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vedic mathematics research papers

Issue129 Research in Vedic Mathematics

​ Vedic Mathematics Newsletter No. 129

A warm welcome to our new subscribers.

Answers to the puzzles from the previous newsletter are: 2021 = 43 × 47; 2491 (=47×53); 119, 120

This issue’s article is by Kenneth Williams, newsletter editor, and is titled “Research in Vedic Mathematics”.

“ Research can be very worthwhile: it focuses the mind, expands creativity and, hopefully, leads to something useful.“



The Institute for the Advancement of Vedic Mathematics (IAVM) website is at instavm.org but please note it is being rebuilt and will be up and running sometime in March.

Four events are announced below.

Knowledge Series Webinars

Commencing 13 th March

A series of six free webinars throughout the year on mathematical understanding from ancient India and mathematical practices in diverse cultures.

13 th March

Exploring ancient Indian mathematics: From zero to infinity Prajakti Gokhale  

In this session, we will explore the journey of ancient Indian mathematics from Indian subcontinent to Europe. We will understand the timeline of ancient Indian texts and important contributions by Indian mathematicians. Prajakti will also demonstrate some key techniques and practical applications. The talk will conclude with views from mathematicians around the world on the merits of ancient Indian mathematics. Register here to attend.

Further talks will be announced on our website.

Masterclasses for IVMO

10 th , 11 th , 17 th , 18 th April

Continuing from last Autumn, four masterclasses will be given by James Glover dealing with further VM techniques in preparation for IVMO 2021. Topics covered: Squaring, Cubing, Coordinate Geometry, Combined Ratios, Scale Factors, Algebraic Division, Binomial Expansions.

  7 th Annual Online Conference

11 th – 12 th June

The conference will be held across two days. The first day will be given over to presentations of papers and presentations of how best to deliver mathematics online.

The second day will comprise free workshop sessions for students of different grades as well as teachers. Student workshops will include activities and puzzles together with a poetry competition. Further details will be sent in due course.

International Vedic Maths Olympiad (IVMO 2021)

11 th September

Postponed from 2020, IVMO 2021 will now take place in both online and paper format. Both formats have multiple choice formats. Further details will be sent to Regional Coordinators in due course. Please email us if you want to be a Regional Coordinator.


Recent research by Brian G. Mc Enery has led to the development of new software designed to investigate the potential for using Pythagorean Triples, in a modern computational environment.  The software development is based on Kenneth Williams’ book Triples and has led to the development of Python classes for Triple and CodeNumber objects. The software is also being developed using Jupyter notebooks, as a way of developing a dynamic interactive presentation. At present the software is located in a git repository, and the notebook may be viewed at, https://mybinder.org/v2/gh/BrianGMcEnery/pythagorean-triples.git/HEAD .


by Kenneth Williams, 2021

One of the Sūtras of Vedic mathematics is shown to have useful applications in various ways in relation to continued fractions. We see how to easily convert a given fraction to a continued fraction and vice versa, how to get the convergents and the accuracy involved in switching to any given convergent. Some applications of continued fractions are also briefly described.

This paper shows how to obtain highest common factors and lowest common multiples of two or more numbers, using the Vedic Mathematics Sutra The Remainders By the Last Digit . Includes applications to polynomial expressions.



The Advanced Diploma course starts on 29 th March 2021.

The next Teacher Training Course is scheduled for 24 th May 2021.

For details of these and the several other courses offered by the VM Academy please see:



This course takes up the subject of triples, like 3,4,5, which represent the sides of right-angled triangles (e.g. 3 2 + 4 2 = 5 2 ). Most of the techniques developed though are not restricted to integer-sided triangles. We see how to find two sides of a right-angled triangle given only one side, and the many applications of this, including in equations, in 2 and 3-dimensional geometry and astronomy. The course is independent of any other of our courses and the content is not repeated in any of them. No calculator required. See further details here.


Copyright has now expired on the book “Vedic Mathematics” by Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji. This is the original work, first published in 1965, that has inspired much subsequent research (and also controversy). This book is now available in pdf format, with errors corrected and indexes etc., for anyone who wishes to request it.




Vedic Maths research is going on all around the world. This is clear from the articles appearing in journals, conference papers, magazines etc. from many individuals.

From time to time we get questions about research: what to study, how to study, how to publish, and so on. So here is some brief guidance for those interested in pursuing research in this fascinating subject which has such high potential for research opportunities.

What to Study

Research can be very worthwhile: it focuses the mind, expands creativity and, hopefully, leads to something useful.

Obviously, a subject of research must be chosen and I generally advise that it should be either a topic that you are very familiar with (i.e. know in some depth) or one which you have a special interest in. Preferably both of these.

There are many topics in Tirthaji’s book that could be followed up. Looking at the amazing Vedic methods and practising them often leads to thoughts about how they can be extended or applied in a different setting. Tirthaji himself gives many hints. For example, in Chapter 17 he writes: “This portion of the Vedic Sūtras deals also with the Binomial theorem, factorisations, factorials, repeated factors, continued fractions, Differentiations, Integrations, Successive Differentiations, Integrations by means of continued fractions etc.”.

