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Writing Research Papers

  • Research Paper Structure

Whether you are writing a B.S. Degree Research Paper or completing a research report for a Psychology course, it is highly likely that you will need to organize your research paper in accordance with American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines.  Here we discuss the structure of research papers according to APA style.

Major Sections of a Research Paper in APA Style

A complete research paper in APA style that is reporting on experimental research will typically contain a Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References sections. 1  Many will also contain Figures and Tables and some will have an Appendix or Appendices.  These sections are detailed as follows (for a more in-depth guide, please refer to " How to Write a Research Paper in APA Style ”, a comprehensive guide developed by Prof. Emma Geller). 2

What is this paper called and who wrote it? – the first page of the paper; this includes the name of the paper, a “running head”, authors, and institutional affiliation of the authors.  The institutional affiliation is usually listed in an Author Note that is placed towards the bottom of the title page.  In some cases, the Author Note also contains an acknowledgment of any funding support and of any individuals that assisted with the research project.

One-paragraph summary of the entire study – typically no more than 250 words in length (and in many cases it is well shorter than that), the Abstract provides an overview of the study.


What is the topic and why is it worth studying? – the first major section of text in the paper, the Introduction commonly describes the topic under investigation, summarizes or discusses relevant prior research (for related details, please see the Writing Literature Reviews section of this website), identifies unresolved issues that the current research will address, and provides an overview of the research that is to be described in greater detail in the sections to follow.

What did you do? – a section which details how the research was performed.  It typically features a description of the participants/subjects that were involved, the study design, the materials that were used, and the study procedure.  If there were multiple experiments, then each experiment may require a separate Methods section.  A rule of thumb is that the Methods section should be sufficiently detailed for another researcher to duplicate your research.

What did you find? – a section which describes the data that was collected and the results of any statistical tests that were performed.  It may also be prefaced by a description of the analysis procedure that was used. If there were multiple experiments, then each experiment may require a separate Results section.

What is the significance of your results? – the final major section of text in the paper.  The Discussion commonly features a summary of the results that were obtained in the study, describes how those results address the topic under investigation and/or the issues that the research was designed to address, and may expand upon the implications of those findings.  Limitations and directions for future research are also commonly addressed.

List of articles and any books cited – an alphabetized list of the sources that are cited in the paper (by last name of the first author of each source).  Each reference should follow specific APA guidelines regarding author names, dates, article titles, journal titles, journal volume numbers, page numbers, book publishers, publisher locations, websites, and so on (for more information, please see the Citing References in APA Style page of this website).

Tables and Figures

Graphs and data (optional in some cases) – depending on the type of research being performed, there may be Tables and/or Figures (however, in some cases, there may be neither).  In APA style, each Table and each Figure is placed on a separate page and all Tables and Figures are included after the References.   Tables are included first, followed by Figures.   However, for some journals and undergraduate research papers (such as the B.S. Research Paper or Honors Thesis), Tables and Figures may be embedded in the text (depending on the instructor’s or editor’s policies; for more details, see "Deviations from APA Style" below).

Supplementary information (optional) – in some cases, additional information that is not critical to understanding the research paper, such as a list of experiment stimuli, details of a secondary analysis, or programming code, is provided.  This is often placed in an Appendix.

Variations of Research Papers in APA Style

Although the major sections described above are common to most research papers written in APA style, there are variations on that pattern.  These variations include: 

  • Literature reviews – when a paper is reviewing prior published research and not presenting new empirical research itself (such as in a review article, and particularly a qualitative review), then the authors may forgo any Methods and Results sections. Instead, there is a different structure such as an Introduction section followed by sections for each of the different aspects of the body of research being reviewed, and then perhaps a Discussion section. 
  • Multi-experiment papers – when there are multiple experiments, it is common to follow the Introduction with an Experiment 1 section, itself containing Methods, Results, and Discussion subsections. Then there is an Experiment 2 section with a similar structure, an Experiment 3 section with a similar structure, and so on until all experiments are covered.  Towards the end of the paper there is a General Discussion section followed by References.  Additionally, in multi-experiment papers, it is common for the Results and Discussion subsections for individual experiments to be combined into single “Results and Discussion” sections.

