coulson (ed.) Local Government in Eastern Europe: establishing democracy at the grassroots, Aldershot, Edward Elgar 76-101
Campbell, A. (1995) Regional power in the Russian Federation, in A.Coulson (ed.) Local Government in Eastern Europe: establishing democracy at the grassroots, Aldershot, Edward Elgar 145-170
Campbell, A. (1995) Regional and local government in Ukraine, in A.Coulson (ed.) Local Government in Eastern Europe: establishing democracy at the grassroots, Aldershot, Edward Elgar 115-127
Campbell, A. (1995) Power and structure in Nizhnii Novgorod, St Petersburg and Moscow, in A.Coulson (ed.) Local Government in Eastern Europe: establishing democracy at the grassroots, Aldershot, Edward Elgar 238-263
Campbell, A. (1996). City government in Russia. In P.Hanson and J.Gibson (eds.) Transformation from below: local power and the political economy of post-communist transitions (Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 1996), 37-55
Campbell, A. (1996). Local government and the centre in Romania and Moldova'. In P.Hanson and J.Gibson (eds.) Transformation from below: local power and the political economy of Post-Communism. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 73-112.
Campbell, A. (1997) Russia, the reinvention of local government, in N.Ben-Elia (ed.) Strategic changes and organizational reorientations in local government: a cross-national perspective. London, Macmillan. Pages 135-157.
Campbell, A. (1997) Fayol, Henri In Sorge, A. and Warner, M. (eds.) International encyclopaedia of business and management. London, International Thomson Business Press 597-602.
Campbell, A. (1997) Maslow, Abraham in Warner, M. (ed.)International encyclopaedia of business and management. London, International Thomson Business Press, 651-4.
Campbell, A. (1998) Etzioni, Amitai in Warner, M. (ed.) The IEBM handbook of management thinking. London,International Thomson Business Press, 180-3.
Campbell, A. (1998) Foucault, Michel in Warner, M. (ed.) The IEBM handbook of management thinking. London: International Thomson Business Press, 220-4.
Campbell, A. (2000) Management in Romania in M.Warner (ed.) The IEBM Regional Encyclopedia of Business and Management: Europe. London, Thomson Learning, 319-28.
Campbell, A. (2000) Deyaki aspekti mistsevogo samovryaduvanniya u Velikiy Britaniy in Koval’chuk, B. et al. (eds) Problemi malikh mist Ukraini. Lviv, Derzhavnist. Pp 178-181.
Published Consultancy Reports
Campbell, A. (1989) Industrial Relations in Small and Medium-Sized Firms: the case of the United Kingdom. In P.Auer and H. Fehr-Duda (eds.) Industrial relations in small and medium-sized firms: evidence from six countries: Final Report. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1989,. ISBN 92-826-0109-9. Pages 251-287.
Campbell, A. (1990) The corporate centre: private sector models? Local Government Training Board.
Campbell, A. Sinclair, C., Howl, D. and Kennaby, D. (1991) The role of the centre: the need for review. Local Government Management Board, Luton.
Campbell, A. (1992) The Battleground Model of Workforce Adjustment: United Kingdom in P. Auer (ed.) Workforce Adjustment Patterns, Workforce adjustment patterns in four countries: experiences in the steel and automobile industry in France, Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1992. Pages. 243-281.
Leach, S., Clarke, M., Campbell, A., Davis, H. and Rogers, S. (1994) More than the sum of its parts. Managing services: leading communities. Report of an LGMB sponsored research project.
Davey, K. and Campbell, A. (1996) Eastern Europe, in D.Pasteur (ed.) Other people’s local government, Local Government Management Board. 15-18
Prince, L., Campbell, A. and Nanton (1997) Training for health and safety enforcement, contract research report 155/1997. HSE Books.
Gaster, L. and Campbell, A. (1999) At the local level. How local government works in Russia and the UK. Case studies in decentralisation and local democracy. Know How Fund, Moscow City Government. ISBN 0-7044-85117.
Campbell, A. (2000) Public Administration and Social Protection chapter of DRN consulting An evaluation of the Tacis country programme in Russia. Volume 2, Horizontal and sectoral issues. Brussels, European Union. ec.europa.eu/.../evaluation/evaluation.../tacis/951500_annex_en.pdf. pages 34-64
Campbell, A. and Green, L.T. (2004) Making Choices about Sub-national Engagement in Large Countries for Poverty Reduction and Growth, Department for International Development
Brunat, E., Campbell, A., Soos, C. and Rekunov, I. (2007) Programmy podgotovki magistrov gosudarstvennogo upravleniya (MPA) in E.Brunat et al. (eds.) Kaliningrad Oblast: towards regional MBA/MPA programmes, Book 2. Kaliningrad, Kant State University Publishing House, 3-15
Thomson, B., Campbell, A., Shishkin, S. and Onischenko, V. (2007) Evaluation of DFID country programmes: country study Russia 2001-5. DfID Evaluation Report, June.