There are several other such comments in the book, in particular the two lists in Chapter 40 are of special significance.

How to Study

To carry out the research you need to know your chosen subject thoroughly and you need to know Vedic Maths thoroughly. It is really essential that you know VM very well and have a feel for what a VM approach to a problem would be like, i.e. holistic, simple and directly related to the Sutras. Look for unifying principles in your research.

Understand that there are likely to be setbacks, disappointments etc. You may find that after considerable effort and time you have discovered something that was obvious or that has been found by someone else previously. So above all be determined to continue in spite of these events.

Put the study aside for a while if it is going nowhere, and return later. And you should not rush, this really does reduce the creative faculties.

On the other hand you may have too many ideas. Writing the ideas down will help to consolidate and clarify what is important and weed out less useful points. In time these will organise themselves.

To keep the mind still and clear some form of meditation is highly beneficial. Get to know how your mind works and use this to help direct your study.

If you get a nice result, you may be tempted to stop studying and write it up – this often happens. But maybe if you look further your result may be a clue to something deeper. See if it is part of a bigger picture.

Write-up and Publication

Look at VM articles that have been published to get an idea of expected format, length etc. and follow any guidelines that your intended publisher expects. For example: https://www.vedicmaths.org/resources/journal-of-vedic-mathematics

Make sure there are no errors; it gives a poor impression when an article has mistakes.

Check your work is original by searching online and asking those working in the same field as you for advice.

Give references to any work cited in your paper, it will be assumed that you are claiming authorship of any material you do not ascribe to someone else. Similarly for proofs: include proofs of results or theorems you have used or give references.

For publication of Vedic Maths articles there is the online International Journal of Vedic Mathematics (see link above) and Vedic maths conferences. There are currently two annual conferences: online and in-person. These are organised by the Institute for the Advancement of Vedic Mathematics who can be contacted for more information.

End of article.


Your comments about this Newsletter are invited.

Previous issues of this Newsletter can be viewed and copied from the Web Site: https://www.vedicmaths.org/community/newsletter

To unsubscribe from this newsletter simply reply to it putting the word unsubscribe in the subject box.

Editor: Kenneth Williams

The Vedic Mathematics web site is at: https://www.vedicmaths.org

3 rd March 2021


Newsletter Indexes

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Research Papers

vedic mathematics research papers

The library of research papers is a collection of all papers presented at our past conferences. papers from international Conferences are also available from our online shop as complete books of proceedings each conference. This library classifies the papers as belonging to:

Click on any paper to view or download

Vedic Mathematics: Sources & Reality

Dandapani Gautam

The Analysis of Four Fundamental Mathematical Operations in Ancient Sanskrit Text

Daya Tiwari

Exposition of the Chakrawal Method: A Gen of Bhaskara’s Algebra

Ravi Asrani

History of Multiplication: Classical Period in Indian Mathematics

Prabha S.Rastogi, Sandhya Nitin

Squaring a Circle and Vice Versa Made Easy Up To Any Desired Approximation

Two Approximations of the Sine Function: A Comparison

Anant Vyawahare, Sanjay Deshpade

Study of Applications of Graph Theory in ancient Indian shlokas (scripts)

Prakash R, Aashish M, Raghavendra Prasad, Srinivasan G.N

Chhanda Shastra of Pingalacharya

Shaifali Joshi, Anant Vyawahare

Myths and Facts about the Inventions by Ancient Scholars in the Vedic Mathematics Arena

Dr G.S.Babu, P.C.Reddy

Indispensability of Numbers and Numerals of Indian Intellectual Traditions and their Scientific Role

Dr Daya Shankar Tiwary

The Third Diagonal

Prof.A.Vyawahare, G.Ghormade

Origin of 360 degrees

Contributions of Kerala to Mathematics

Bharathi Krishna Tirtha’s Vedic Maths and early Indian mathematics: comparison of the fundamental arithmetic operations

Arvind Prasad

Lilavati and Vedic Mathematics

Jayanta Acharya

Relevance of Shulbasutras of the Yajurveda : Modern Context

Dr. Daya Shankar Tiwary

The Side of a Regular Polygon – Lilawati Method

Dr. A.W. Vyawahare, Sanjay M. Deshpande

Contribution of Indian Mathematics to the World

Multiplication Techniques: Ancient Indian Methods vis-à-vis Tirthaji’s Methods in Vedic Maths

Application of Vedic Mathematics in High Speed Systems – A Survey

Raymond Austin

Designing of Digital Circuits using Vedic Mathematics for Engineering Applications

G Sreelakshmi

Design and implementation of 64-bit Vedic Multiplier for DSP Application

AP Chavan, Divya H, A.Prathibha

Optimization of Total Reversible Logic Implementation Cost using Vedic mathematics

Dr S Praveen

Comparative study of adders used in designing High speed Vedic Multipliers for VLSI applications

Raghavendra Prasad

A Survey on Implementation of Vedic Mathematics Sutras in Information Technology

Ethnomathematics – An effective pedagogical tool to enrich math teaching

A Comparative Study on Teachers’ Consciousness Towards Vedic Mathematics in District Mohali and Barnala (Punjab)