Departures from APA Style

In some cases, official APA style might not be followed (however, be sure to check with your editor, instructor, or other sources before deviating from standards of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association).  Such deviations may include:

  • Placement of Tables and Figures  – in some cases, to make reading through the paper easier, Tables and/or Figures are embedded in the text (for example, having a bar graph placed in the relevant Results section). The embedding of Tables and/or Figures in the text is one of the most common deviations from APA style (and is commonly allowed in B.S. Degree Research Papers and Honors Theses; however you should check with your instructor, supervisor, or editor first). 
  • Incomplete research – sometimes a B.S. Degree Research Paper in this department is written about research that is currently being planned or is in progress. In those circumstances, sometimes only an Introduction and Methods section, followed by References, is included (that is, in cases where the research itself has not formally begun).  In other cases, preliminary results are presented and noted as such in the Results section (such as in cases where the study is underway but not complete), and the Discussion section includes caveats about the in-progress nature of the research.  Again, you should check with your instructor, supervisor, or editor first.
  • Class assignments – in some classes in this department, an assignment must be written in APA style but is not exactly a traditional research paper (for instance, a student asked to write about an article that they read, and to write that report in APA style). In that case, the structure of the paper might approximate the typical sections of a research paper in APA style, but not entirely.  You should check with your instructor for further guidelines.

Workshops and Downloadable Resources

  • For in-person discussion of the process of writing research papers, please consider attending this department’s “Writing Research Papers” workshop (for dates and times, please check the undergraduate workshops calendar).

Downloadable Resources

  • How to Write APA Style Research Papers (a comprehensive guide) [ PDF ]
  • Tips for Writing APA Style Research Papers (a brief summary) [ PDF ]
  • Example APA Style Research Paper (for B.S. Degree – empirical research) [ PDF ]
  • Example APA Style Research Paper (for B.S. Degree – literature review) [ PDF ]

Further Resources

How-To Videos     

  • Writing Research Paper Videos

APA Journal Article Reporting Guidelines

  • Appelbaum, M., Cooper, H., Kline, R. B., Mayo-Wilson, E., Nezu, A. M., & Rao, S. M. (2018). Journal article reporting standards for quantitative research in psychology: The APA Publications and Communications Board task force report . American Psychologist , 73 (1), 3.
  • Levitt, H. M., Bamberg, M., Creswell, J. W., Frost, D. M., Josselson, R., & Suárez-Orozco, C. (2018). Journal article reporting standards for qualitative primary, qualitative meta-analytic, and mixed methods research in psychology: The APA Publications and Communications Board task force report . American Psychologist , 73 (1), 26.  

External Resources

  • Formatting APA Style Papers in Microsoft Word
  • How to Write an APA Style Research Paper from Hamilton University
  • WikiHow Guide to Writing APA Research Papers
  • Sample APA Formatted Paper with Comments
  • Sample APA Formatted Paper
  • Tips for Writing a Paper in APA Style

1 VandenBos, G. R. (Ed). (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) (pp. 41-60).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

2 geller, e. (2018).  how to write an apa-style research report . [instructional materials]. , prepared by s. c. pan for ucsd psychology.

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10+ Experimental Research Examples in PDF | DOC

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experimental research design example

1. Identify the Problem

2. design the experiment, 3. test the hypothesis, 4. publish the findings, more design, free 59+ proposal examples, 9+ research project plan examples, 6+ quantitative analysis examples, examples of writing a school report examples, 43+ proposal examples, free 10+ best medical proposal examples & templates, 9+ consumer decision making process example & templates, 10+ marketing brief examples, free outlines, 11+ medicare coverage analysis examples, 4+ project proposal outline examples, free 19+ work estimate examples & templates.


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Quality of SPSS lab project reports The important aspects in judging quality will be: 

1. development of the research question and literature review* 2. creativity of the design (be sure to cite reference if you borrow from an existing design) 3. reporting of results (APA style tables and figures)  4. drawing conclusions from the findings* 5. quality of writing

*This means integrating the literature (theories and opinions), offering explanations for resolving conflicting research findings, and drawing reasonable conclusions based on your research hypotheses.

  • Grammar/proofreading: It is imperative that the papers be grammatically correct and edited carefully. You must include a definitive title and a half page abstract.
  • Length: The three lab project papers must be in APA style and no longer than  three SINGLE space pages (1500 words) including tables and figures (not including references). Note: Lab projects must be submitted to Sakai online.
  • Original sources: You will be expected to find original sources for your references. Secondary sources may be cited, but only rarely and only if the original is unavailable from the University of Maryland library system. 