Official Documents (A. Campbell named as contributor).
European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission) Opinion on the Draft Constitution of the Chechen Republic, Opinion no. 231/2003. CDL-AD (2003) 2. Strasbourg, 17 March 2003. Adopted by the Venice Commission at its 54th Plenary Meeting (Venice, 14-15 March 2003)
Ekaterinburg City Administration, Strategic Plan of Ekaterinburg, adopted by Ekaterinburg city Duma 10 June, 2003.
Council of Europe Directorate General of Democracy and Political Affairs, Directorate of Democratic Institutions Consolidated appraisal report on the draft law on local self-government in the Chechen Republic. PCRED/DGI/EXP(2005) 50. Strasbourg, 20 September 2005
Council of Europe Directorate General of Democracy and Political Affairs, Directorate of Democratic Institutions Appraisal Report on “The national programme of reform and development of the housing and municipal economy for 2007-11” of Ukraine. CEAD 20460. Strasbourg, 29 November, 2007.
Union of Cities and Local Government Global Observatory Report on Decentralisation, Barcelona, 2008 (for the Eurasia Chapter).
Council of Europe Directorate General of Democracy and Political Affairs, Directorate of Democratic Institutions. Appraisal of the concept paper and draf law on the administrative-territorial reform of Ukraine. DPA/LEX 1/2009. Strasbourg. February, 2009
Official commentaries for the Council of Europe for internal publication
A. Campbell ‘Comments on local self-government legislation of Kaluga and Tambov Regions’, presented at round table on regional legislation in the field of division of powers between levels of public authority, Ministry of Economy and Development, Moscow, 13 April, 2005
A. Campbell ‘Comments on Novosibirsk Regional legislation on local self-government, Council of Europe/Presidential Administration working group , Alexander House, Moscow, 1 February, 2005.
A. Campbell, ‘Comments on the draft Federal Law on Amendments to Articles 2,11,83, 84 and 85 of the Federal Law ‘On the General Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation’. Council Of Europe. December, 2004.
A. Campbell, 'Comments on the Draft Law on Amendments to Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation', presented at Joint Working Group on Sectoral Legislation in the fields of Education, Health and Social Policy, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 7-8 June, 2004.
A. Campbell 'The New Federalism: Declaration or Reality?" presented at round table of same title, Gorbachev Foundation, Moscow, 2 February, 2004.
A. Campbell ‘Comments on the Amendments to the Budget Code and Tax Codes, and the Law on Municipal property of the Russian Federation, presented at working group on Russian Federal reforms, Strasbourg, December, 2003.
A. Campbell ‘Comments on local self-government and state administration in Ukraine’, published proceedings of conference of Presidential Foundation for Local Self Government, Verkhovnaya Rada, Kyiv, June, 2003.
A. Campbell and E. Denezhkina, Comments on the ‘Analytical conclusions on the draft strategic plan of Ekaterinburg up to 2015’ prepared by the Deputy Chair of the Oblast Government and delivered to the City Duma of Ekaterinburg on 23 April, 2003’. Published on API web-site (in Russian). 28 April, 2003.
A. Campbell ‘Comments on the draft Law on ‘General Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation’, Council of Europe, 29 October, 2002.
A. Campbell. ‘Comments on the draft Russian Federation law ‘On the Militia’, Strasbourg, May, 2002.
A. Campbell ‘Comments on the Concept of Federal Legislation in the Field of Environmental Security’ Presented at Conference on the Division of Competences between Levels of Government, organised by the Federal Commission on the Distribution of Powers between Levels of Power in the Russian Federation, and the Council of Europe, Tauride Palace, St Petersburg, 22-3 April, 2002.
A. Campbell and E. Denezhkina ‘Comments on the Federal Law ‘On in the Sanitary-Epidemiological Service of the Russian Federation’, Council of Europe, December, 2001.
Campbell, A. (2016) Hinkley project offers a lesson in how not to deal with China, The Conversation, 16 September, 2016. https://theconversation.com/hinkley-c-power-project-offers-a-lesson-in-how-not-to-deal-with-china-6357
Campbell, A. (2015) ‘In death, Boris Nemtsov embodies the hope of a better Russia’, The Conversation, March 2 nd . http://theconversation.com/in-death-boris-nemtsov-embodies-the-hope-of-a-better-russia-38242
Conference papers and presentations not listed – have been a regular contributor to the CREES conference, to the British Association for Slavonic and East European Studies (BASEES), the Association for the Study of Nationalities (ASN) conferences at the Harriman Institute and conferences of the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR).
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