Sukhwinder Kaur, Pooja Rani

A Fuzzy Model for Analysing Vedic Mathematics

Ravi K M, R.G.Shivakumar

Vedic Maths – A Merit in management of competitive Examinations

Shastri, Hankey

Aggrandizing Human Potential of Computation through Indian Intellectual Traditions of Vedic Algorithms

Dr. Smitha S

Vedic Mathematics as a part of school curriculum- a Controversy

Sumita Bansal

Vedic Mathematics: Its impact on Children with Special Needs

Pooja Rani, Sukhwinder Kaur

Vedic Maths in Education

G. Sankaranarayanan, A. Subramaniam

Jayanthi Saravanan

Teaching Vedic Math to Non-Traditional Audiences

Richard Blum

Impact of Vedic Mathematics in Education

Samrudh J, R. Prasad

Deeper Reasons Why Students Find Vedic Mathematics So Enjoyable

Alex Hankey, Vasanth Shastri

Challenges to Assimilating Vedic Maths in the Maths Classroom

Vedic Maths as a Pedagogic Tool

James Glover, Kenneth Williams

Converting a Number to a Palindromic Number

Ramyanitharshini Balaji

A Unique Way of Computing the Product of Two Numbers Ending in 5: An Application of Sub-Corollary Antyayordasake’pi

Factorisation and Differential Calculus

Kenneth Williams

Evaluation of Permutations and Combinations

The Use of Vedic Mathematics in Modular Arithmetic and Prime Factorisation

Usha Sundararaman

Binomial Expansions and the “Naughty” Calculus

James Glover

By Mere Observation

Building Polynomials from Separate Roots: An Ultimate Vindication of Vertically and Crosswise

Nathan Annenberg

Multiplication by Nines and its Astronomical Applications

Kennth Williams

Sum and Difference of Squares

Connection of Paravartya Sutra with Vedic and Non-Vedic Mathematics

Krishna Parajuli, et al

Divisibility Checks using Osculation

Muthuselvi Prabhu

Practical Mathematics

Advaita and the Sutras of Vedic Mathematics

A New Approach to Solving Linear Equations

Ashwini Kale, Anant Vyawahare

Connection of Vedic Mathematics to Modular Arithmetic

A Novel Approach to Squaring Technique using Vedic Mathematics applied with EdSIM51

S.Sarma, Dr G.D.Babu

Finding Sums of Powers of Roots of Polynomials

Applying the Ekadhikena Purvena Sutra to Investigate Prime and Fermat Pseudoprime Numbers using a Multiple-precision Arithmetic Library in C/C++

Peter Greenwood

Application of Vedic Sutras in Binary Arithmetic and Binary Logic

Muthuselvie Prabhu

Totally Self-Reliant Trigonometry

Reverse Osculation Process for Even Divisors

Geeta Ghormade, Anant Vyawahare

A Deeper Look into Tirthji’s Methods for Generating Recurring Decimal Strings

Marianne Fletcher

Comparing Conventional Iterative Methods to the Vedic Method of Determining Roots of Cubic and Quartic Equations

Innovative Method of Multiplication (Advancement of Ekadhikena Purvena Sutra)

Shashikant.G. Chitnis

Finding Cube Roots: Nepali and Vedic Method

Calculating Compound Interest Mentally

Kuldeep Singh

A Prime Number Investigation using Binary Strings Generated by using the Ekadhikena Sutra

Solution of Right-Angled Triangles using Vertically and Crosswise

Vedic Mathematics Devices for Squaring

Implementing Vedic Maths into the Binary Number System

A New Approach to the Teaching of Coordinate Geometry

How the Binomial Theorem Underlies the Working of the Anurupyena and Yavadunam Sutras in the Calculation of Successive Powers of a Number; Application of Power Triangles and Calculus

Marianne Fletcher, James Glover

A Novel Approach of Multiplying Five Numbers near a Base

Pavitdeep Singh, Jatinder Kaur

A Novel Approach of Multiplying Four Numbers near a Base

Bharati Krishna’s Special Cases

Algebraic Patterns associated with Vedic Mathematics to Shorten Integration of Quadratic Formulae

Vasant V Shastri, Alex Hankey

Vyashti Samashti – A Sutra from Sankaracarya Bharati Krishna Tirtha

The Magic of the Last Digit

Robert McNeil

An Investigation into the Working of the Ekadhikena Purvena Sutra, and how it can be used to Identify Prime Numbers

The Psychology of Vedic Mathematics –Examples of Universal Thought Patterns

Extending the Application of Vedic Maths Sutras

Teaching Calculus

Swami Tirtha’s Crowning Gem

vedic mathematics Recently Published Documents

Total documents.

Elementary Algebra on Vedic Mathematics

The South Asian region has a long history of discovering new ideas, ideologies, and technologies. Since the Vedic period, the land has been known as a fertile place for innovative discoveries. The Vedic technique used by Bharati Krishna Tirthaji is unique among South Asian studies. The focus of this study was mostly on algebraic topics, which are typically taught in our school level. The study also looked at how Vedic Mathematics solves issues of elementary algebra using Vedic techniques such as Paravartya Yojayet, Sunyam Samyasamuccaye, Anurupye Sunyamanyat, Antyayoreva and Lopanasthapanabhyam. The comparison and discussion of the Vedic with the conventional techniques indicate that the Vedic Mathematics and its five unique formulas are more beneficial and realistic to those learners who are experiencing problems with elementary level algebra utilizing conventional methods.