Research Paper Format

The format described below is one that is used for essentially all research published in physics, astronomy, and engineering journals. This is the format you should use for your muon paper.

The major sections listed below are usually, but not always, included in an experimental research paper.

Title Pick a descriptive title.

Author List List of authors' names.

Date Date of submission of the paper.

Abstract The abstract is a brief summary of the paper. It is typically one paragraph long, and is a concise summary of what was done and the principal results. It may be assumed that the reader has some knowledge of the subject, but the abstract should be intelligible without reference to the paper. Don't cite sections, tables, or figures in the abstract. The title of the paper is part of the abstract, so the opening sentence should be framed without repetition of the title. Write the abstract after you have written the rest of the paper; then you know what the paper claims to do and does.

Introduction This section introduces the topic of your paper to the reader. It usually includes an historical overview with references to previous work The introduction might include any theoretical calculations or results that you will need later in the paper, althougjh many times detailed theoretical calculations are included in a separate theory section or in an appendix. However, the most important purpose of the introduction is to descri e the objectves of your experiment.

Experimental Setup In this section you describe how the experiment was done and summarize the data taken. One typically describes the instruments and detectors used in this section. Describe the procedure followed to collect the data. If the experiment is complex, the procedure mght be described in a separate section.

Data Collection This is where you include the date you took the data. Put the data in tabular form if appropriate. This section and the Experimental Setup sections can be combined for short papers.

Data Analysis In this section you use the theory developed in the introduction to analyze the data.

Results and Discussion This section is the real meat of the paper. This is where you present and interpret your results. You may wish to break this (or any other section) into subsections if it makes the paper clearer. In this section you should interpret your results in light of theory and other information contained in the Introduction section. This is where you would compare your result with theory or other observations. Describe how the result fits or doesn't fit current models. This could be combined with the Data Analysis section for papers where the data analysis is straightforward.

Conclusion No new information is presented here. Briefly summarize your main results and draw conclusions from them. Do your results confirm or deny current models or theories? If appropriate, suggest observations that might resolve issues your observations weren't able to resolve. Often the abstract and conclusion are the only part of the paper that a casual reader will read.

Acknowlegements Acknowledge those who helped your authors.

Appendices Include an appendix if you wish to derie an important result or describe an aspect of the experiment that isn't appropriate to include in the main part of the text.

Enago Academy

Experimental Research Design — 6 mistakes you should never make!

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Since school days’ students perform scientific experiments that provide results that define and prove the laws and theorems in science. These experiments are laid on a strong foundation of experimental research designs.

An experimental research design helps researchers execute their research objectives with more clarity and transparency.

In this article, we will not only discuss the key aspects of experimental research designs but also the issues to avoid and problems to resolve while designing your research study.

Table of Contents

What Is Experimental Research Design?

Experimental research design is a framework of protocols and procedures created to conduct experimental research with a scientific approach using two sets of variables. Herein, the first set of variables acts as a constant, used to measure the differences of the second set. The best example of experimental research methods is quantitative research .

Experimental research helps a researcher gather the necessary data for making better research decisions and determining the facts of a research study.

When Can a Researcher Conduct Experimental Research?

A researcher can conduct experimental research in the following situations —

  • When time is an important factor in establishing a relationship between the cause and effect.
  • When there is an invariable or never-changing behavior between the cause and effect.
  • Finally, when the researcher wishes to understand the importance of the cause and effect.

Importance of Experimental Research Design

To publish significant results, choosing a quality research design forms the foundation to build the research study. Moreover, effective research design helps establish quality decision-making procedures, structures the research to lead to easier data analysis, and addresses the main research question. Therefore, it is essential to cater undivided attention and time to create an experimental research design before beginning the practical experiment.

By creating a research design, a researcher is also giving oneself time to organize the research, set up relevant boundaries for the study, and increase the reliability of the results. Through all these efforts, one could also avoid inconclusive results. If any part of the research design is flawed, it will reflect on the quality of the results derived.

Types of Experimental Research Designs

Based on the methods used to collect data in experimental studies, the experimental research designs are of three primary types:

1. Pre-experimental Research Design

A research study could conduct pre-experimental research design when a group or many groups are under observation after implementing factors of cause and effect of the research. The pre-experimental design will help researchers understand whether further investigation is necessary for the groups under observation.