Report on Cryptographic Hardware Design using Vedic Mathematics

High-speed mac using integrated vedic-mathematics, fpga based vedic mathematics applications: an eagle eye.

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VLSI Design Based Delay and Power Performance Comparison and Analysis of Multipliers

Recently, the problem of power dissipation has become more important in VLSI design. The multiplier is a major drain on resources. The multiplier is a basic operation in arithmetic. This article examines a variety of multipliers at the algorithmic, circuit, and layout levels. The multiplier schematic was designed using TANNER TOOL. It has been possible to increase the speed and area of multipliers by utilising Vedic mathematics for multiplication. Vedic mathematics' "Ni khilam sutra" formula can multiply large numbers. One of the primary objectives is to increase speed while simultaneously decreasing power, area, and delay.

Design of High Performance ALU Using Vedic Mathematics

A review on ieee-754 standard floating point multiplier using vedic mathematics.

The fundamental and the core of all the Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are its multipliers and the speed of the DSPs is mainly determined by the speed of its multiplier. IEEE floating point format is a standard format used in all processing elements since Binary floating point numbers multiplication is one of the basic functions used in digital signal processing (DSP) application. In this work VHDL implementation of Floating Point Multiplier using Vedic mathematics is carried out. The Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra (method) was selected for implementation since it is applicable to all cases of multiplication. Multiplication of two no’s using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra is performed by vertically and crosswise. The feature is any multi-bit multiplication can be reduced down to single bit multiplication and addition using this method. On account of these formulas, the carry propagation from LSB to MSB is reduces due to one step generation of partial product.

Vedic Mathematics

An effective automatic breast cancer identification using vedic mathematics, vedic mathematics ‐ teaching an old dog new tricks, export citation format, share document.

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Study of mathematics through indian veda's : A review

Tarunika Sharma 1 , Rashi Khubnani 1 and Chitiralla Subramanyam 1

Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd Journal of Physics: Conference Series , Volume 2332 , Futuristic Research in Modeling of Dynamical Systems (FRMDS 2022) 03/05/2022 - 05/05/2022 Online Citation Tarunika Sharma et al 2022 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 2332 012006 DOI 10.1088/1742-6596/2332/1/012006

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1 Department of Mathematics, New Horizon College of Engineering Bangalore, India

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Vedic Mathematics a method of conceptual calculation also reasoning. It has 16 sutras (formulas) and 13 sub-sutras(corollary). Vedic Mathematics formulas, which are mathematical concepts founded proceeding antediluvian Indian scripts called Veda meaning, knowledge reiterated by SWAMI SRI BHARATI KRISNA TIRTHAJI MAHARAJA. Due to its versatile nature and speed, it applies to many fields. This paper is an array of growth and development in the field of Vedic mathematics with a special focus on the structure of Vedic multipliers and Vedic algorithms like Urdhva Tiriyagbhyam and Nikhilam algorithms. Further an over view of Vedic Mathematics with NEP2020 is deliberated.

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Main site VedicMaths.Org Conferences home page

Online Vedic Mathematics Conference

12th - 13th March 2016

Day 2: Vedic Mathematics Research Outlines of Research Papers sent to the Conference organisers These papers will be available to conference participants prior to the conference 1. A NOVEL APPROACH OF MULTIPLYING THREE NUMBERS NEARING DIFFERENT BASES - Jatinder Kaur and Pavitdeep Singh 2. SINGLE DIGIT ADDITIONS - Saee Vitthal Pallavi Patil (III std.) Documented by Pallavi Patil, Pune, India. 3. Starring at the 9 - Giuliano Mandotti 4. Improvements in Final Exam Results after teaching 11th and 12th Grade Mathematics using a combination of Vedic Mathematics and Visual Aids - Alex Hankey, Vasant V Shastri and Bhawna Sharma 5. Evaluation of Trigonometric Functions and Their Inverses - Kenneth Williams 6. The sutras of VM in Geometry - James Glover 7 . EFFICACY OF VEDIC MATHEMATICS AND YOGIC BREATHING IN SCHOOL CHILDREN - A PILOT RCT STUDY - Vasant V. Shastri, Alex Hankey, Bhawna Sharma, Sanjib Patra 8. THREE BOOKS AND A PAPER: A GEOMETRY PROJECT - Andrew Nicholas 9. Swami Tirtha's Crowning Gem - Kenneth Williams 10. Teaching Calculus - Kenneth Williams 11 . A pathway for people with perceived learning difficulties to embrace and succeed with studies in Vedic Mathematics. - Vera Stevens Note these last three papers will be available here but the author's presentation will not be given at this conference. A NOVEL APPROACH OF MULTIPLYING THREE NUMBERS NEARING DIFFERENT BASES Jatinder Kaur and Pavitdeep Singh Abstract Multiplication is one of the most fundamental operation in mathematics. Conventional method of performing multiplication is quite cumbersome and increases with complexity as the numbers participating in the calculation rises. Vedic maths is one such science which permits to think for different ways to solve a mathematical problem. Currently, there are few techniques for multiplication of three numbers eg. Product of three numbers near a base, general method for three numbers. In this paper, we present a novel approach to perform multiplication of three numbers close to different bases (eg. multiplying 205*694*893). The technique makes use of the algebraic equation in solving three numbers near different bases which can be considered as a special case for multiplication. Additionally, the technique can be applied successfully on three number near different bases (eg. 34*51*69 or 2006*5993*7998). Different examples will be provided along with proof of the derived approach to facilitate people in learning the new approach.    Starring a the 9 Giuliano Mandotti Vedic mathematics has one of the most powerful function needed by a student and a person in general: the flexibility to develop strategy skills in problem solving. There are some operation that we can have to face in our every day life in which we can use an undiscovered power of the wonderful magic number 9. When you have to face operations like 21-12, or 53-35 and so on the common approach is to follow the conventional rules of subtraction,  sometimes is simple, sometimes not. But if we look at this operation in a Vedic Maths framework point of view you'll try to solve in a more efficient, simple and mental way: starring at the 9. Extract the 9 and multiply it by the unsigned subtraction from the 2 operands digits and you obtain the correct result! A quick example: 53-35 = 9*(5-3) = 18. This paper provides my simple discovery on this VM strategy, with examples showing the properties with a first level of detail, and some other level of detail to where i came , 3-number subtraction, sum, multiplication, division, special cases, connection with 11-multiplication and other sutras, till ending with some question to open your mind. Improvements in Final Exam Results after teaching 11th and 12th Grade Mathematics using a combination of Vedic Mathematics and Visual Aids Vasant V Shastri, Alex Hankey and Bhawna Sharma ABSTRACT: Background: Many countries wish to avoid problems associated with large working populations in manufacturing industries by becoming knowledge based societies, where GDP is generated by such means as IT and technical innovation. Good grades in mathematics are required for training in sciences, engineering and business. Colleges teaching 11th and 12th grades must train students to obtain top maths grades for them to enter preferred training programs. Here we present 2010-2015 final exam results at a college in Karnataka. 2014 and 2015 final year classes received Vedic Mathematics training and visual aids teaching, e.g. Geogebra and PowerPoint as cognitive tools in courses on algebra, trigonometry, co-ordinate geometry, vectors, 3D geometry and calculus. Methods: School examination results were inspected; years 2010 to 2013 without use of Vedic Mathematics and Visual Aids were compared with years 2014 and 2015 where those methods had been employed. Statistical Analysis: used SPSS 19.0 Results: 2014 and 2015 grades improved significantly on years 2010-2013, +17.05%, p < 0.001. Discussion: This is the first study to estimate quantitative effects of using Vedic Mathematics, despite it having long been in wide-spread use around the world. Previous informal accounts of its methods’ teaching successes have been substantiate demonstrating that their use together with visual aids may significantly improve grades on career-oriented professional examinations. Such methods may be an imperative in all countries wishing to become knowledge based societies. Geometry – An Holistic Approach James Glover During the last fifty years or so geometry in education has diminished both in quantity and in quality and yet the pedagogic use and applications remain as important now as they were then. A new and holistic set of principles provides a simple approach to the fundamentals as well as to the vast array of applications. Since the sutras of Vedic Maths apply to all areas of mathematics it seems reasonable to suppose that they also apply to geometry. One of the hallmarks of the sutras is that they include the human experience. One example is Vilokanam, By Observation. Accepting both the mathematical and psychological nature of the sutras leads to a new orientation within geometry. This paper looks at nine sutras which provide general principles. Each sutra expresses a simple concept that has a broad range of applications. Evaluation of Trigonometric Functions and Their Inverses Kenneth Williams Abstract This paper shows that finding trig functions without a calculator is entirely possible especially when high accuracy is not needed. For educational reasons we focus here on the case where the angle is in degrees rather than radians. Through the use of a simple diagram and a special number it is shown that we can estimate the cosine of an angle with ease and that this process is reversible. Any required accuracy can be obtained for the cosine