Pre-experimental research is of three types —

  • One-shot Case Study Research Design
  • One-group Pretest-posttest Research Design
  • Static-group Comparison

2. True Experimental Research Design

A true experimental research design relies on statistical analysis to prove or disprove a researcher’s hypothesis. It is one of the most accurate forms of research because it provides specific scientific evidence. Furthermore, out of all the types of experimental designs, only a true experimental design can establish a cause-effect relationship within a group. However, in a true experiment, a researcher must satisfy these three factors —

  • There is a control group that is not subjected to changes and an experimental group that will experience the changed variables
  • A variable that can be manipulated by the researcher
  • Random distribution of the variables

This type of experimental research is commonly observed in the physical sciences.

3. Quasi-experimental Research Design

The word “Quasi” means similarity. A quasi-experimental design is similar to a true experimental design. However, the difference between the two is the assignment of the control group. In this research design, an independent variable is manipulated, but the participants of a group are not randomly assigned. This type of research design is used in field settings where random assignment is either irrelevant or not required.

The classification of the research subjects, conditions, or groups determines the type of research design to be used.

experimental research design

Advantages of Experimental Research

Experimental research allows you to test your idea in a controlled environment before taking the research to clinical trials. Moreover, it provides the best method to test your theory because of the following advantages:

  • Researchers have firm control over variables to obtain results.
  • The subject does not impact the effectiveness of experimental research. Anyone can implement it for research purposes.
  • The results are specific.
  • Post results analysis, research findings from the same dataset can be repurposed for similar research ideas.
  • Researchers can identify the cause and effect of the hypothesis and further analyze this relationship to determine in-depth ideas.
  • Experimental research makes an ideal starting point. The collected data could be used as a foundation to build new research ideas for further studies.

6 Mistakes to Avoid While Designing Your Research

There is no order to this list, and any one of these issues can seriously compromise the quality of your research. You could refer to the list as a checklist of what to avoid while designing your research.

1. Invalid Theoretical Framework

Usually, researchers miss out on checking if their hypothesis is logical to be tested. If your research design does not have basic assumptions or postulates, then it is fundamentally flawed and you need to rework on your research framework.

2. Inadequate Literature Study

Without a comprehensive research literature review , it is difficult to identify and fill the knowledge and information gaps. Furthermore, you need to clearly state how your research will contribute to the research field, either by adding value to the pertinent literature or challenging previous findings and assumptions.

3. Insufficient or Incorrect Statistical Analysis

Statistical results are one of the most trusted scientific evidence. The ultimate goal of a research experiment is to gain valid and sustainable evidence. Therefore, incorrect statistical analysis could affect the quality of any quantitative research.

4. Undefined Research Problem

This is one of the most basic aspects of research design. The research problem statement must be clear and to do that, you must set the framework for the development of research questions that address the core problems.

5. Research Limitations

Every study has some type of limitations . You should anticipate and incorporate those limitations into your conclusion, as well as the basic research design. Include a statement in your manuscript about any perceived limitations, and how you considered them while designing your experiment and drawing the conclusion.

6. Ethical Implications

The most important yet less talked about topic is the ethical issue. Your research design must include ways to minimize any risk for your participants and also address the research problem or question at hand. If you cannot manage the ethical norms along with your research study, your research objectives and validity could be questioned.

Experimental Research Design Example

In an experimental design, a researcher gathers plant samples and then randomly assigns half the samples to photosynthesize in sunlight and the other half to be kept in a dark box without sunlight, while controlling all the other variables (nutrients, water, soil, etc.)

By comparing their outcomes in biochemical tests, the researcher can confirm that the changes in the plants were due to the sunlight and not the other variables.

Experimental research is often the final form of a study conducted in the research process which is considered to provide conclusive and specific results. But it is not meant for every research. It involves a lot of resources, time, and money and is not easy to conduct, unless a foundation of research is built. Yet it is widely used in research institutes and commercial industries, for its most conclusive results in the scientific approach.

Have you worked on research designs? How was your experience creating an experimental design? What difficulties did you face? Do write to us or comment below and share your insights on experimental research designs!

Frequently Asked Questions

Randomization is important in an experimental research because it ensures unbiased results of the experiment. It also measures the cause-effect relationship on a particular group of interest.

Experimental research design lay the foundation of a research and structures the research to establish quality decision making process.

There are 3 types of experimental research designs. These are pre-experimental research design, true experimental research design, and quasi experimental research design.