and other functions can be found from this cosine value. This means that teaching evaluation of these functions in the classroom is entirely possible. EFFICACY OF VEDIC MATHEMATICS AND YOGIC BREATHING IN SCHOOL CHILDREN - A PILOT RCT STUDY Vasant V. Shastri, Alex Hankey, Bhawna Sharma, Sanjib Patra ABSTRACT We report an RCT study comparing effects of Vedic Mathematics and Yogic Breathing practices on working memory, math-anxiety and cognitive flexibility in school children. Methods Subjects: 40 higher secondary (8th-10th grade) residential students at Sai Angels School, Chikmagalur, Karnataka, India, were randomly assigned to Vedic Mathematics, Yogic Breathing, and Jogging groups, containing 14, 13 and 13 children, respectively. Inclusion / Exclusion Criteria: School children who study Mathematics in their curriculum and having normal vision or corrected to normal vision were included. Children undergoing any psychiatric treatment; having neurological disorders and colour blindness were excluded. Intervention: Children in Yoga Breathing and Vedic Maths groups attended seven days’ workshop on Pranayama and Vedic Mathematics respectively. Controls went jogging daily. Assessments: Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale, STROOP test, Children’s Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire and Digit Span Test were administered pre and post the intervention. Analysis: SPSS-17 was used to make non-parametric pre-post comparison tests (Wilcoxon) and group comparisons tests (Mann-Whitney).   Results: Math-anxiety decreased most in Vedic Maths (-11.77�10.47; p<0.01). Others: YB (-4.08�4.99; p<0.05); JG, (-3.75�16.94). VM improved most in cognitive flexibility and reaction to cognitive stress (+9.77�5; p<0.001); YB (+5.38�5.38; p<0.01) and JG (+8.58�9.91; p<0.05). Changes in self-defeating cognition scores associated with test anxiety and performance were YB (-1.77�1.83; p<0.01); VM (-1.38�3.2), JG (+0.67�1.44). Changes in digit span scores were similar in all three groups.   Discussion: The first two groups showed improvement in cognitive skills and decreased math-anxiety compared to controls. This suggests that Vedic Mathematics decreased math-anxiety by improving mathematical abilities which may have helped enhance cognitive skills. Calming effects of pranayama practice is the probable cause for Yoga Breathing group improvements. Keywords: Vedic Maths, Math Anxiety, Pranayama, Cognitive Skills, School Children THREE BOOKS AND A PAPER: A GEOMETRY PROJECT Andrew Nicholas ABSTRACT The aim of the project was to produce a sort of miniature Vedic mathematics version of Euclid's 'Elements', covering much less ground than the 'Elements' and doing so with greater speed and ease than Euclid achieved. This task occupies  three books; they are: 'Geometry for an Oral Tradition',  'The Circle Revelation' & 'Eight  Essays on Geometry for an Oral Tradition'. This last book will hopefully be available later in 2016, free online The paper 'A Much-needed Innovation in Geometry' is included because it shows how a Vedic approach helped formulate the foundations of 'Geometry for an Oral Tradition'. A difficulty in the project was that for some one and a half centuries it has been known that the foundations of Euclid's 'Elements' are flawed. Putting this right is a major contribution of the project. Reformulation of the foundations of geometry is done in two stages. First there is the 'Geometry for an Oral Tradition' (provisional) version, which makes use of a single axiom where Euclid needed ten. Then, in the 'Eight Essays on Geometry for an Oral Tradition', the sole 'Geometry for an Oral Tradition' axiom is proved using two principles. The result is demonstrably rock-solid foundations for geometry. Two matters conclude the paper: (1) a statement of the foundations of geometry, and (2) Euclid's proof of one his theorems is contrasted with the far, far briefer proof of the same theorem in 'The Circle Revelation'.   NOTE The book  'Eight  Essays on Geometry for an Oral Tradition' will hopefully be available later in 2016, free online KEYWORDS: GEOMETRY, VEDIC MATHEMATICS, FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRY TEACHING CALCULUS Kenneth Williams Abstract: Calculus comes under the Calana Kalanābhyām Sutra of Vedic Mathematics. Though it is a subject usually taught later in the school career, Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji tells us that in the Vedic system ‘Calculus comes in at a very early stage’. This paper aims to show how Calculus may be taught to quite young children. Gradients of curves can be found without ‘differentiation’ in the usual sense, and areas under curves can be found without the usual integration process. Furthermore this approach uses a similar method for both thereby unifying these two aspects of Calculus. After the idea of a limit is introduced, in a simple way, and with a little algebra and geometry, we arrive at an easy technique that gives exact gradients of curves and areas under curves. There is no need for the complex notation that is normally associated with this subject and which adds to its perceived difficulty in school (though this notation can be introduced at the teacher’s discretion). Swami Tirtha’s Crowning Gem Kenneth Williams Abstract In his book Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji describes a division technique which he calls the “Crowning Gem” of Vedic Mathematics, the essential feature being that the first digit of the divisor is used to provide all subsequent digits when combined appropriately with the other digits involved. He then goes on to find square and cube roots in which the first digit of the answer is used in a similar way. The main Sutra in use for this is Ūrdhva Tiryagbhyām: Vertically and Crosswise. This approach can be developed considerably, so that powers and roots of numbers and polynomial expressions can be found, and polynomial equations can be solved to any accuracy, using the Vertically and Crosswise pattern. This paper describes this pattern, initially expressed as a formula. The operation of this pattern is then demonstrated in finding powers, and then used in reverse to find roots and solutions to polynomial equations. A Pathway for People with Perceived learning difficulties to embrace and succeed with studies in Vedic Mathematics Vera Stevens Introduction Until now people who do not have a natural aptitude with the four operations in arithmetic have not had an opportunity to enter the world of Vedic Mathematics. These people include Dyslexics, certain people on the autism spectrum, children who have missed schooling in the early years due to illness, family trauma etc., and those who are primarily visual, kinaesthetic, tactile or auditory learners and for whom the standard school approach in teaching arithmetic is a failure.


Research Paper on Vedic Maths

Free vedic maths research paper:.

It is believed that the foundations of modern mathematics – its geometric part – were laid by Euclid, and the foundations of differential calculus – the basis of modern mathematical analysis – were presented in the writings of Newton and Leibniz. There is, however, a number of works that are unknown to wide range of readers, which address a mathematical knowledge contained in the Vedas – the ancient monument of human culture, which is, at least for a few thousand years, older than all famous ancient Greek writings.

The Vedas (from Sanskrit – source of knowledge), according to Indian beliefs, contain all the knowledge, both scientific and ethical, initially given to humankind. The Vedas, originally written in Sanskrit in the form of short sayings (sutras), do not contain theorems and mathematical calculations.

We can write a Custom Research Paper about Vedic Maths for you!

Instead, there are operating instructions – rules for resolving certain tasks. The interpretation of the instruction requires both a deep knowledge of Vedic culture and professional mathematical training.

Vedic maths legacy was adapted by an eminent Indian philosopher Shankaracharya Sri Krishna Tirtha Barati (1884-1960). After profound studying the Vedic knowledge, he planned to write 16 volumes on Vedic mathematics, including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, the theory of conic sections, astronomical calculations, differential, and integral calculus. Unfortunately, during his lifetime he had time to prepare only the first two volumes, which included elements of arithmetic, algebra of polynomials, and geometry. Vedic maths presented by Sri Shankaracharya, though reduced theorems well-known to the Western reader, contains so convenient methods of their applications, which often appears to be almost a miracle. Thus, it is possible to perform the instant multiplication of seven-digit numbers in mind using a well-known properties of the polynomial algebra. The Shankaracharya’s lectures on Vedic mathematics were met with enthusiasm in U.S. universities and India.

In their research proposals on Vedic maths, student mst indicate that the Vedas are considered one of the most ancient scriptures in the world. According to the modern science of Indology, the Vedas were composed during the period, which lasted for about a thousand years. It began by composing a “Rig-Veda” in about the XVI century BC and reached its climax with the creation of various Shakhas in northern India. It was completed in the time of Buddha and Panini in the V century BC. Most scientists agree on the fact that before the Vedas was put on paper, for centuries existed a tradition of their oral transmission.

If you need some help in writing your research project on Vedic maths, there is nothing to be ashamed about. The best way to get help is to study a couple of free research paper topics on different subjects. They will allow you to understand the foundations of the research paper preparing and composing.

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EffectivePapers.com is professional writing service which is committed to write top-quality custom research papers, proposals, term papers, essays, thesis papers and dissertations. All custom papers are written by qualified Master’s and PhD writers. Just order a custom written research paper on Vedic Maths at our website and we will write your research paper at affordable prices. We are available 24/7 to help students with writing research papers for high school, college and university.

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UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023: Check Topics, Pattern, PDF Download

Candidates must check the UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus and exam pattern to excel in the exam. Check out the latest UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus and Exam Pattern here!

vedic mathematics research papers

UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023 : The UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023 has been released by the exam conducting body on the official website. In order to plan the best UGC NET Paper 1 preparation strategy, candidates should first analyze the official syllabus to identify topics important from the exam perspective. There are two papers in the UGC NET Paper 1 exam i.e. Paper A and Paper B. Paper A is a common general aptitude paper for all the subjects whereas Paper B carries questions related to Paper 1 topics. 

UGC-NET exam is conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA) twice a year to determine the eligibility of deserving candidates for ‘Assistant Professor’ and ‘Junior Research Fellowship Assistant Professor’ in Indian Universities and Colleges. The UGC NET paper 1 is conducted to assess the teaching and research aptitude as well. 

Thus, it is important for the aspirants to possess and exhibit cognitive abilities including comprehension, analysis, evaluation, understanding the structure of arguments, and deductive and inductive reasoning. With this, they should also have a general awareness of teaching and learning processes in the higher education system. Further, they should be familiar with the interaction between people, the environment, natural resources and their impact on the quality of life. To cover all these aspects of paper 1, it is important to be thorough with the UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus. As per the previous year's exam analysis, the overall difficulty level of the UGC NET Paper 1 question was moderate. 

In this article, we have shared the UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus along with the exam pattern, preparation tips, and best books in detail.

UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023 PDF

Before applying, aspirants should download the official UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus PDF link shared below to prepare all the topics important from the exam point of view. Get the direct link to download the UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus below:

UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023-Important Topics

The UGC NET syllabus comprises two papers and the exam will be conducted online mode i.e. computer-based test. There is a total of 50 multiple-choice questions from the topics like Teaching Aptitude, Research Aptitude, Reasoning Ability, Comprehension, Communication, Reasoning (including Maths), Logical Reasoning, etc. Check the important NTA UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus 2023 topics below.

Unit-III Comprehension

Unit-V Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude

Unit-vi logical reasoning, unit-vii data interpretation.

UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023- Section Wise

The Paper 1 syllabus for the UGC NET exam is divided into ten units. The important topics covered in the UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus are Teaching Aptitude, Research Aptitude, Comprehension, Communication, Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude, Logical Reasoning, Data Interpretation, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), People, Development and Environment, and Higher Education System. Let’s look at the unit-wise Paper 1 syllabus for UGC NET in detail below:

Unit-I Teaching Aptitude

Unit-II Research Aptitude

A passage of text be given. Questions be asked from the passage to be answered.