The difference between an experimental and a quasi-experimental design are: 1. The assignment of the control group in quasi experimental research is non-random, unlike true experimental design, which is randomly assigned. 2. Experimental research group always has a control group; on the other hand, it may not be always present in quasi experimental research.

Experimental research establishes a cause-effect relationship by testing a theory or hypothesis using experimental groups or control variables. In contrast, descriptive research describes a study or a topic by defining the variables under it and answering the questions related to the same.

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Research Paper Outline

The research paper outline is essential for any article or term paper. The outline may make a great difference on how your work is interpreted.

This article is a part of the guide:

  • Outline Examples
  • Example of a Paper
  • Write a Hypothesis
  • Introduction

Browse Full Outline

  • 1 Write a Research Paper
  • 2 Writing a Paper
  • 3.1 Write an Outline
  • 3.2 Outline Examples
  • 4.1 Thesis Statement
  • 4.2 Write a Hypothesis
  • 5.2 Abstract
  • 5.3 Introduction
  • 5.4 Methods
  • 5.5 Results
  • 5.6 Discussion
  • 5.7 Conclusion
  • 5.8 Bibliography
  • 6.1 Table of Contents
  • 6.2 Acknowledgements
  • 6.3 Appendix
  • 7.1 In Text Citations
  • 7.2 Footnotes
  • 7.3.1 Floating Blocks
  • 7.4 Example of a Paper
  • 7.5 Example of a Paper 2
  • 7.6.1 Citations
  • 7.7.1 Writing Style
  • 7.7.2 Citations
  • 8.1.1 Sham Peer Review
  • 8.1.2 Advantages
  • 8.1.3 Disadvantages
  • 8.2 Publication Bias
  • 8.3.1 Journal Rejection
  • 9.1 Article Writing
  • 9.2 Ideas for Topics

Writing a research paper is as important as performing the actual research or experiment itself and can appear to be a very daunting task.

It does not matter what conclusions you arrived at or how perfect your experimentation was, if you put no effort into writing a good report then your study will not be taken seriously.

If you break report writing down into its constituent parts, it is not as complex as it seems and there is no reason to be worried. Scientific reports, for the vast majority of disciplines, are all structured in the same way; if you follow this structure then you cannot go far wrong.

It is useful to note that every scientific discipline, every university and even supervisors can have their own preferred methods of constructing reports; with this in mind, do not be afraid to ask for advice on the best research paper format for your report.

format of experimental research paper

Layout and Length

For most assessed reports you will be told how long it should be, generally by the number of words.

This is generally only a guide and is not set in stone; in most cases this limit does not include appendices and citation pages .

If you plan to write for a specific journal , a good advice is to check the research paper outline of some of the articles to get a better idea on how to write your article . Here are a few outline samples .

If your report is complex and strays over this limit, there should be no problem, as long as you have not repeated yourself or filled your work with irrelevant information. It is good practice to bear in mind that the appendix is there for any information that you feel could be omitted from the report without affecting the clarity.

Your report can be shorter than the advised word limit if everything that needs to be included is there. This is preferable than trying to pad out the report in order to fulfill some ‘word count' facility on the computer, risking being penalized for irrelevance.

For longer reports, it is useful to break each section down into subsections, to make your report more reader friendly and easier to navigate.

format of experimental research paper

Basic Structure

The vast majority of scientific reports can be broken down into the following constituent parts.

  • Title - Author(s)
  • Table of Contents
  • Equipment and Methodology
  • Results AND Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • References and Citations

Title and Authors

Although the title is the shortest page of your report, it is often the most difficult to write.

It is important to make clear to a researcher everything that needs saying but without the title being overlong and unwieldy. It does not have to be the first section written because, in many cases, the final title will not occur to you until you have finished writing the report.

Nowadays, most research establishments have a database to search titles by keyword so try to make sure that your title contains these. This is doubly important if your research is likely to be published on the internet.

The authors section should include your name, as the main writer of the report, alongside the name of your supervisor. In the case of working as part of a team, you should usually include the other members of your group here.

The abstract is the most crucial part of the report because anybody searching for your research on a database or in a journal will usually read only the abstract. Therefore, it must summarize your research, results and conclusions in less than 200 words.

Sometimes it is good to think of it as a sample of your research rather than a review ; it should inform the researcher that your article contains the information they need.

There are a few ideas on how to write your abstract but the best advice is that you look at some journals relevant to your research and try to format your abstract in a similar way.