Unit-IV Communication

Unit-VIII Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Unit-IX People, Development and Environment

Unit-X Higher Education System

UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023 In Hindi

यूजीसी नेट पाठ्यक्रम में दो पेपर शामिल हैं और परीक्षा ऑनलाइन मोड यानी कंप्यूटर आधारित परीक्षा आयोजित की जाएगी। टीचिंग एप्टीट्यूड, रिसर्च एप्टीट्यूड, रीजनिंग एबिलिटी, कॉम्प्रिहेंशन, कम्युनिकेशन, रीजनिंग (गणित सहित), लॉजिकल रीजनिंग आदि जैसे विषयों से कुल 50 प्रश्न हैं। नीचे महत्वपूर्ण एनटीए यूजीसी नेट पेपर 1 सिलेबस 2023 विषयों की जांच करें।

Weightage for UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus

Candidates should check the weightage of the sections specified in the UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus before commencing their preparation. In order to get an insight into the section-wise weightage, question format, marking scheme, etc, go through the UGC NET Paper 1 exam pattern carefully. 

According to the UGC NET marking scheme, 2 marks are awarded for every correct answer and no negative marking shall be applicable for incorrect answers. The exam duration will be 3 hours for Paper 1 & Paper 2 (without any break). Check the UGC NET Paper 1 pattern below:

How do I prepare for UGC NET Paper 1?

The National Eligibility Test is one of the most highly competitive examinations in the country. With such high competition, candidates need to prepare a robust strategy that would help them to cover the entire UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus on time. Thus, it is crucial to check the UGC NET Paper 1 preparation tips suggested by the experts. Let’s discuss the best preparation tips to excel in the UGC NET Paper 1 exam.

Best Books for UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus

Candidates should get their hands on the expert-recommended UGC NET Paper 1 books to achieve excellent scores in the exam. The right study material will help them to prepare all the topics mentioned in the UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus. Some of the highly-recommended books for the UGC NET Paper 1 subject are listed below:

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  1. (PDF) E-book of Vedic Math on Fast Calculation

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    13th March Exploring ancient Indian mathematics: From zero to infinity Prajakti Gokhale In this session, we will explore the journey of ancient Indian mathematics from Indian subcontinent to Europe. We will understand the timeline of ancient Indian texts and important contributions by Indian mathematicians.

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    Vedic Journey of Indian Mathematics from Vedic Era Authors: Nidhi Handa Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya Enlargement of Vedis in the Śulbasūtras Article Jan 2010 Indian J Hist Sci Padmavati...

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    Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Vedic Mathematics -Methods ... Vedic Mathematics -Methods. Pavani Reddy. The Sutras apply to and cover almost every branch of Mathematics. They apply even to complex problems involving a large number of mathematical operations. Application of the Sutras saves a lot of time and ...


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  14. PDF A Review Paper on Vedic Mathematics

    1. INTRODUCTION The most common definition of Veda is "knowledge". It is both the earliest layer of Ancient Indian culture and the oldest texts of Hinduism. The Vedas are regarded divine in origin and are believed to be divine revelations from God. The four Vedas are the Yajur-veda, Rig-Veda, Athar-vaveda, and Samaveda.

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    ... Gaur et al. (2018), discussed an Indian vedic mathematics based complex multiplier design which could be employed for complex mathematical circuits performing at high speed. The Vedic...

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    Volume 65, 2023 - Issue 1 Free access 418 Views 0 CrossRef citations to date 0 Altmetric Listen Book Reviews Vedic Mathematics: A Mathematical Tale from the Ancient Veda to Modern Times by Giuseppe Dattoli, Silvia Licciardi, and Marcello Artioli, World Scientific, 2021, 232 pp., $68 (HB), ISBN 9789811221552. Firdous Ahmad Mala

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    This paper could able to find that Vedic method significantly improves the speed of calculations while performing some basic mathematical operations. Wish this paper could play an active and supportive role in actual research of Vedic mathematics and techniques to improve the speed of calculations

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    Day 2: Vedic Mathematics Research Outlines of Research Papers sent to the Conference organisers These papers will be available to conference participants prior to the conference ... EFFICACY OF VEDIC MATHEMATICS AND YOGIC BREATHING IN SCHOOL CHILDREN - A PILOT RCT STUDY - Vasant V. Shastri, Alex Hankey, Bhawna Sharma, Sanjib Patra . 8. THREE ...

  19. Research Paper on Vedic Maths

    May 20, 2013 Free Vedic Maths Research Paper: It is believed that the foundations of modern mathematics - its geometric part - were laid by Euclid, and the foundations of differential calculus - the basis of modern mathematical analysis - were presented in the writings of Newton and Leibniz.

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    Vedic mathematics is a methodology of arithmetic rules that allow more efficient speed implementation. The technologies like ANN & Vedic mathematics (multiplier) are the two main technologies which can increase the processing speed.

  21. UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023: Check Important Topics, Latest Exam

    UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023-Important Topics. The UGC NET syllabus comprises two papers and the exam will be conducted online mode i.e. computer-based test.