This section and is merely a breakdown of sections and subsections by page number.

For a short and straightforward paper it may not be necessary to include a contents page .

This is not mandatory for a research paper.

This section of your report is where you will document all the painstaking research into the background of your experiment.

The main thing to bear in mind, when writing the introduction , is that a scientist who is unfamiliar with your exact subject matter may be reading the article.

It is important, therefore, to try and give a quick and condensed history of the research leading to your experiment, with correct citations .

You should also give a little background on why you chose to do this particular experiment and what you expect to find. It is a little ‘old-fashioned' to hypothesis statement at the beginning of the report but the reader should be aware of exactly what you are trying to prove.

For this portion of your report you must describe the methods used when performing the experiment. This should include, if relevant, the location and times of sample collection, what equipment was utilized, and the techniques used.

The idea behind the methodology section is that another researcher can exactly replicate your experiments without having to guess what equipment and what techniques should be used.

Scientific articles are peer reviewed and this includes the possibility that other researchers may try to replicate your results.

There have been many high profile scientific breakthroughs over the years whose results were unable to be repeated; these experiments were disregarded. For field studies you should give an exact map reference and time as well as including a map in the appendix .

If you used complex machinery or computer programs in the course of your experiment, to avoid breaking the flow of your report, you should give only the main information and refer to the exact technical specifications in the appendix.

These should be a quick synopsis of the facts, figures and statistical tests used to arrive at your final results.

You should try to avoid cluttering up your report and insert most of your raw data into the appendix.

It is far better to stick with including only tables and graphs that show clearly the results. Do not be tempted to insert large numbers of graphs and figures just for the sake of it; each figure and graph should be mentioned, referred to and discussed in the text.

Try to avoid putting in tables and graphs showing the same information; select the type that shows your results most clearly. It is usually preferable to use graphs and relegate the tables to the appendix because it is easier to show trends in graphical format.

Figures and graphs should be clear and occupy at least half a page; you are not a magazine editor trying to fit a small graph into an article.

All such information must be numbered, as diagrams for graphs and illustrations, and figures for tables; they should be referred to by this number in the body of the report.

You do not need to put the full breakdown of the calculations used for your statistical tests; most scientists hate statistics and are only interested in whether your results were significant or not. Relegate the calculations to the appendix.

The results section of your report should be neutral and you should avoid discussing your results or how they differed from or compared with what was expected. This information belongs in the next section.

This is the pivotal section of your hard work in obtaining and analyzing your results.

In your discussion you should seek to discuss your findings, and describe how they compared and differed from the results you expected. In a nutshell, you are trying to show whether your hypothesis was proved, not proved or inconclusive.

You must be extremely critical of yourself in this section; you will not get marked down for mistakes in experiment design or for poor results, only for not recognizing them.

Everybody who has written a dissertation or thesis has had to give a presentation to a room full of fellow students, scientists and professors and give a quick synopsis. These people will tear your report apart if you do not recognize its shortcomings and flaws.

Very few experiments are 100 per cent correct in their design and conception so it is not really important what your results were, only that you understand their significance .

Usually you will have had some promising results and some that did not fit with what you expected. Discuss why things may have gone wrong and what could be done to refine the results in future. Suggest what changes in experimental design might improve the results; there is no right or wrong in science, only progress.

Finally, you can discuss at the end ideas for further research, either refining the experiment or suggesting new areas. Even if your paper was a one off, somebody may come along and decide that they find your research interesting and that they would like to continue from where you left off.

Summary and Conclusion

This is really just a more elaborate version of the abstract .

In a few paragraphs you should summarize your findings . Your abstract will do most of this for you but, as long as you do not get carried away, especially for longer reports, it can help the reader absorb your findings a little more.

Include all of your direct references here, even if you only found a couple of sentences.

In the case where somebody referred to an original source, reference that too, but if you did not manage to get hold of it, try to rewrite so that you will not have to reference (or use "referred in"-citation).


Here it is polite to acknowledge anybody who helped you with this report, although do not go overboard; it is not an Oscar speech.

Your supervisor is a good start, as well as others who helped. If a landowner gave you permission to take samples then it is good practice to acknowledge them and give them a summary of your results, if permitted.

Appendices are very useful because they give you a place to dump raw data and calculations. They must still be laid out correctly; the data must be relevant and referred to in the main report.

If you have a lot of relevant photographs of sample sites and methods then they belong here. It is also useful to insert a Google map plan to show from where you took samples.

Final Thoughts

Hopefully this will have given you a good oversight into writing that perfect report. It is not as daunting as it seems and if you do your research and listen to your supervisor then all should be well and you can get a good grade.

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FREE 11+ Experimental Research Templates in PDF | MS Word

In the experimental research , the researcher manipulates the independent variables and measure the dependent variables in order to establish the cause and effect relationship between them. The independent variable is controlled by or set by the researcher. The dependent variable is measured by the researcher. The experiment is the prescribed set of conditions which allows measurement of the effects of the particular treatment.

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11+ experimental research templates in pdf | ms word, 1. experimental research design, 2. experimental research methods, 3. standards for experimental research, 4. experimental research template, 5. experimental research on democracy and development, 6. experimental research method, 7. experimental research data quality, 8. controlled environments experimental research, 9. sample experimental research method, 10. experimental research in information quality, 11. experimental research in doc, 12. experimental research and field experiment, how to conduct the experimental research, how can you characterise the experimental research.

experimental research design

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Experiment Research Papers Samples For Students

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What are the key objectives of the study? The key objective of the study is to guide the reader about all the aspects of the research processes, which mainly includes objective formulation, choosing appropriate research methods, securing participants of the research and data collection, analysis and interpretation.

What is the research problem?

Example of chernobyl research paper, the class name, main issues in the situation research paper samples.

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Biology and information technology holds many things in common. The two aspects deal with astounding complexity, organism representing biology and networks, computers representing technology. Experts have developed many innovations in the world today that focuses on solving different problems affecting the society. The following paper helps in naming and explaining how a specific scientific method helps solve the problem. The definitions of scientific and pseudoscientific bring many confusion and debates. Pseudoscience refers to the abuse of a certain claim that an individual does not like for any given reason. There exists a concrete difference between science and pseudoscience.

Strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific method

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Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to determine how light intensity affects rate of photosynthesis using seaweed. Introduction In the process of photosynthesis there is combination of water and CO2 from the environment to form oxygen and sugar, mainly glucose (Emeritus, 2010). These products are then used by the plant through the process of respiration producing water and carbon dioxide (Seeley, Stephens, & Tate, 2004).

It was hypothesized that the rate of photosynthesis as measured by the number of bubbles produced increased as light intensity increased.

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The goal of the paper was to investigate whether pharmacological treatment with the pan- Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonist bezafibrate would correct a deficiency of PPAR--coactivator 1α (PGC-1 α) and apply beneficial effects in a transgenic mouse having Huntington’s disease (HD). A number of mice with a deficiency of PGC-1 α were fed on a special diet comprising of bezafibrate and another group was left untreated. The mice were examined for a long period and then euthanized with CO2 inhalation. They died after some time and were dissected with several internal parts (brain, muscles, liver etc) being examined.

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Experimental research is a quantitative study design used by investigators to establish a cause-effect relationship. This can be done through a true or quasi-environment, which are different as discussed in this write-up.


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When a memory is created, it has to be stored, regardless of how briefly this would take place. Experts have established three forms of memory storage: first in the sensory stage, then in the short-term memory, and finally, in the long-term memory, even though the latter does not apply to all memories (Georg 2010). In the sensory memory, the person registers information and perception occurs at this stage. It takes minimal time in this memory. The sensory memory then encodes the information and categorizes them as either short or long-term memory.

The scenario

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The purpose of this experiment was two-fold. Firstly it was to synthesize shape-controllable Copper Oxide (Cu2O) under alkaline conditions by using hydrothermal methodology. Secondly it was to measure and evaluate its application for photocatalytic degradation of direct blue dye 53 also commonly known as Direct Blue 53 or Evans Blue. Materials used for the first step were Cu2O and the two reactants, CuCl2.2H2O and NaOH. The temperature during the hydrothermal process was raised from 80°C to 140°C. Two products were synthesized: a) the Cu2O nanorod and b) a mixture of Cu2O nanorod and Cu2O nanocubes.

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    It does not matter what conclusions you arrived at or how perfect your experimentation was, if you put no effort into writing a good report then your study will

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    In the experimental research, the researcher manipulates the independent variables and measure the dependent variables in order to establish the cause and

  14. Experiment Research Paper Examples That Really Inspire

    Experiment Research Papers Samples For Students. 407 samples of this type. If you're looking for an applicable method to streamline writing a Research Paper